NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations


Region and the nation

Region: It is an area especially part of the country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries.

Nation: It is a large body of people united by Common descent, history, culture or language, a particular country or territory.

Indian Approach towards the Regionalism

  • Indian Nationa does not deny the right of different regions and linguistic groups to retain their own culture.
  • Indians decided to have a united social life without losing the identity of various cultures.
  • Indian nationalism gave emphasis on the concept of unity in diversity.
  • According to the Indian approach nation does not mean negation of region.
  • Indian approach towards diversity is wide and liberal.
  • India adopted a democratic approach towards the issue of diversity.
  • Regional issues must be given due attention and consideration in the process of policy formulation.

Areas of Tension.

They are namely:

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Dravidian Movement
  3. Panjab Crisis
  4. New Movements In North – East Regions

Jammu and Kashmir

    • Kashmir problems is one of the controversial and burning issues not only in Indian politics but also in the international sphere.
    • The kashmir issue is always seen as a major issue between India and Pakistan.
    • The state of Jammu and Kashmir Comprise three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.


    • It is the region of several small hills and plains.
    • Hindus ,Muslims ,Sikhs and the people speaking different languages reside here. kashmir
    • It is the most beautiful place in India.
    • People in this region speak Kashmiri language.
    • Most of the people are Muslims.
    • There is also Hindu minority speaking Kashmiri.


    • It is a hilly region with very little population.
    • Buddhists and Muslims reside in this region.

Roots of the Kashmir problems

    • kashmir was a princely State before 1947.
    • It was ruled by Hari Singh, a Hindu ruler.
    • They tried to have an independent status after the end of British rule.
    • The Pakistani leaders argued that since majority of Kashmiri people were Muslims, the kashmir region actually belonged to Pakistan. Thus they put claim on Jammu and kashmir.
    • People of Kashmir wanted to get rid of the Maharaja, but was against joining Pakistan.
    • In October 1947, Pakistar Sent tribal infiltrators to Kashmir.
    • It forced the Maharaja to ask for Indian Military help.
    • He agreed to emerge kashmir with India and signed the lnstrument of Accession.
    • Following this, the Indian army entered Kashmir and drove back the infiltrators.
    • But before liberating Kashmir completely India was forced to declare a ceasefire due to the

intervention of the UN. So a portion of Kashmir Still remains under the control of Pakistan, called Pak Kashmir.

    • In March 1948 Sheikh Abdullah became the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

External and internal disputes

External disputes

    • The claim put forward by Pakistan on Kashmir became the cause of the external conflicts.
    • Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir as their territory.
    • One-third portion of Kashmir came under the control of Pakistan.
    • Pakistan calls this region as Azad Kashmir.

Internal disputes

    • kashmir was given special status by article 370 of Indian constitution.
    • This article gives Kashmir more powers of autonomy than other states.
    • People outside the kashmir believed that article 370 is aganist federal principles.
    • People inside a Kashmir believed that article 370 is not enough.

Grievances of Kashmirs

    • A major section of Kashmiris expressed 3 major grievances.
  1. Plebiscite is not conducted ( referendum). They demanded that Accession of Kashmir to Indian Union Should be referred to the people.
  2. Greater State autonomy is not granted.
  3. Democracy is not properly implemented in the state.

Politics Since 1948

    • After assuming the Office of Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah initiated several people friendly programmes including land reforms .
    • His attitude towards the special status of Kashmir became the cause of an encounter with the central government.
    • He openly began to demand the independence of Kashmir.
    • 1he central govt was not ready to tolerate the sectarian feelings of Sheikh Abdullah.
    • In 1953 e was dismissed and kept in detention for several years.
    • A fraction of National Conference remained in power with the support of Congress.
    • Congress had direct control over state administration .
    • Sheikh Abdulla returned to power in 1977.
    • He died in 1982.
    • The leadership of the party and the chief ministership were taken over by his son Farooq Abdulla.
    • Following a split in National Conference the governor dismissed with the Farooq government.
    • The Kashmiris Iost faith in democratic process due to the unnecessary Interventions of the Central government.
    • In the assembly election of 1987 the National Conference- Congress alliance obtained massive victory.
    • The rule of Farooq Abdullah was a total failure .
    • Popular resentment against the inefficiency of government became strong.
    • By 1989 militant groups began to interfere in the affairs of the State.
    • They began to organize agitations and terrarist activities with a view to establish a separate Kashmiri nation.
    • The militant groups got moral, material and military Support from Pakistan.
    • Terrorist activities and violent agitations were continuously occurring in Jammu Kashmir.
    • The state experienced a fair election in 2002.
    • In this election, the National Conference was defeated.
    • It was replaced by Peoples Democratic party (PDP )and Congress coalition government.

Separtism and Beyond

    • Separatist Politics which emerged in Kashmir from 1989.
    • There are mainly three groups in the separatist politics of Jammu Kashmir .
    1. To establish separate kashmiri nation .
    2. kashmir is to be merged with Pakistan.
    3. To retain kashmir with in Indian Union with greater autonomy.

Dravidian Movement

    • It is one of the earlier regional movements in South India.
    • Even though they wanted to establish a Dravidian state ,they did not take up arms.
    • They adopted the democratic means such as public debates and electoral platform to achieve their end.
    • The founder of Dravidian movement was EV Ramaswamy Naickar,a Tamil social reformer and leader of the anti-Brahmin movement.
    • He was popularly known as ‘periyar’.
    • He formed the organization ” Dravid kazhakom”.
    • It was an anti-Brahmin, anti-North Indian and Anti-Hindi movements.
    • In 1949 there was a split in Dravida Kazhakom.
    • A new organization Dravida munneta Kazhakom ( DMK ) was formed under the leadership of CN Annadurai.
    • The DMK followed the political Legacy of Dravidian movement.
    • It totally opposed to Brahmin domination.
    • It Criticized the cultura,l economic and political domination of North India.

In 1953-54 DMK entered Politics with three notable agitations.

  1. The first agitation was for the restoration of the original name of Kallakudi railway Station. It had been renamed Dalmiapuram after an Industrial housue of North India.
  2. The second agitation was for giving greater importance to Tamil cultural history in the school curriculum.
  3. The third agitation was aganist the craft education scheme of the state govt. DMK alleged that it was closely connected with the Brahmin social outlook.
    • The most important incident which increased the popular support and reputation of DMK was the anti-Hindi agitations of 1965.
    • In 1972. There was a split in the DMK
    • MG Ramachandran a prominent leader of the party formed another party called All India Anna Dravida Munnetta kazhakom ( AIADMK).
    • Both of them claim the Dravidian Legacy.
    • Other Dravidian parties are Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetta kazhakom ( MDMK), Pattali Makkal katchi ( PMK).

Punjab crisis

    • 1980s Punjab witnessed a separatist movement which demanded the formation of separate state Khalistan.
    • It gradually turned into terrorism and created a dangerous crisis in India.
    • The root cause of Punjab crisis was the growth of communalism among the Sikhs.
    • Akali Dal which formed in 1920 demanded seperate Punjabi Suba for the Skihs,but it was denied by the central government .
    • It changed its stand and demanded for Separate state for punjabi speaking people.
    • Finally, the Indira Gandhi government accepted the demand of Akali Dal.
    • In 1966, Punjab was reorganized on the basis of language and it was divided into two states- Punjabi speaking Punjab and Hindi speaking Haryana.
    • Chandigarh was made the common capital of both Punjab and Haryana .

Political context of Punjab crisis

    • After the reorganization of the state Akali Dal came into power in 1967 and 1977 .
    • The party did not get the majority. So it was forced to form a coalition government.

The main reasons for the political failure of Akali Dal were:

  1. It’s government was dismissed by the Central Govt before completing the tenure.
  2. Had no support among Hindus.
  3. Internal differences in the Sikh community.
  4. Congress got more support among the Dalits.

Anandapur Sahib Resolution – 1973

    • Its demands were:
  1. It demanded regional autonomy for Punjab and wanted to redefine the Center – State relations.
  2. It reflected the aims and aspirations of the Sikh Community.
  3. The resolution declared that its ultimate aim was the establishment of Sikh dominance.
  4. The resolution got only limited support from the Sikh People.

Cycle of violence

    • The leadership of Akali Dal soon passed from the moderates to the extremists.
    • They adopted the means of armed rebellion and terrorism for establishing Khalistan.
    • Their leader was Jernail Singh Bhindranwala.
    • The militants made Golden Temple in Amritsar as their headquarters.

Operation Blue Star, June 1984.

    • In June 1984, Indira Govt carried out ” Operation Blue star”, code name for military action in the golden temple.
    • The army entred the golden temple and killed Bhindranwala and his men.
    • It deeply hunted the sentiments of the Sikhs.

31/10/ 1984

    • Prime minister, Indira. Gandhi, was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, who revenged for the military actions in the golden temple.
    • Following the death of Indira Gandhi, violence broke out aganist the Sikhs in Delhi and in many parts of Northern India.

Road to peace

    • Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi who assumed the office after the assassination of Indira Gandhi began several attempts to solve Punjab crisis.
    • On 24th July 1985, Rajiv Gandhi and the Akali Dal President Harchand Singh Longowal Signed the historic Punjab Accord. it is known as Rajiv – Longowal Accord.
  • The conditions of the Accord are:
    1. Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
    2. A seperate commission to solve Punjab-Haryana border dispute.
    3. A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi – Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
    4. The govt would provide better treatment and compensation to the affected people in violence.
    5. Armed Force’s special Powers Act in Punjab would be withdrawn.

North-East India

    • The Northeast consists of seven states which are referred to as Seven Sisters.
    • A small Corridor of about 22 kilometres connects the region to the rest of the country.
    • On the other side of this region it shares boundaries with China, Myanmar and Bangladesh and it serves as India’s gateway to Southeast Asia.

Major problems of North- East

    • Isolation of the region
    • complex social character
    • Vast international border
    • Weak communication with the rest of India
    • Influx of migrants.

Three major issues in the region:

  1. Demands for Autonomy
    • At the time of independence the entire region expect Manipur and Tripura Comprised the state of Assam.
    • The non – Assamese felt that the Assam govt was imposing Assamese language on them.
    • So they began to demand political autonomy

Secessionist Movement.

    • Some groups demanded a seperate country .


    • A place where secessionist movement became strong was the Mizo hills in Mizoram.
    • After Independence, the Mizo hills area was made an autonomous district within Assam.
    • Some Mizos believe that they were never a part of British India, and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union. So they wanted to seceed from India.
    • The secessionist feeling among the Mizos were strengthened by two incidents:
  1. In 1959, a famine broke out In Mizo hills. Assam govt failed to take adequate measures to face this famine.
  2. In 1961, the Assam govt made Assamese as the official language of the state.
    • The Mizos’ anger led to the formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Laldenga.
    • MNF started armed campaign for Independence.
    • They use Guerrilla War.
    • They got support from Pak govt.
    • The Indian security Forces strongly countered the movement .

Rajiv Gandhi – Laldenga Accord in 1986

    • Mizoram was granted full- fledged statehood.
    • MNF gave up secessionist movement.
    • Laldenga became the CM of Mizoram.
    • Now ,Mizoram is one of the most peaceful place in the region with a high literacy rate.


    • In 1951, a section of Nagas under the leadership of Angami Zaphu Phizo declared independence from India.
    • Phizo rejected all the promises of the government for a peaceful settlement.
    • They began an armed struggle for getting sovereignty of Nagas.
    • After a period of violent struggle, a section of Naga signed an agreement with the government of India and formed a state of Nagas inside Indian Union.
    • Thus in 1963 the state of Nagaland came into existence.
    • But the rebels were not ready to accept it.
    • They continued the terrorist attack and guerrilla warfare against the government.
    • The problem of Nagaland still remains unsettled.

Movement against Outsiders

    • Local communities started agitation against the outsiders and the migrants.
    • The migration of foreigners and non- Assamese into Assam gradually began to create unrest in the state.
    • The Assameses feared that they might become a minority Within their own State and they might be forced to surrender their language and culture to others.
    • They also feared that they would lose their control in economy and Politics.
    • Thus they started a movement against the outsiders.
    • In 1979 anti- foreign Movement by All Assam students’ Union was against:
    1. Illegal Migration
    2. Domination of outsiders
    3. Faulty Voters’ Register
    • They demanded that outsiders entered after 1951 should be sent back.
    • In 1985, Rajiv Gandhi signed Peace accord with AASU.
    • As a result of accord, the Central govt agreed to send back all the migrants who came to Assam during or after the Bangladesh War (1971).

Lessons from Regional movements ( Accommodation and National Integration)

    • Regional aspirations are a part of democratic Politics.
    • The best way to respond to regional aspirations is democratic negotiations.
    • The importance of power sharing .
    • Regional imbalances in economic development create a feeling of regional discrimination.
    • The federal system adopted by India Is a flexible arrangement to deal regional aspirations .

Liberation of Goa

    • After Independence, the Nehru government was continuously requesting the Portuguese government to give back Goa.
    • But they rejected this request .
    • in 1961 Indian government sent an army to liberate the Goa, Daman and Diu.
    • Indian army liberated these places within two days by the army operation in Goa called “Operation Vijai”.
    • In 1987, Goa became a state of India Union.

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