Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations
Region and the nation
Region: It is an area especially part of the country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries.
Nation: It is a large body of people united by Common descent, history, culture or language, a particular country or territory.
Indian Approach towards the Regionalism
- Indian Nationa does not deny the right of different regions and linguistic groups to retain their own culture.
- Indians decided to have a united social life without losing the identity of various cultures.
- Indian nationalism gave emphasis on the concept of unity in diversity.
- According to the Indian approach nation does not mean negation of region.
- Indian approach towards diversity is wide and liberal.
- India adopted a democratic approach towards the issue of diversity.
- Regional issues must be given due attention and consideration in the process of policy formulation.
Areas of Tension.
They are namely:
- Jammu and Kashmir
- Dravidian Movement
- Panjab Crisis
- New Movements In North – East Regions
Jammu and Kashmir
- Kashmir problems is one of the controversial and burning issues not only in Indian politics but also in the international sphere.
- The kashmir issue is always seen as a major issue between India and Pakistan.
- The state of Jammu and Kashmir Comprise three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
- It is the region of several small hills and plains.
- Hindus ,Muslims ,Sikhs and the people speaking different languages reside here. kashmir
- It is the most beautiful place in India.
- People in this region speak Kashmiri language.
- Most of the people are Muslims.
- There is also Hindu minority speaking Kashmiri.
- It is a hilly region with very little population.
- Buddhists and Muslims reside in this region.
Roots of the Kashmir problems
- kashmir was a princely State before 1947.
- It was ruled by Hari Singh, a Hindu ruler.
- They tried to have an independent status after the end of British rule.
- The Pakistani leaders argued that since majority of Kashmiri people were Muslims, the kashmir region actually belonged to Pakistan. Thus they put claim on Jammu and kashmir.
- People of Kashmir wanted to get rid of the Maharaja, but was against joining Pakistan.
- In October 1947, Pakistar Sent tribal infiltrators to Kashmir.
- It forced the Maharaja to ask for Indian Military help.
- He agreed to emerge kashmir with India and signed the lnstrument of Accession.
- Following this, the Indian army entered Kashmir and drove back the infiltrators.
- But before liberating Kashmir completely India was forced to declare a ceasefire due to the
intervention of the UN. So a portion of Kashmir Still remains under the control of Pakistan, called Pak Kashmir.
- In March 1948 Sheikh Abdullah became the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
External and internal disputes
- The claim put forward by Pakistan on Kashmir became the cause of the external conflicts.
- Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir as their territory.
- One-third portion of Kashmir came under the control of Pakistan.
- Pakistan calls this region as Azad Kashmir.
- kashmir was given special status by article 370 of Indian constitution.
- This article gives Kashmir more powers of autonomy than other states.
- People outside the kashmir believed that article 370 is aganist federal principles.
- People inside a Kashmir believed that article 370 is not enough.
Grievances of Kashmirs
- A major section of Kashmiris expressed 3 major grievances.
- Plebiscite is not conducted ( referendum). They demanded that Accession of Kashmir to Indian Union Should be referred to the people.
- Greater State autonomy is not granted.
- Democracy is not properly implemented in the state.
Politics Since 1948
- After assuming the Office of Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah initiated several people friendly programmes including land reforms .
- His attitude towards the special status of Kashmir became the cause of an encounter with the central government.
- He openly began to demand the independence of Kashmir.
- 1he central govt was not ready to tolerate the sectarian feelings of Sheikh Abdullah.
- In 1953 e was dismissed and kept in detention for several years.
- A fraction of National Conference remained in power with the support of Congress.
- Congress had direct control over state administration .
- Sheikh Abdulla returned to power in 1977.
- He died in 1982.
- The leadership of the party and the chief ministership were taken over by his son Farooq Abdulla.
- Following a split in National Conference the governor dismissed with the Farooq government.
- The Kashmiris Iost faith in democratic process due to the unnecessary Interventions of the Central government.
- In the assembly election of 1987 the National Conference- Congress alliance obtained massive victory.
- The rule of Farooq Abdullah was a total failure .
- Popular resentment against the inefficiency of government became strong.
- By 1989 militant groups began to interfere in the affairs of the State.
- They began to organize agitations and terrarist activities with a view to establish a separate Kashmiri nation.
- The militant groups got moral, material and military Support from Pakistan.
- Terrorist activities and violent agitations were continuously occurring in Jammu Kashmir.
- The state experienced a fair election in 2002.
- In this election, the National Conference was defeated.
- It was replaced by Peoples Democratic party (PDP )and Congress coalition government.
Separtism and Beyond
- Separatist Politics which emerged in Kashmir from 1989.
- There are mainly three groups in the separatist politics of Jammu Kashmir .
- To establish separate kashmiri nation .
- kashmir is to be merged with Pakistan.
- To retain kashmir with in Indian Union with greater autonomy.
- It is one of the earlier regional movements in South India.
- Even though they wanted to establish a Dravidian state ,they did not take up arms.
- They adopted the democratic means such as public debates and electoral platform to achieve their end.
- The founder of Dravidian movement was EV Ramaswamy Naickar,a Tamil social reformer and leader of the anti-Brahmin movement.
- He was popularly known as ‘periyar’.
- He formed the organization ” Dravid kazhakom”.
- It was an anti-Brahmin, anti-North Indian and Anti-Hindi movements.
- In 1949 there was a split in Dravida Kazhakom.
- A new organization Dravida munneta Kazhakom ( DMK ) was formed under the leadership of CN Annadurai.
- The DMK followed the political Legacy of Dravidian movement.
- It totally opposed to Brahmin domination.
- It Criticized the cultura,l economic and political domination of North India.
In 1953-54 DMK entered Politics with three notable agitations.
- The first agitation was for the restoration of the original name of Kallakudi railway Station. It had been renamed Dalmiapuram after an Industrial housue of North India.
- The second agitation was for giving greater importance to Tamil cultural history in the school curriculum.
- The third agitation was aganist the craft education scheme of the state govt. DMK alleged that it was closely connected with the Brahmin social outlook.
- The most important incident which increased the popular support and reputation of DMK was the anti-Hindi agitations of 1965.
- In 1972. There was a split in the DMK
- MG Ramachandran a prominent leader of the party formed another party called All India Anna Dravida Munnetta kazhakom ( AIADMK).
- Both of them claim the Dravidian Legacy.
- Other Dravidian parties are Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetta kazhakom ( MDMK), Pattali Makkal katchi ( PMK).
- 1980s Punjab witnessed a separatist movement which demanded the formation of separate state Khalistan.
- It gradually turned into terrorism and created a dangerous crisis in India.
- The root cause of Punjab crisis was the growth of communalism among the Sikhs.
- Akali Dal which formed in 1920 demanded seperate Punjabi Suba for the Skihs,but it was denied by the central government .
- It changed its stand and demanded for Separate state for punjabi speaking people.
- Finally, the Indira Gandhi government accepted the demand of Akali Dal.
- In 1966, Punjab was reorganized on the basis of language and it was divided into two states- Punjabi speaking Punjab and Hindi speaking Haryana.
- Chandigarh was made the common capital of both Punjab and Haryana .
Political context of Punjab crisis
- After the reorganization of the state Akali Dal came into power in 1967 and 1977 .
- The party did not get the majority. So it was forced to form a coalition government.
The main reasons for the political failure of Akali Dal were:
- It’s government was dismissed by the Central Govt before completing the tenure.
- Had no support among Hindus.
- Internal differences in the Sikh community.
- Congress got more support among the Dalits.
Anandapur Sahib Resolution – 1973
- Its demands were:
- It demanded regional autonomy for Punjab and wanted to redefine the Center – State relations.
- It reflected the aims and aspirations of the Sikh Community.
- The resolution declared that its ultimate aim was the establishment of Sikh dominance.
- The resolution got only limited support from the Sikh People.
Cycle of violence
- The leadership of Akali Dal soon passed from the moderates to the extremists.
- They adopted the means of armed rebellion and terrorism for establishing Khalistan.
- Their leader was Jernail Singh Bhindranwala.
- The militants made Golden Temple in Amritsar as their headquarters.
Operation Blue Star, June 1984.
- In June 1984, Indira Govt carried out ” Operation Blue star”, code name for military action in the golden temple.
- The army entred the golden temple and killed Bhindranwala and his men.
- It deeply hunted the sentiments of the Sikhs.
- Prime minister, Indira. Gandhi, was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, who revenged for the military actions in the golden temple.
- Following the death of Indira Gandhi, violence broke out aganist the Sikhs in Delhi and in many parts of Northern India.
Road to peace
- Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi who assumed the office after the assassination of Indira Gandhi began several attempts to solve Punjab crisis.
- On 24th July 1985, Rajiv Gandhi and the Akali Dal President Harchand Singh Longowal Signed the historic Punjab Accord. it is known as Rajiv – Longowal Accord.
- The conditions of the Accord are:
- Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
- A seperate commission to solve Punjab-Haryana border dispute.
- A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi – Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- The govt would provide better treatment and compensation to the affected people in violence.
- Armed Force’s special Powers Act in Punjab would be withdrawn.
- The Northeast consists of seven states which are referred to as Seven Sisters.
- A small Corridor of about 22 kilometres connects the region to the rest of the country.
- On the other side of this region it shares boundaries with China, Myanmar and Bangladesh and it serves as India’s gateway to Southeast Asia.
Major problems of North- East
- Isolation of the region
- complex social character
- Vast international border
- Weak communication with the rest of India
- Influx of migrants.
Three major issues in the region:
- Demands for Autonomy
- At the time of independence the entire region expect Manipur and Tripura Comprised the state of Assam.
- The non – Assamese felt that the Assam govt was imposing Assamese language on them.
- So they began to demand political autonomy
- Some groups demanded a seperate country .
- A place where secessionist movement became strong was the Mizo hills in Mizoram.
- After Independence, the Mizo hills area was made an autonomous district within Assam.
- Some Mizos believe that they were never a part of British India, and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union. So they wanted to seceed from India.
- The secessionist feeling among the Mizos were strengthened by two incidents:
- In 1959, a famine broke out In Mizo hills. Assam govt failed to take adequate measures to face this famine.
- In 1961, the Assam govt made Assamese as the official language of the state.
- The Mizos’ anger led to the formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Laldenga.
- MNF started armed campaign for Independence.
- They use Guerrilla War.
- They got support from Pak govt.
- The Indian security Forces strongly countered the movement .
Rajiv Gandhi – Laldenga Accord in 1986
- Mizoram was granted full- fledged statehood.
- MNF gave up secessionist movement.
- Laldenga became the CM of Mizoram.
- Now ,Mizoram is one of the most peaceful place in the region with a high literacy rate.
- In 1951, a section of Nagas under the leadership of Angami Zaphu Phizo declared independence from India.
- Phizo rejected all the promises of the government for a peaceful settlement.
- They began an armed struggle for getting sovereignty of Nagas.
- After a period of violent struggle, a section of Naga signed an agreement with the government of India and formed a state of Nagas inside Indian Union.
- Thus in 1963 the state of Nagaland came into existence.
- But the rebels were not ready to accept it.
- They continued the terrorist attack and guerrilla warfare against the government.
- The problem of Nagaland still remains unsettled.
Movement against Outsiders
- Local communities started agitation against the outsiders and the migrants.
- The migration of foreigners and non- Assamese into Assam gradually began to create unrest in the state.
- The Assameses feared that they might become a minority Within their own State and they might be forced to surrender their language and culture to others.
- They also feared that they would lose their control in economy and Politics.
- Thus they started a movement against the outsiders.
- In 1979 anti- foreign Movement by All Assam students’ Union was against:
- Illegal Migration
- Domination of outsiders
- Faulty Voters’ Register
- They demanded that outsiders entered after 1951 should be sent back.
- In 1985, Rajiv Gandhi signed Peace accord with AASU.
- As a result of accord, the Central govt agreed to send back all the migrants who came to Assam during or after the Bangladesh War (1971).
Lessons from Regional movements ( Accommodation and National Integration)
- Regional aspirations are a part of democratic Politics.
- The best way to respond to regional aspirations is democratic negotiations.
- The importance of power sharing .
- Regional imbalances in economic development create a feeling of regional discrimination.
- The federal system adopted by India Is a flexible arrangement to deal regional aspirations .
Liberation of Goa
- After Independence, the Nehru government was continuously requesting the Portuguese government to give back Goa.
- But they rejected this request .
- in 1961 Indian government sent an army to liberate the Goa, Daman and Diu.
- Indian army liberated these places within two days by the army operation in Goa called “Operation Vijai”.
- In 1987, Goa became a state of India Union.