Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Rise of Popular movements
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Rise of Popular movements
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Rise of Popular movements
- It is the agitation started by the people of Uttarakhand in 1970s to protect the forest in their place.
- The chief reason for the emergence of the Chipkomoveme t was the de ial of permission to Villagers by the forest Department to cut trees for making agr culture tools.
- At the same time the Forest Department granted perm ss on to a sports company called “Symonds” to fell the trees from the same area for commercial purpose. It angered the villagers and they started strong protest against the decision of the government.
- The Villagers, including women prevented the f lling of trees by mbracing them .
- It was the beginning of an environmental mov m nt which used to catch the worldwide attention.
- In the initial stage the only intention of this movement was to prevent the Cutting of trees.
- But later, the agitators began to raise more serious issues like environmental problems and economic exploitation.
- Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunderlal Baghuna gave leadership to the Chipko movement.
Demands of the villager
- The government hould not give a contract to the Outsiders for exploiting the forest resources.
- Local people should have effective control over the natural resources like soil, water and Forest.
- The government should give low-cost materials to small Industries and ensure the development of the area.
- Guarantees of minimum wage.
- women’s it participation was the novel aspects of the movement.
- At last government surrendered before this agitation.
- It prohibited felling of trees in the Himalayan region for a period of 15 years.
- Chipko movement was the application of Gandhian satyagraha.
- It gave inspiration for the emergence of several other popular movements in different parts of the country.
Party based movements
- They are classified in two – political movements and social movements.
- The national movement for Independence was mainly a political movement.
- On the contrary, the anti-caste movements, the Kisan Sabha movements and the trade union movement of the colonial period were independent social moveme ts.
Non party movements
- Many groups which were politically very active in the soc ety have lost faith in the existing democratic institutions and electoral politics. So they left Party politics and began to mobilize People for expressing their protest.
- In 1972,Dalit panthers was formed by the first generation of Dalit graduates from this city slums of Mumbai.
- Ambedkar became the source of insp rat on for Dal t movements and Dalit Liberation writings.
- Dalit Panthers fought against caste based inequalities and material Injustice.
- They were denied of the equality and ju tice guaranteed by the Constitution.
- So, their major demand was the effective implementation of reservation and such other policies ensuring social ju tice.
- Even if Indian con titution prohibited untouchability, Social discrimination and violence aganist the Dalits continued in various forms.
- The Dalits were not permitted to construct houses in the villages dominated by the high Caste people.
- They were denied to use common Public Wells.
- They could not even enter into temples and worship Gods.
- Dalit women were dishonored by the high caste people.
- In order to protest against the inhuman activities of the high caste people, the educated youth used their creativity to protest it.
- Their autobiographies and other literacy works Portrayed the life of the most downtrodden Indians.
- Efforts of the Dalit youth was not in vain.
- Government passed a comprehensive law in 1989 providing rigorous punishment for the offenders.
- Split in the organization led to its decline.
- Later, its place was taken over by organization like BAMCEF ( Backward and minority Communities Employees Federation).
Bhajathiya Kisan Union
- It was an organization of farmers from Weston UP, Haryana and Punjab.
- They were the major beneficiaries of Green Revolution
- In mid 1980s the marketing of cash crops ( Sugar and wh at) fac d a crisis. It was caused by the liberalization of Indian economy.
- Its leaders were Mahendra Singh Tikait and Yudh eer.
The Demands of BKU
- Higher floor prices for sugar and Wheat.
- Abolition of restriction on the interstate movement of agricultural products.
- Guaranteed Supply of electricity at a rea onable rates .
- Waving of agricultural loans.
- Govt pensions for farmers.
- Acted as a pressure group.
- Adopted different tactics like rallies,demonstrations , sit – ins and courting imprisonment.
- It was based on networks among its members.
- The funds, resources and activities of BKU were mobilized through these networks.
- Joining hands with other farmers’ organizations like Shetkari Sanghatana (Maharashtra) and Rayata Sangha ( karnataka), the BKU got some of their economic demands accepted.
National Fish Workers’ Forum ( NFF)
- Indian fishermen constitute the second largest fishing community in the world.
- The permission given by the government to the mechanized boats for trawling threatened the very life of fishermen.
- In 1970s and 1980s regional organizations of fishermen organized strong agitations against the policy of the government.
- As a result, by mid 80s, they formed a national organization called National Fish Workers Form.
- In 1991 The government adopted the policy of granting permission to large-scale companies including multinational companies to make deep sea fish ng. The NFF fought legal battles this decision successfully.
- In July 2002 the NFF called for a nationwide strike Protest ng aga nst the decision of government to give license to foreign boats.
Anti – Arrack Movement
- In 1990s,an entirely different form of agitation m rg d in the rural area of Andharapradesh.
- It was a spontaneous movement of women demanding a ban on the scale of alcohol in their neighborhoods. It came to be an Known as anti – arrack Movement.
Origin of Anti- Movement
- It began in a village called Dubagunta in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh.
- In the early 1990s, Women of this Village joined the Adult Literacy Drive on a large scale.
- During a discus ion in the cla room women complained of increased Consumption of arrack by men in their families.
- They found that the use of alcohol leads to :
- Ruining their physical and mental health.
- Weakening of rural economy
- Absence of men from their work.
- Destroys the peaceful atmosphere of the village .
- Collapse of family relationship and family budget.
- Domestic violence by men.
Awareness of Women’s Rights
- This moment played a prominent role in making awareness of women’s rights.
- Women groups started to discuss about :
- Issues related to the custom of Dowry system.
- Domestic violence.
- Sexual abuse – inside and outside the home.
- Gender inequality in property laws.
- Discrimination in political and social life.
Narmada Bachao Andolan
- It is an environmental movement formed to fight against the dangers created by the large developmental projects on men and nature.
- It is a movement to save a river Narmada.
- It opposed the construction of dams co er the narmada rliver and it’s tributaries.
- It was led by Medha Patkar
Sardar sarovar project
- In early 1980s the government launched a large development project in the Narmada valley of CentralIndia.
- it consisted of the con truction of 30 big dams,135 medium dams and 300 small dams to be constructed on the Narmada and it’s tributaries that flows through MP , Gujarat and Maharashtra.
- Sardar sarovar project in Gujarat and Narmada Sagar project in Maharashtra were the two important multi-purpose dams under this project.
- Prime minister Narendra Modi dedicated Sardar sarovar dam to the nation on 17 September 2017.
Supporters of the project
- To provide drinking water to large areas in and around the state of Gujarat .
- Large-scale irrigation.
- Generation of electricity.
- For increasing agricultural products .
- Flood and drought could be controlled through the construction of this dam.
NBA opposed the Project
- 245 villages were expected to get submerged.
- Forced resettlement of 2.5 lakhs villagers.
- A serious loss of livelihood and culture.
- Depletion of ecological resources .
Initial demands of Narmada Bachao Andolan
- proper and just rehabilitation.
- Local community should have a say in the decision making .
- Local community should have control over natural r sourc s like water, land and Forest .
- Later, NBA changed its stand and longed for total opposition to dam.
Lessons from Popular Movements
- Formed to correct the problems in electoral politics
- Represented the problems of ignored sessions.
- Reduced the possibility of social conflict.
- Sustained the marginal sections in democracy.
- Acted as a common platform for the people with a similar problem.
- Provided political education to the weaker sections.
- Disturbed the functioning of the government.
- Delayed the decision making.
- Destabilized the democracy.
Movement for Right to Information
- It began in 1990.
- It began with a demand made by the popular movement Mazdoor Kisan Shakthi Sangathan ( MKSS) in Rajasthan to get the records of the relief camps and the number of workers who were benefited by the schemes of the government during the famine period.
- In 1994 and 1996. MKSS organized public trial and asked the administrators to explain their stand before the publics.
- As a result of this movement, an amendment was made in Panchayati Raj Act enabling the people to get the attested copies of the Panchayat records.
- In 1996 MKS formed a National Council for people’s Right to I format on Delhi to give RTI the status of a National Organization.
- In 2004, The RTI bill was presented in Parliament and received presidential assent in June 2005.