NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics


The Context of the 1990s

  • Certain incidents which shook Indian politics in 1980s.
  • lndira Gandhi was assassinated by her own bodyguards.
  • Rajiv Gandhi became the next Prime minister and in the following election to Lok Sabha he led congress party to massive victory.
  • By the end of 1980s and the beginning of 1990s the country witnessed Five developments that Created far-reaching consequences in Indian politics .

Five major Developments in Indian Politics in 1990s

  1. The end of Congress System
    • In 1989 election, Congress Party was defeated.
    • No party got clear majorily in the election.
    • National Front formed the Govt.
    • National Front was an alliance of Janatha- Dal and some regional Parties.
    • National Front got support from BJP and Left Front. Its aim was to keep the Congress out of power.
    • In 1996, United Front Govt formed with the support of Congress and Left Front. This move was to keep BJP out of power.
    • In 1998, BJP led coalition govt.
    • In 1999, NDA alliance came into power under the prime ministership of AB Vajpayee.
    • It was an era of multi Party System and coalition govts.
    • Regional parties started to play a crucial role in a national Politics.
    • Caste based political parties also became active in Indian Politics.

Political Rise of Other Backward Classes

  • OBC – Communities other than SC and ST Communities Who suffer from educational and social Backwardness.
  • OBC reservation was operative in South India since 1960s. But not in North India.

Mandal Commission

  • It was appointed in 1978 to examine the conditions of the backward classes and to make recommendations for their progress.
  • It was popularly known as Mandal Commission, after the name of its chairman, B. P Mandal.
  • The Commission was asked to investigate the following subjects.
  1. To investigate educational and social backwardness of various communities.
  2. To recommend ways of identifying backward classes.
  3. Make recommendations for removing the backwardness.
  • The Mandal Commission Submitted its report in 1980.

Findings and Recommendations of Mandal Commission

  1. Backward castes have very low presence in the educational institutions and governmental jobs.
  2. It recommended 27% reservation to backward Castes in educational institutions and governmental jobs.
  3. It also recommended Land Reforms August 1990
  • National Front Govt decided to implement reservation for OBCs in Central governmental jobs.
  • It led to agitations in different parts of North India.
  • Debate and agitations for and against the OBC reservation led to the growth of caste based political parties.
  • BSP under the leadership of Kanshi Ram is the best example in this regard.

New Economic policy – 1991

  • Relaxation of Indian Economy started in 1991.
  • It aimed to make Indian economy more market oriented and to expand the role the private and foreign investment.
  • P. V Narasimgha Rao: Father of Indian New Economic policy.
  • Dr. Manmohan Singh: Father of Indian Reforms.

Branches of New Economic policy – 1991

  1. Liberalisation
  2. Privatisation
  3. Globalisation
  4. Ayodhya Dispute
    • Babri Masjid was a 16th Century Mosque.
    • Some Hindus believed that Mosque was built in the birthplace of Lord Rama after demolishing a temple .
    • Mosque was locked in late 1940s after a court case.
    • In 1986 February, Faizabad District Court’s order to unlock the mosque and allowed the Hindus to offer prayers there.
    • Both Hindu and Muslim organization tried to mobilize their communities.
    • BJP along with RSS and VHP convened a number of mobilization programmes.
    • BJP took out the Rathayathra from Somanath in Gujarat to Ayodhya in UP.
    • In 1992 December, BJP and their supporters organized a karseva for building Ram Temple.
    • 6th December 1992, Babri Masjid was demolished.
    • India witnessed Hindu-muslim riots in many parts of the country .
    • For example, Mumbai violence (1993) . It lasted for two weeks.

Other developments related to Ayodhya issue:

  1. BJP state governments were dismissed.
  2. A case was registered against the chief minister of uttar Pradesh.
  3. Central government appointed a commission to investigate the issue.
  4. Community based political parties became active in India .
  5. Gujarat Riot 2002 a militant organization from Sri Lanka.

Emergence of a new Consensus

  • It consists of four elements. They are:
    1. Agreement on new economic policies.
    2. Agreement on the Social and political claims of the backward Classes.
    3. Recognition of the role of regional Parties in the governance of the Country.
    4. Emphasis on Pragmatic politics.

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