NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organizations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organizations

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organizations, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organizations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 International Organizations


United Nations organizations

  • It is the most important international organization in today’s world.
  • It is a great hope of humanity for Peace and progress.
  • ” The UN Was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell” – Dag Hammarskjold.
  • It was formed to ensure World Peace by resolving problems Peacefully.
  • It helps the countries to promote better living Conditions to all.

Evolution of the UN

  • It was established after the end of Second World War.
  • UN is the successor of League of Nations.
  • It was formed on 24th October 1945.
  • Its HQ – New York.
  • Present strength – 193.
  • The charter of UN was signed by 51 Nations.
  • India joined UN on 30th October 1945.
  • The important steps towards the formation of UNO are Atlantic Charter, Washington Conference, Moscow Conference, Dumbarton Oaks Conference and Yalta Conference.
  • The founding conference of UNO was held in San Francisco in 1945.
  • The term UNO was proposed by American President Franklin D Roosevelt.

Objectives of the UNO

  • To prevent international conflict and to promote Cooperation among the nations.
  • To improve the prospects of social and economic development all over the world.

Organs of UN

  • The UN has six principal organs. They are:
  1. General Assembly: – It is the biggest organ of the UN. All members of the UN are members of the general assembly. Five members are represented from each membering state, but only One vote.
  2. Security Council:- It is the executive Organ of the UNO. It consists of 15 members. Five of them are permanent members and ten are non-permanent members. America, Britain, France, Russia and China are the permanent members. They enjoy Veto Power. Non-Permanent members are elected for a term of two years.
  3. Economic and Social Council:- It coordinates all the functions of the UN.
  4. Trusteeship Council:- It was formed to supervise the administration of territories which has no self govt. This organ has no relevance today because all trust territories have become independent states.
  5. International Court of Justice: – It is the judicial organ of the UN. It consists of 15 judges. Their term is 9 years.
  6. The Secretary General:- Representative head of the UN. The Secretary general is not elected from its permanent members. Its term is five years and can be reelected.

Specialized Agencies

  • ILO :- HQ – Geneva
  • FAO:- HQ – Paris
  • UNESCO:- HQ – Paris
  • UNICEF:- HQ – New York
  • IAEA:- HQ – Vienna, established in 1961. It was formed to implement the proposal of American President Eisenhower, “Atoms for Peace”. Its aim is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
  • IMF:- HQ – Washington, formed in 1945. Its aim is to promote the cooperation between the nations for the progress of trade.
  • WHO:- HQ – Geneva.
  • WTO:- HQ – Geneva, established in 1995. It came into existence in lieu of GATT ( Gerneral Agreement on Tariff and Trade).
  • World Bank :- HQ – Washington, established in 1945. It gives loans and financial assistance to the nations.

Reforms of the UN after the Cold War

  • Two basic types of reforms were proposed for UN:
    1. Reform of the structures and processes of the organisation.
      • To increase UN security council’s Permanent and non-permanent membership.
      • To increase membership from Asia, Africa and South America in the security Council.
      • In 1992, the General Assembly adopted a resolution emphasising three main complaints.
  1. Security Countil does not reflect the contemporary political parties.
  2. Its decision reflect only Western values and interests.
  3. It lacks equitable representation.

Jurisdiction of the UN

    • In 2005 , the heads of member states decided to make the UN more relevant. So, they decided to take following steps.
    1. Creation of peace building Commission.
    2. Formation of Human Rights Council.
    3. Creation of a Democracy Fund.
    4. An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
    5. Condemnation of terrorism.

World After Cold War

  • USSR has collapsed .
  • US is the strongest power.
  • The relationship between Russia and US became more cooperative.
  • Rapid growth of China and India.
  • Growth of Asian Economies.
  • Many newly independent countries joined to UN.
  • New challenges to the World like Genocide, civil Wars, Ethenic conflict, Terrorism, Climate Change, Epidemic etc.

Suggested Criteria for New Membership in Security Council.

  • A major economic power.
  • A major military Power.
  • A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
  • A big nation in terms of population.
  • A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
  • Representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic systems and Culture.

India and UN Reforms

  • India demands a change in the composition of security Council , because security Council membership remains static while UN General Assembly membership expanded considerably.
  • India also believes that developing world should be adequately represented in the security Council.

India wishes a permanent membership in UN Security Council. Factors in favour of India are:

  1. The second populous country in the world.
  2. Largest democratic country in the world.
  3. Active role in UN peace building mission.
  4. India is a developing country.
  5. India is a regular contributor to UN Fund.

UN in a Unipolar World

  • US has a great influence in UN.
  • US is the sole Superpower today.
  • US has considerable influence within UN.
  • US is the largest contributor to UN Fund.
  • UN is physically located within US.
  • Many US citizens in the UN Bureaucracy.
  • US enjoys VETO Power.

Role of UN in a Unipolar world

  • UN can bring US and rest of the World for discussion on international matters.
  • It is difficult for other states to persuade US on policy matters.
  • The UN provides a platform for other nations to modify the attitudes and policies of America.

Relevance of UN

  • UN is not perfect but without which world would be worse off.
  • Helpful to seven Billion people to live together.
  • An organization like the UN is very relevant in a period when serious problems like population growth, Proliferation of deadly weapons, migration of refugees, religious fundamentalism, terrorism, etc…,
  • UN is an organization formed to settle down conflicts. So as long as there are conflict the presence of UN is very relevant.

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