NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World


  • Security means freedom from threats.
  • Security is related only to extremely dangerous threats which may endanger the core values.
  • The concept of security can be classified in to two: Traditional notions of security and non – traditional notions of security.
    1. Traditional notions of security
  • Traditional notions of security are of two types – external and internal.

a. Traditional Notions – External

  • According to this concept the greatest danger to a country comes from military threats from other countries.
  • Military actions from other countries endangers the core values of its sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of a country.

A govt can respond to a threat of War in three different ways:

  1. To Surrender.
  2. To prevent the other side from attacking by giving some promises.
  3. To defend itself when war breaks out.

Traditional security Policy

  • There are four components in the traditional security Policy. They are:
  1. Prevention of War ( deterrence).
  2. Defence ( Limiting or ending of War).
  3. Balance of power.
  4. Alliance Building.
  5. Traditional Notions – Internal
  • Internal Security is not a serious matter for many World Powers after second World War.

Internal Threats Includes:

  1. Separatist Movements
  2. Terrorism
  3. Regionalism
  4. Communalism
  5. Ethnic Conflicts etc.,

Traditional Security and Cooperation

  • Cooperation is an important aspect of traditional security. It plays a significant role in limiting violence. The most important forms of cooperations are:
  1. Limits on the goals and means of War.
  2. Disarmament
  3. Arms Control
  4. Confidence Building

Non-Traditional notions of Security

  • It is not merely concern about the security of nation states, but also the security of individuals or Communities.
  • The non traditional notion of security can be divided into two:

1- Human Security

  • Protection of people more than the protection of states.

2- Global Security

  • It emerged in response to the global threats like global Warming, global Terrorism and health epidemics etc.,

New Sources of Threats

  • The non – traditional concepts of security focus on many new sources of threats. This new sources of threats are:
  1. Terrorism
  2. Human Rights violations
  3. Global Poverty
  4. Migration
  5. Epidemics

Cooperative Security

  • International Cooperation is essential to alleviate poverty, manage migration and refugee movements and control epidemics.
  • Military force is useful only to eleminate terrorism and Human Rights violation.
  • Force should be the last resort to solve issues.

India’s Security Strategy

  • India has faced traditional and non-traditional threats to the security from within and outside its borders. India formulated a strong security strategy to face these threats.
  • There are four components in the security strategy of India. They are:
  1. Strengthening the Military.
  2. Strengthening international norms and institutions.
  3. Meeting the Challenges within the country.
  4. Developing economy.

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