NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia


  • South Asia includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

The Military Rule and Democratic Govt in Pakistan

  • After Pakistan framed its first constitution, the military Chief General Ayub Khan captured Power.
  • He soon got himself elected.
  • When popular dissatisfaction began to mount against Ayub Khan, General Yahya Khan captured Power With the support of the military.
  • During the period of his military rule Pakistan had to face the Bangladesh crisis and a War with India.
  • In 1971, Yahya Khan resigned and an elected govt under the leadership of Zulphikar Ali Bhutto Carne to Power ( Pakistan People’s Party ).
  • In 1977, the Bhutto govt was removed by General Zia-UL-Haq.
  • He had to face pro-democratic movements from 1982 onwards. However, he continued his autocratic rule.
  • After his death in a plane accident in 1988, a democratic govt was established under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto and Navas Sharif alternatively.
  • 1999-2008 -> Military rule under general Parvez Musharaf.
  • In the election of 2008 Pakistan People’s Party got largest number of seats and Asif Ali Sardari became the president.
  • In 2013, The Muslim League got majority and Navas Sharif returned to power.
  • In 2018, Imran Khan won the general election and became the prime minister of Pakistan.

Reasons for the failure of Democracy in Pakistan

  • The social dominance of the military, clergy and landlords.
  • Pakistan’s Conflict with India made the pro-military groups more powerful.
  • No genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan.
  • America and the Western Countries encouraged military rule in Pakistan.

Democracy in Bangladesh

  • From 1947 to 1971 Bangladesh was part of Pakistan.
  • In 1971, Bangladesh became an independent state after a strong popular movement against the discriminnatory attitude of Pakistan govt towards the East Pakistan.
  • The new Country drafted a constitution declaring faith in secularism, democracy and Socialism.
  • In 1975 , Mujib ur Rahman amended the constitution and opted the presidential form of Govt.
  • He abolished all political parties except his own Awami League.
  • Mujib Ur Rahman was assassinated in 1975.
  • In 1979, Military ruler Zia-ur-Rehman Won the elections and ruled the country.
  • Later he was also assassinated.
  • In 1980, Lt. General H.M Ershad came to Power.
  • In 1990, Ershad was forced to resign following mass public protests.
  • Since 1991 onwards, Bangladesh follows representative democracy based on multi party system.

Monarchy and Democracy in Nepal

  • Nepal was a hindu Kingdom in the past.
  • Pro-democracy movement was suppressed by King and the army.
  • In 1990, King accepted the demand for a new democratic Constitution.
  • In 1990s, Maoist influence was very active in Nepal.
  • Violent conflict between Maoist guerillas and the armed forces of the King.
  • Sometimes the democrates also joined the conflicts.
  • In 2002, the King abolished the parliament and dismissed the govt.
  • In April 2006, there were massive, Widespread and non-violent protests in Nepal demanding the restoration of democracy.
  • It was led by SPA ( Seven Party Alliance), the Maoists and the Social activists.
  • The King was finally forced to restore the parliament.
  • In May 2008, Monarchcy was abolished in Nepal.
  • Nepal was declared a secular state and a democratic republic.
  • In 2015, A New Constitution was drafted. Now , Nepal is a Federal Democratic Republic.

Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Sri Lanka

  • 1948 – Sri Lanka became independent.
  • Sri Lanka is a democratic country since independence.

Ethnic conflict

  • Sri Lankan politics was dominated by Sinhala majority.
  • They were hostile to the Tamils who had migrated from India to Sri Lanka.
  • The neglect and discrimination towards the Tamil people led to the growth of militant nationalism.
  • In 1972, a militant organisation called Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE) was formed under the leadership of Velupilla Prabhakaran.
  • The LTTE demanded the formation of ‘Tamil Ealam ‘ or a separate country for the Tamils of Sri Lank.
  • From 1983 onwards the LTTE has been fighting against the Sri Lankan Army.
  • In 1987, India sent military troops to Sri Lanka.
  • In 1989, the Indian Peace Keeping forces pulled out of Sri Lanka without attaining it’s objectives.
  • In 2009, Sri Lankan army defeated the LTTE and re-established control of the entire country by Sri Lankan govt.

Achievements of Sri Lanka

  • High economic growth.
  • High levels of Human development.
  • Successful control over population.
  • Sri Lanka is the first country in South Asia to liberalise the economy.
  • It has recorded the highest per capita GDP for many years.

India – Pakistan Relations

  • Areas of Dispute
    1. Kashmir Issue.
    2. Conflict over siachen glacier.
    3. Arms race.
    4. Pakistan is helping Kashmiri militants ( Blaming of India).
    5. Involvement of ISI ( Inter services Intelligence) in anti-India activities in the north eastern reigion of the country ( Blaming of India).
    6. River Water dispute .
    7. Troubles in Sindh and Balochistan by India ( Blaming of Pak).

Attempts to Improve the Relations

  1. Summits of national leaders.
  2. Bus and Train services.
  3. Better trade relations.
  4. Relaxed visa norms.

India – Bangladesh Relations

  • Areas of Dispute
  1. Sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
  2. Illegal immigration to India from Bangladesh.
  3. Bangladesh’s support for anti-Indian Islamic fundamentalist groups.
  4. Bangladesh’s refusal to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to North East India.
  5. Bangladesh’s decision not to export natural gas to India.

Areas of Cooperation

  1. Better economic Relations.
  2. Bangladesh is a part of India’s ‘ Look East Policy’ that hopes to create a link with South east Asia via Myanmar.
  3. Cooperation in disaster Management and environmental issues.

India-Nepal Relations

  • Citizens of the two countries allows their citizens to travel and work in other country without visas and passports.

Areas of Dispute

  1. Disputes regarding trade related issues.
  2. Warm relationship between China and Nepal.
  3. Nepal blames that India interferes in Nepal’s internal affairs.

India-Sri Lank Relations

    • Area of Dispute
  • Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka
    • Factors which Stragthen the relation:
    1. Indo – Sri Lanka Free trade agreement.
    2. India’s help in post-Tsunami reconstruction in Sri Lanka.

India – Bhutan Relations

  • Citizens of the two countries allows their citizens to travel and work in other country without visas and passports.
  • Bhutanese govt helped India to weed out guerrillas and Militants.
  • Hydroelectric projects in Bhutan supported by India.

India-Maladives Relations

  • Warm and Cordial relations.
  • India helped Maldives when it was attacked by Tamil Mercenaries from Sri Lanka.
  • India Contributed to the economic development, tourism and fisheries of Maldives.

SAARC ( South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)

  • It was formed at Dhaka in 1985.
  • The initiative for the formation of this organization was taken by Bangladesh president Zia-ur-Rehman.
  • It was to establish peace and cooperation in South Asia.
  • It gives importance to liberate the South Asian countries from the exploitation of the developed countries.
  • SAARC Members signed the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) to strengthen trade as well as foreign relations.

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