NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power


  • Second World War Shattered European Economy.
  • Question of Europe after the second World War – Rivalary or friendship between the European States?

Time Line of European Unity

  • 1948 – Formation of European Economic Cooperation.
  • 1949 – The Council of Europe was established.
  • 1957 – European Economic Community was established.
  • 1992 (Feb 7th) – Formation of European Union.

European Union

  • Capital – Brussels.
  • Member States – 28.
  • Currency – Euro ( 2002 January).
  • Anthem – Ode to joy.
  • EU won nobel Peace Prize in 2012.
  • EU is an economic and political Union
  • EU has its own flag, Anthem, founding date and currency.
  • Some form of common foreign and security policy.
  • No Constitution for EU.

Strength of EU

  • World’s One of the biggest economy.
  • Euro is a threat to US dollar.
  • Large Share in World Trade.
  • Significant role in WTO, G7 and G20.
  • Two permanent members in UN Security Council – UK & France. May reduce to one after BREXIT.
  • Several non- permanent members in security Council.
  • Combined EU military is the second largest in the world.
  • Two EU members ( UK & France) are nuclear powers.

Weaknesses of EU

  • Differences between member states on many areas of foreign relations and defence. For eg: America’s invasion of Iraq. Many members of EU supported America’s invasion of Iraq, but Germany and France opposed it. Denmark and Sweden opposed the adoption of Euro as its common currency.

ASEAN ( Association of South East Asian Nations )

  • South East Asia was under the colonial rule of British, America and Japan, before and during the second World War.
  • After the second world War South East Asia faced problems of:
    1. Nation Building.
    2. Poverty and Economic backwardness.
    3. Pressure to join Power Blocs.
    4. NAM was not effective in South East Asia.
  • As a result , ASEAN was established in 1967 by signing Bangkok Declaration.
  • Founding members – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • Later, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia joined ASEAN taking its strength to 10.
  • It has no desire for super national structures and institutions.
  • It maintains informal and Cooperative relations.
  • It respects national sovereignty.

Objectives of ASEAN

  1. Economic growth
  2. Social Progress
  3. Cultural Development
  4. To promote regional peace
  5. Faith in UN Charter

Three Pillars of ASEAN ( 2003)

  1. The ASEAN Security Community
    • Territorial disputes between the members should not escalate into armed Confrontation.
    • Uphold peace, Cooperation, Non- interferences and respect for national differences and sovereign rights.
    • ASEAN Regional Forum (1994) coordinates the security and foreign policy of the organization.
  2. The ASEAN Economic Community
    • To accelerate economic growth in the region.
    • To improve the existing dispute settlement mechanism.
    • To create free trade area for investment, Labour and services.
    • ASEAN Political forum is a good platform for ASEAN Countries and major Powers to discuss international issues.
  3. ASEAN socio- cultural community
    • To ensure social progress and cultural development in the region.

The Rise of Chinese Economy

  • Communist Republic of China was formed after communist revolution under the leadership of Mao-Tse-Tung.
  • Adopted Soviet Model of economy.
  • No relation with capitalist world.
  • China has been the fastest economy after the economic reforms.
  • It may overtake US economy by 2040.

Strength of China

  1. Growing Economy
  2. Huge Population
  3. Vast land Mass
  4. Natural resources
  5. Regional Location
  6. Political influence
    • Employment and social welfare to all.
    • Better educational and Health facilities.

Drawbacks of China

  • Economic growth was insufficient due to the rapid growth of population.
  • The state controlled economy.
  • Industrial production was not growing fast enough.
  • International trade was minimal.
  • Per Capita income was very low.

Policy Change in 1970s

  • China ended political and economic isolation.
  • China established relations with US in 1972.

Four Modernisations in 1973

  • Proposed by Premier Zhou Enlai.
  • Modernisation in agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology and Military.

Open Door Policy in 1978

  • It was announced by Deng Xiao Ping.
  • To generate higher productivity by investment of capital and technology from abroad.

Changes in Chinese Economy

  • 1982 – Privatisation of Agriculture.
  • 1998 – Privatisation of Industry.
  • Special economic zones were set up, which led to rise in foreign direct investment.
  • In 2001 China became a member of WTO.
  • New economic policies and integration with Western economy strengthened Chinese economy.

Issues in Chinese Economy

  • Unemployment
  • Gender inequality in employment
  • Environmental degradation
  • Corruption
  • Economic inequality

Indo- China Relations

  • Had a very limited political and cultural interactions during the colonial period.
  • Good relation after the end of colonialism.
  • For a brief period, the slogan of ‘Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai’ was popular in both countries.
  • Border dispute and Tibetan issue worsened the relation and ended in 1962 War.
  • India-China relations improved in late 1970s after change in Chinese political leadership.


  • Factors that strengthened the relations are :
  1. Chinese visit of Rajiv Gandhi in 1988.
  2. Agreement on cultural Exchange.
  3. Cooperation in science and Technology.
  4. Opening of four border posts for Trade.
  5. Better trade relations and energy deals.
    • China’s military relation with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar is a threat to Indo-Sino relations.

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