NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of planned Development

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of planned Development

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of planned Development, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of planned Development

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of planned Development


Economic Development in Independent India

  • Soon after the Independence, India had to take a number of decisions regarding development. All these decisions were inter-related.
  • It was believed that every country should go through the process of modernisation like the western Countries.
  • Modernism was associated with the ideas of growth, material progress and Scientific rationality.
  • Almost everyone agreed that the development should mean both economic growth and Socio- economic justice.

Ideas of Development

  • A lot of debates on the issue of development took place after the Independence . It was then a common practice among the people to take the Western countries as the standard for measuring development .
  • On the eve of Independence, India had two models of modern development. They are:
    1. Capitalist Model – America and many of the European countries followed it.
    2. Socialist Model – Soviet Union followed the socialist Model of economy.
  • Many Indians were deeply impressed by the Soviet model of development. The CPI, the Socialist Party and Nehru of the Congress Party were ardent admirers of the Soviet Model.
  • The American model of capitalist development was also supported by a few people.
  • The new Indian govt stood seriously for the alleviation of poverty and Socio-economic redistribution.


  • It is away of organizing and utilizing resources to maximum advantage in terms of defined social ends.
  • M. Visvesuaraya is called as the father of Indian planning.
  • His famous book is ” Planned economy for India”.

Importance/ Objectives of planning

  • It helps in the proper utilization of economic resources.
  • It helps in the attainment of a fixed goal in a definite time period.
  • Planning helps for the fulfillment the basic needs of the Society.
  • It helps in the removal of various social problem like illiteracy, poverty, backwardness etc… for Social development.

Planning Commission in India

  • Soon after the Independence a planning Commission was set up with the PM as the chairman.
  • It became the central machinery for deciding the path and strategy of Planning for development.
  • It was set up in March 1950 by a resolution of the govt of India.
  • It was set up under the chairmanship of PM – Nehru.
  • The composition of the Planning Commission has kept on changing according to the requirement of the time and interest of the govt.
  • First planning Commission was essentially composed of politicians.
  • Later on, Nehru added certain members from publicmen, administrators, economists and other experts.
  • Now it consists of both political and non-political men.
  • In addition to Chairman and deputy Chairman, there are 10 to 12 other members.
  • Among them, there are five or six ministers.

Functions of plannig Commission

  1. To assess the material, Capital and human resources of the Country.
  2. To formulate a Plan for the most effective utilisation of the Country’s resources.
  3. To Suggest machinery for ensuring the successful implementation of each stages of the plan.
  4. To propose the allocation of resources on the priority.

Five Year Plans

  • The Planning Commission has decided to formulate Five Year plans for the economic development of India. In this case, India followed the model of Soviet Union.
  • The idea of Five Year Plan is very simple. Govt of India prepares a document including all the income and expenditure for the next Five years.

First Five Year plan (1951-56)

  • Its aim was to save the Indian economy from Poverty and to raise the level of national income.
  • The famous economist Dr. KN Raj, who played an active role in the formulation of first five year plan.
  • It gave priority to agricultural sector including the construction of dams, irrigation and hydro- electric Projects.
  • The agricultural sector was hit harshly by partition and required urgent attention.
  • The first five year plan allocated huge funds for large scale projects like Bhakra Nankal and Hirakund Dams.
  • The plan identified that the chief obstacle in the path of agricultural development was the land distribution system in the country. Therefore, it also focused attention on land reforms.

Second Five Year plan (1956-61)

  • It was drafted under the leadership of PC Mahalanobis. So it is also called as Mahalanobis’ plan.
  • It gave priority to Industries.
  • Its main aim was to change the pace of Industrial development.
  • During this period, some heavy industries were established in India like steel industries in Bhilai and Durgapur.
  • In order to protect domestic industries, the govt imposed tariffs on imports which paved the way for the growth of Industries both in the public and private sectors.

Key Controversies

1. Agriculture Versus Industry

Supporters of Agriculture

  • Agriculture should be given more importance in planning.
  • There must be an agrarian strategy for development.
  • Progress in agriculture sector is necessary to eradicate poverty and food scarcity.
  • Demanded a stable agricultural sector to ensure food security in the county.
  • J C Kumarappa, gandhian economist, proposed an alternative plan giving more importance to rural industrialisation.

Supporters of Industry

  • They demanded that Industrialisation is essential because;
  1. For rapid economic development.
  2. To remove rural poverty.
  3. To generate more employment opportunites.
  4. To modernise agricultural sector.

Public versus Private sector

Supporters of Public Sector

  • They argued that restrictions on foreign imports denied the opportunities of Indian firms to compete with multinational companies.
  • No incentives were given to the Indian companies.
  • Inefficiency and corruption in public sector.
  • State is inactive in public education and Health Care.

Supporters of Private sector

  • The Private sector was not given enough space to grow.
  • There were many hurdles like licences and permits.
  • Indian economy is mixed economy – the best elements taken from capitalist model and socialist model development.

Major Outcomes of Planning

Positive outcomes

  • (a) Foundations: Laid down very good foundations for India’s economic growth during this period.
  • Mega dams like Bhakra Nangaland and Hirakud, power generation projects, Steel plants, refineries, defence production etc. were started.
  • Transport and Communication improved Considerably.
  • (b) Land Reforms: The land reforms implemented by the govt had four components:
    1. Abolition of Zamindari system.
    2. Consolidation of agricultural land.
    3. Celing on land.
    4. Protection of tenants.

Negative Outcomes

  • Food Shortage , famine and malnutrition.
  • The landowners wielded much political power.
  • Poverty did not decline.

The Green Revolution

  • In 1960s, the govt of India adopted a new strategy for agriculture in order to ensure food sufficiency .
  • The govt offered high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices.
  • The govt also gave a guarantee to buy the products of the farmers at a given price.
  • Father of Green Revolution – Norman Ernest Borlaug.
  • Father of Indian Green Revolution – Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan.


  • Rich Peasants were the beneficiaries.
  • Concentrated in Wheat production.
  • Focussed on Punjab, Haryana and Western UP only.
  • Rise of Middle Peasanty.
  • The rift between poor peasants and the landlords.

The White Revolution

  • Varghese kurian, Milk Man of India, Played a crucial role in the history of Gujarat Cooperative Milk and Marketing Federation based in Anand, a town in Gujarat.
  • It was a dairy Co-operative Movement.
  • It gave a unique pattern for rural development and Poverty alleviation.
  • Amul pattern is known as white Revolution.

Operation Flood in 1970

  • Its aims were:
  1. To increase milk production
  2. To eliminate middlemen
  3. To assure the producers a regular income and employment.

Later Developments

  • Restrictions on private sector after 1960s.
  • Nationalisation of 14 Private banks.
  • Pro-poor programmes were announced.
  • Stress on Socialist Pattern.
  • Introduction of New Economic policy in 1991 Such as Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalization.

The NITI Aayog

  • It means National institution for transforming India.
  • The NDA govt decided to abolish the Planning Commission and to introduce a new institution called NITI Aayog.
  • It officially came into existence on 1st January 2015, replacing the 65 year old Planning Commission.
  • The PM is the chairperson of the NITI Aayog.
  • Its governing body includes leaders of India’s 28 States and all UTs.

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