NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India External Relations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India External Relations

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political ScienceChapter 4 India External Relations, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India External Relations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India External Relations

  • After Independence India adopted non- alignment as the basis of her foreign policy.
  • Nehru is rightly acknowledged as the chief architect of India’s foreign policy.
  • Nehru Outlined the basic elements of India’s foreign Policy in his speech brodcast to the nation on 7th Sept 1946.
  • India had always tried to maintain peaceful ,friendly, healthy and Cordial relation with other countries of the world.
  • India had always Supported the freedom struggle of other countries. eg: Bangladesh.
  • India and China have been trying to resolve their problems through peaceful means.
  • India and Pakistan have always differences b/w them over two main issues – firstly kashmir issue and secondly Pakistan’s Support to terrorism.

India’s Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy:

  • Foreign Policy is a set of principles and means adopted by a nation for defining, justifying and securing the objectives of its national interest.
  • It is a means by which nations come into contact with each other.
  • Its ultimate aim is the protection of national interests.
  • When India became free it shaped its own independent foreign policy.
  • The Foreign Policy of India is based on two factors:
    1. To Keep the country away from the power blocs.
    2. To uphold the interest of the 3rd World Countries.
  • To implement it, Nehru got the help of eminent persons like V. K krishna Menon ( Defence Minister).

The Constitutional bases of Indian Foreign Policy.

  • Article 51 of Indian Constitution lays down DPSP on Promotion of international Peace and Security.
  1. The state should promote International Peace and security.
  2. The state should maintain just an honorable relation between nations.
  3. The state should foster respect for international law.
  4. The state should encourage settlement of international disputes through arbitration.

Major Goals or Objectives of India’s foreign policy

The main aims of India’s foreign policy are:

  • To safeguard territorial Unity.
  • To maintain and encourage International Peace and security
  • To have friendly relations with neighboring countries.
  • To secure people living within the boundary of India.
  • To increase trade with other countries.
  • To encourage the independence movements in other countries.
  • To oppose cast differences and apartheid.
  • To solve international disputes peacefully.
  • To co-operates with All International organizations, especially with UNO.
  • To oppose imperialism and social differences.

The basic principles of India’s foreign policy

The main features of India’s foreign policy are:

  • Non-alignment
  • Opposition to imperialism under colonialism
  • Opposition to the policy of caste.colour discrimination etc.
  • Friendly relations with other states.
  • Faith in internationalism.
  • Importance to the principles of United Nations.
  • Respect for human rights.
  • Faith in Disarmament.
  • Pancha Sheel : Jawaharlal Nehru formulated five principles of peaceful co-existence among the nations of the world.They are accepted first by the Chinese premier Zhou Enlai in 1954. They are:
  1. To respect the sovereignty and territorial Integrity of each other.
  2. non-aggression on each other.
  3. Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  4. Mutual equality and friendship.
  5. Peaceful co-existence.

Determinants of India’s foreign policy

The main determinants of India’s foreign policy are:

1- Geographical factors

It contributed a lot in determining India’s foreign policy. India shares is boundaries with Bangladesh,Pakistan,Chin Nepal and Myanmar.That is why India has always tried to maintain friendly relations with neighboring countries.

E2- conomic factors.

It has largely influenced our foreign policy. That is why India adopted non-alignment for getting economic assistance from both blocs.

National interest is another factor which influences our foreign policy.

The historical experiences and ancient Indian philosophy also influence foreign policy. That is why India stand against colonialism and imperialism.

The policy of non-alignment

  • After the second world war, the world was divided into two blocs: one is capitalist bloc headed by the USA. And the other is communist bloc headed by the Soviet Union. This phenomena was generally Cal edl Bipolarism.
  • Nehru,architect of India’s foreign policy decided to keep away from the tധം power blocs and to remain independent from them.This policy is called non-alignment.
  • The newly independent countries of Asia and Africa adopted non-alignment as their foreign policy.
  • The NAM was formally inagurated in the Belgrade conference in 1961.
  • The attempts of the leaders like Nehru for achieving Afro- Asian unity was mainly responsible for the formation of the NAM.
  • During the Nehru era,India established cordial relations with the newly independent states of Asia and Africa.
  • Nehru was an ardent advocate of Asian – African Unity.
  • In April 1955, the NAM was established in the Bandung conference.
  • The NAM was formally inaugurated in Belgrade conference.
  • Nehru was a co-founder of the NAM.Others are: Josip Broz Tito – Yugoslavia’s president, Gammal Abdul Nasser- Egypt’s second president, Kwame Nkrumah – Ghana’s president and Sukarno – Indonesian president.

Important Features of NAM

  1. It is an independent policy.
  2. NAM is a policy of peaceful co-existance.
  3. It does not mean neutrality in international affairs but freedomin international affairs.
  4. It means refusal to align with imperialist blocs.
  5. Its main thrust has been towards Peace, independence and disarmament.
  6. It rejects Power Politics.

Indo-China Relationship

  • Right from the beginning, India tried to maintain a cordial relation with China.
  • India was one of the first country to recognise the communist govt in China after the 1949 Chinese Revolution.
  • Nehru strongly supported China and took initiative in giving membership to China in the UNO.
  • For a long period of time the Chinese border was guarded not by army but by the para-military force.
  • The panchasheel treaty was signed on 29th April 1954 between India and China. It cemented the friendship between the two countries.

Chinese invasion of 1962

  • Gradually, the cordial relationship between India and China began to deteriorate.
  • The Tibetan issue and the border disputes strained their relationship.
  1. Tibetan Issue
  • In 1950,China took Control of Tibet and Tibetan people opposed it.
  • India tried to persuade China to recognise Tibet’s claims for Independence.
  • In 1954, after signing Panchasheel India admitted Chinese claim over Tibet.
  • In 1956, the Tibetan Spiritual leader Dalai Lama informed Nehru about worsening situation in Tibet.
  • China assured that Tibet would be given greater autonomy.
  • In 1958, an armed uprising in Tibet against China.
  • Chinese army suppressed the uprising.
  • In 1959, Dalai Lama sought Political asylum in India and it was granted.
  • Dalai Lama has made Dharmshala his home in India.
  • China protested against it.

2- Boundary Dispute

  • China was not ready to accept colonial division of boundary.
  • China claimed Aksai Chin area in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir and much of the Arunachal Pradesh.
  • China launched a massive invasion in Oct 1962 on both the disputed regions and captured much of the areas.
  • Chinese army advanced nearly to the entry point of Assam plains.
  • Later, China unilaterally declared ceasefire.

Consequences/Results of Indo-China War of 1962

  • Dented the image of India at home and abroad.
  • National humiliation for the Indians.
  • It strengthened the Spirit of Nationalism.
  • Some of the top military officers resigned.
  • V. K krishnamenon, the defence minister resigned from the post.
  • Nehru’s image declined.
  • For the first time, a no-confidence motion against Nehru’s govt was moved.
  • The Congress Party lost some of the by-elections to the Loksabha.
  • Split in CPI in 1964.
  • Nagaland was granted statehood.
  • Manipur and Tripura were given the right to elect their own Legislative Assemblies.

War and Peace with Pakistan

Areas of co-operation:

  • Restored the women abducted during partion to their original families.
  • Solved the river Water dispute and signed the Indus Water treaty between India and Pakistan in 1960 by the mediation of the World Bank.
  • This treaty was signed by Nehru and Ayub Khan.


  • The Communal riots and the violence following the partition and the hatred genesated by these incidents in the minds of the people remainded for a long time.
  • The Kashmir issue was the main factor which led both countries into War.

Proxy War over kashmir issue in 1947

  • In Oct 1947, Pakistan attacked Kashmir by sending tribal intruders.
  • Thus war broke out between India and Pakistan. Fortunately, it did not turn into a full War. The issue was then referred to the UN.
  • Allying with US and China, Pakistan coutinued its move against. Thus Pakistan Put strains in India’s relations with America and China.

Indo-Pak War of 1965

  • In April 1965, Pakistan launched armed attacked in Rann of Kutch, Gujarath.
  • In Sept 1965, bigger offensive in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Counter offensive by Indian army on the Punjab border.
  • Indian Army reached close to Lahore.
  • Hostilities ended after the UN Intervention.
  • Under the initiative of Kosygen, the Soviet PM, a conciliation Meeting was held in Thashkant city.
  • The Indian PM Lal Bahadur Shastri and the Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan signed the Thashkant Agreement in January 1966.

Bangladesh War of 1971

  • The Pakistan Govt was dominated by the leaders from West Pakistan.
  • They illtreated the Bengali Population of East Pakistan.
  • First General Election held in Pakistan in 1970.
  • The Awami League led by Sheikh Mujib-Ur-Rahman won majority of seats in East Pakistan.
  • In West Pakistan, Pakistan People’s Party of Zulfilter Ali Bhuto got majority.
  • Mujib-Ur-Rahman, who got simple majority in the Parliament and put forward the claim to form the govt. But the Pakistan rulers were not ready to accept the democratic verdict.
  • In 1971, Pakistan army arrested Sheik Mujib – Ur – Rahman.
  • The people of East Pakistan started a Liberation Struggle.
  • More than 80 Lakhs migrated to India.
  • India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle.
  • In 1971, a full scale war started between India and Pakistan.
  • Indian army made a rapid progress in East Pakistan.
  • Within 10 days Indian army surrounded Dhaka and about 90,000 Pakistan soldiers Surrendered.
  • In January 1972, Mujrib- ur-Rahman who was released from Jail, became the first PM of Bangladesh.
  • By this time India declared a unilateral ceasefire.
  • On 3rd July 1972, Indira Gandhi and Zulfiker Ali Bhutto met at Simla and signed the treaty, called Simla Agreement.

Results of Bangladesh War of 1971

  • It was a moment of glory and pride for India.
  • It was a sign of growth of Indian Military power.
  • It increased the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
  • In the state elections held after the war, Congress secured unusual success.

Kargil War of 1999

  • In the early part of 1999, several points on the Indian hide of LOC (Line of control) in the Mashkoh, Dras, Kaksar and Batalik areas were occupied by forces claiming to be Mujahideens.
  • Suspecting involvement of the Pakistani Army, Indian forces started reacting to this attack.
  • It led to a confrontation between the two countries. This is known as Kargil War. Kargil Day is observed on 26th July.
  • By 26th July 1999, India had recovered the control of many of the lost Points.

India’s Nuclear Policy

  • The nuclear policy of India was shaped by Nehru.
  • He put faith in science technology for the rapid development of the Country.
  • It was initiated under the guidance of Homi-J- Bhabha.
  • India stands for complete disarmament within the farmework of the UNO. However, India is not willing to sign NPT ( Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty).
  • India argued that, the treaty is discriminatory in nature.
  • It allows the countries which are having already nuclear weapons.
  • India conducted her first nuclear test on 18th May 1974 at Pokharam in Rajastan, known as ” Budha Smiles.
  • 2nd nuclear test conducted on 11th and 13th May 1998 at Pokhran, known as ” Operation Shakthi “.

Nuclear Policy

  • Maintaining nuclear deterrent.
  • No first use.
  • Non use of unclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.
  • Desire for a nuclear free world.

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