Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Era of One-Party Dominance
NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Era of One-Party Dominance, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Era of One-Party Dominance
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Era of One-Party Dominance
Challenge Of Building Democracy
- Most of the newly independet Countries Opted non – democratic govt.
- They gave first Priority to national unity rather than democracy.
- But Independent India Selected the difficult path of democracy for India.
- In fact, there were certain Special reasons for adopting democracy:
- Indian freedom struggle was deeply committed to democracy.
- Indian leaders were fully conscious of the role of politics in democracy.
- The leaders of the Independent India realized that democratic politics is the best way to resolve the indifferences among the various groups.
- The ultimate aim of political activitity is the protection of Public interest.
First General Election (1952)
- Rules regarding the conduct of elections were laid down in the Constitution.
- It was necessary to install a machinery to conduct elections in the most democratic manner.
- The Election Commission of India was set up in January 1950.
- Sukumar Sen was appointed as the first election Commmissioner of India.
- It was expected to conduct the First General Election in 1950 itself. But the election Commission soon found that holding of free and fair election in a vast country like India was not an easything.
- Holding of elections required of:
- Drawing the boundaries of constituencies.
- Preparation of electoral roll.
- People’s participation.
- Preparation of election machineries.
- The elections were postponed twice and finally held between October 1951 and February 1952.
- Still it was known as “Election of 1952” because election in the most part of India was conducted in January 1952.
Features of the First General Election
- Competitive in nature
- Good Participation
- Free and Fair
Congress Dominance in the first three elections (1952, 1957 and 1962)
- The congress Party dominated Indian Politics from 1952 – 1977.
- During this period, Congress was the ruling party at the centre and in most of the states.
- The period of Congress dominance is called the period of one party dominance.
Reasons behind the Congress victory in the first three elections or Nature of Congress dominance.
- The role of Congress in the national movement.
- Strong organizational structure.
- Only Congress was a party that spreded all over the country.
- The charismatic leadership of Nehru.
- Non-Congress Parties were not united.
Congress as Social and Ideological Coalition
- The Congress was formed in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professional and commercial classes.
- Its most of the members were english speaking Urban elites.
- It was a mass party in 20th centuary.
- Its Civil disobedience movement and many other people friendly programmes attracted Peasants, villagers, Workers and other socially and economically backward groups to the party.
- The congress Party allowed greater tolerance in internal differences.
- Many parties and organizations were allowed to remain within the Congress Party.
- A group in Congress can fight with other groups without leaving the party ( the moderates and the extremists).
Emergence of Opposition Parties
- Politics is a Competition for power.
- The parties which lose in the election function as opposition parties.
- The opposition gives the real basis for a democratic system.
- Iver Jennings says that ” If there is no opposition, there is no democracy”.
- Right from the begining, opposition parties were very active in India.
- They had different policies and ideologies.
- Some of the political parties formed even before the first general election of 1952.
- Even though the opposition was weak due to the multiplicity of Parties, some of the opposition parties played a crucial role in Indian Politics during the 1960s and 70s.
- Most of the present non-Congress Parties were formed from anyone of the opposition parties of 1950s.
- Nehru govt followed the policy of encouraging the opposition.
- The opposition leaders like Dr. BR Ambedkar and Syama Prasad Mukharjee were included in the interim govt and in the Cabinet formed after the First General Election.
The Socialist Party and its Ideology
- The Congress Socialist Party was formed within the Congress in 1934 under the leadership of Acharya Narendra Dev.
- It functioned as a left wing within the Congress party.
- Its ultimate aim was to make the Congress radical and egalitarian Party.
- It believed in the ideology of democratic Socialism.
- It criticized the Congress party for favouring the capitalists and landlords and ignoring the interests of farmers and workers.
- Its main leaders were Ashok Mehta, Acharya Narendra Dev, Ram Manohar Lohia , Jayaprakash Narayanan etc…,
Communist Party of India
- After congress Party, Communist Party of India is the oldest party in India.
- Inspired by the Bolsheivik revolution in Russia, certain communist groups started its activities in India by the beginning of 1920s.
- They upheld Socialism as the only solution for the Problems of the country.
- It is a national Political Party in India.
- It was founded in 1924.
- M N Roy played a vital role in its formation.
- From 1930 onwards, CPI began to cooperate with the national Movement.
- From 1935 onwards, the communists worked within the fold of the INC.
- The party flourished after independence.
- In 1957, this party got an opportunity to form Govt in Kerala state.
- It was the first non-congress govt in India.
- The party won 16 Seats and emerged as the largest opposition Party in the First General Election of India.
- The party had more popular support in AP, W. Bengal, Bihar and Kerala.
- Its prominent leaders were A.k.G, P.C Joshy, Ajay Ghosh, E. M.S etc…,
- In 1964, a major split occurred in the communist Party in keeping with ideological difference between China and Russia.
- The supporters of Russia remained as communist Party of India, while others who supported China are called as CP1(M).
- Today, the CPI(M) has become very powerful.
Bharatiya Jana Sangh – Ideology and policies
- It was formed in 1951.
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was its founder president.
- It had its roots in the RSS and the Hindu Maha Sabha even before the independence.
The policies and programmes of the party are:
- The Party believed in Akhand Bharat – reunion of India and Pakistan.
- The development of Indian economy should be on the basis of Indian culture and traditions.
- Hindi should be the official language of India.
- Eradication of poverty.
- The party opposed to the granting of concessions to religious and Cultural minorities.
- The party was in favour of developing nuclear weapons.
- It was formed in 1959 , under the leadership of C. Rajagopalachari, K. M Munshi, N. G Renga and Minu Masani.
- It criticised socialism and Communism.
- The party stood for protecting the capitalists and feudal interests.
- It demanded that the govt Control over the economic system must be reduced.
- The party stood for independent and private entrepreneurship.
- It stressed on individual freedom.
- It opposed centralized planning and nationalization.
- It was against land Ceilings in agriculture.
- The Party also criticised the governmental Policy of taxation and licensing.
- But gradually this pairly disappeared from the Indian Political Scenario.
- The main reason for the failure of Swatanthra Party was its narrow social base. The party had no roots among the ordinary people.
- The dedicated members were very few.
- Lack of strong organizational structure.
- The tactical programmes adopted by the Nehru Govt to attract all sections of people really prevented the growth of Swatanthra Party.