NCERT Notes For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony In World Politics

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics

 

New World Order

  • USA became the single Super power after the disintegration of USSR and World became Unipolar.

First Gulf War – 1991

  • Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait.
  • When the diplomatic attempts failed to withdraw Iraq from Kuwait, the UN took a dramatic decision to liberate Kuwait by force.
  • A massive coalition force of 6,60,000 from 34 countries fought against Iraq and quickly defeated it and Kuwait was liberated.
  • The UN operation was called ” Operation Desert Storm”.
  • 75% of Coalition force came from the US.
  • War was profitable to the US.
  • US received more money from other countries like Germany, Japan and Saudi Arabia than it had spent.
  • War revealed the vast technological gap between USA and other countries.
  • America Used “Smart Bombs” in this war against Iraq.
  • It led some observers to call this a “Computer War’.
  • As a result of the widespread television Coverage of this War, it came to be called a “Video Game War”.

The Bill Clinton Era

  • US President George H W Bush, who Ied US in the Gulf War, was defeated by Democratic Party leader Bill Clinton in 1992 American Presidential election.
  • During his period, US had withdrawn into internal affairs and was not fully engaged in World Politics.
  • In foreign policy, the Clinton govt focussed “Soft issues” like World trade, climate change and Promotion of dermocracy.
  • A significant US military action during there Clinton years was against the Al-Qaeda terrorists in Sudan and Afghanistan.
  • In 1998, the US embassies in Nairobi and Tanzania were bombed by Al-Qaeda, a terrorist organization.
  • Clinton ordered military action against Al-Qaeda, which came to be known as ” Operation Infinite Reach”.
  • Consequently, the Muslim terrorist organisations turned against America.
  • The devised secret plans to attack America. One of such attacks took place on 11th Sept 2001.

9/11 and the Global War on Terror

  • 19 Arab terrorists hijacked four American Commercial air Crafts.
  • Two air Crafts crashed in to twin towers of World Trade Centers in New York.
  • Third aircraft crashed into Pentagon building, US defence Headquarters.
  • 4th Aircraft targeted Capital building of US Congress, but failed to reach there.
  • Attacks killed nearly 3000 people.
  • US Iaunched ” Operation Enduring Freedom” against all those suspected to be behind 9/11 attack.
  • Main targets were Al- Qaeda and Taliban Regime in Afghanistan.
  • Taliban Govt was overthrown
  • US forces made arrests all over the world even without the consent of the govts.
  • Many of the prisoners were denied legal protection.
  • Even US officials were not allowed to visit the prisons.

The Iraq Invasion of 2003

  • on 19th March 2003, the US invaded Iraq under the code name ” Operation Iraqi Freedom”.
  • More than 40 other countries joined America in this war.
  • The alleged purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
  • No evidence of WMD was found in Iraq.
  • It’s aim was to control Iraqi oilfields and install US friendly govt in Iraq.

Hegemony

  • It means Political, Economic and Military predominance of one state over others.
  • The dominant state is known as Hegemon.

US Hegemony

  • The Collapse of USSR made USA , the Single Super Power in the World.
  • As a result, US hegemony started in the international Politics.
  • US Hegemony has three different Understandings:

1- Hegemony As Hard Power.

  • American military dominance is both absolute and relative power.

Absolute power

  • US has military capabilities that can reach any where in the world.

Relative power

  • No other powers remotely match USA.
  • US spends more money on its military capability than the next 12 powers Combined.

2- Hegemony as structural Power

  • US dominates World Economy.
  • The American share of World economy is 28 percent.
  • 15 percent of World trade is American.
  • US plays a vital role in providing global public goods.
  • Most of the global network of Satellites are owned by the US Govt.
  • American firms in the top three list of every sector.
  • The World Bank, IMF and WTO are the products of American hegemony.
  • MBA started in USA.

3- Hegemony as Soft Power

  • US hegemony denotes US domination in the social, political, cultural and ideological spheres.
  • Thoughts, Dreams and Life style of many people in different parts of the world are very much Americanised.

Constraints on American Hegemony

  • The challenges to American hegemony emerge from within. There are three constraints on American hegemony.
  1. System of division of powers between the three branches of American Govt: Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
  2. Open nature of American Society. It means American Society always makes healthy criticism on the actions of their govt.
  3. NATO can effectively control the US hegemony.

How can Hegemony be overcome?

  • Formation of World Govt.
  • Strict international Law.
  • Military Coalition.
  • Role of Non Govternmental organisation.
  • Keep away from the dominant power.
  • Bandwagon strategy ( advantages from USA by establishing good relations).
  • Social movements and public opinions.

Indo – US Relations

  • Adoption of Liberalization policy and impressive economic growth made India an attractive economic partner for US.
  • US absorbs 65 % of India’s total software export.
  • 35% of the technical staff of America Boeing are of Indian Origin.
  • 3 Lakhs Indians work in Silicon Valley in the US.
  • 15% of high – tech start ups are by Indian – Americans.

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