NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2The End of Bipolarity, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

Russian Revolution – 1917

  • It was based on socialism and equality.
  • It was against private Property and monarchy.
  • USSR was formed after the revolution, in 1922.
  • Opposition to capitalism
  • primacy to the state and Communist Party.
  • Opposition Parties were not allowed.
  • It had planned and controlled economy.

Soviet system and its merits.

  • Complex Communication Network.
  • Vast energy Resources.
  • Self sufficent Consumer Industry.
  • Minimum standard of living to all citizens.
  • Basic necessities to all .
  • No unemployment.

Its demerits

  • Bureaucratic and authoritarian.
  • Domination of single party.
  • Unaccountable administration.
  • Domination of Russia.
  • Inferior technology.

Gorbachev and the disintegration

  • Mikhail Gorbachev, general secretary of Soviet Communist Party in 1985, Sought to reform the system.
  • He decided to:
  • Normalise the relations with the West.
  • Democratise and reform the Soviet Union.


  • He introduced two reforms.
    1. Glasnost
      • Openness and Transparency in govt institutions.
    2. Perestroika
      • Restructuring of Soviet Political and economic system.

Disintegration of Soviet Union

  • A Coup took place in 1991.
  • It was encouraged by communist Party harliners.
  • People were against the Communist rule.
  • Boris Yeltsin emerged as national hero.
  • Yeltsin opposed the centralised Control.
  • 26th December 1991, under the leadership of Yeltsin, Russia, UKraine and Belarus declared Independence.
  • Yeltsin and his supporters also declared that soviet Union was disbanded and communist Party of the Soviet Union was banned.
  • Post Soviet Republics adopted capitalism and Democracy.
  • Commonwealth of Independent states ( CIS ) was formed after the disintegration of USSR.
  • Russia was accepted as the successor of Soviet Union.

Reasons for the Disintegration of USSR

  • Economic stagnation.
  • Expensive arms race.
  • Economic advance in the West.
  • Unaccountable administrative system.
  • Corruption and non – transparency in bureaucracy.
  • Centralisation of authority
  • Reforms of Gorbachev.

Consequences of Disintegration

  • End of Cold War.
  • Unipolar World.
  • Emergence of New Countries.

Shock Therapy in Post-Communist Regimes

  • Transition from an authoritarian Socialist system to a dermocratic capitalist system.
  • The mode of transition which took place in Russia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe Came to be known as shock therapy.
  • It was influenced by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

Features of Shock Therapy

  • To root out Soviet economic system and to establish a capitalist economy.
  • To promote free trade and foreign investment.
  • Breaking up of the trade alliances among the countries of Soviet Blocs and started trade relations with the West.

Consequences of shock Therapy.

  • State Controlled industrial complex almost Collapsed.
  • High Inflation.
  • Poverty
  • Growth of Mafia.
  • Dictatorship of Presidents.
  • Economic Inequality.
  • Civil Wars and insurgencies in former Soviet Republics.

India and USSR

  • The relationship had economic, Political, military and cultural dimensions.

Economic – Technical and economic assistance in India’s Public sector companies.

Political – Support in Kashmir issue and in War of 1971.

Military – Soviet Union Supplied Military Hardware and Technology.

Culture – Hindi Films and Indian Culture were popular in Soviet Union.

India and Post – Communist Countries

  • India has maintained good relations with Post – Communist countries.
  • India – Russia relation is the strongest.
  • India and Russia Supported the concept of multi – Polar world.

Russia – India relations

  • India is the second largest arms market for Russia.
  • Support in Kashmir issue.
  • Sharing informations.
  • Against Terrorism.
  • Energy Supplies.
  • Scientific projects.
  • Nuclear Energy plans.
  • Assistance during oil crisis.

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