NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assistance of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building


Challenges for the New Nation

  • At the hour of midnight on 14th August 1947, India attained Independence.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, the first PM of free India, addressed a special Session of the constituent Assembly that night.
  • This speech came to be known as“Tryst with Destiny”.
  • Through this speech Nehru advised the members of the House to dedicate themselves for the service of the Nation.

Major goals of our national movement

  1. One, that after Independence, we shall run our country through democratic government.
  2. Two, that the government will be run for the good of all, particularly the poor and the socially disadvantaged groups.

Difficult circumstances for india

  • Freedom came with the partition of the country.
  • The year 1947 was a year of unprecedented violence and trauma of displacement.
  • In this situation that independent India started on its journey to achieve several objectives.

Three Challenges

Independent India faced three kinds of challenges:

  1. To build the nation

    • The first and the immediate challenge was to shape a nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity in our society.
    • India was a land of continental size and diversity.
  2. To establish a democratic Govt.

    • The second challenge was to establish democracy.
    • India adopted representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government
    • The challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution.

  3. To ensure the development and well being of the entire society.

    • The third challenge was to ensure the development and well being of the entire society and not only of some sections.
    • The principle of equality and special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religious and cultural communities.

Partition: – Displacement and Rehabilitation

  • On 14 – 15 August 1947, not one but nation-states came into existence – India and
  • This was a result of ‘partition’, the division of British India into India and Pakistan.
  • According to “Two Nation Theory” advanced by Muslim League leader – Muhammad Ali Jinnah, India consisted of two people, Hindus and Muslims.
  • He demanded Pakistan, a seperate country for the Muslims.
  • Although INC ( Indian National Congress ) oppossed the Two Nation Theory and the demand for Pakistan, the political competition b/w Congress and Muslim League and the role of British Govt led to the creation of Pakistan.

Process of Partition

  • Such a division was not only very painful but also very difficult to decide and to implement.
  • It was decided to follow the principle of religious majorities.
  • This basically means that areas, where the Muslims were in majority, would make up the territory of Pakistan.
    • The rest was to stay with India.
Difficulties during Process of Partition
  1. First, there was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British India.
    • There were two areas of concentration, one in the west and one in the east.
    • There was no way these two parts could be joined.
    • It was decided that the new country, Pakistan, will comprise two territories, West and East Pakistan separated by a long expanse of Indian territory.
  2. Secondly, not all Muslim majority areas wanted to be in Pakistan.
    • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, the undisputed leader of the North Western Frontier Province and known as ‘Frontier Gandhi‘, was staunchly opposed to the two-nation theory.
  3. The third problem was that two of the Muslim majority provinces of British India, Punjab and Bengal, had very large areas where the non-Muslims were in majority.
    • Eventually, it was decided that these two provinces would be bifurcated according to the religious majority at the district or even lower level.
  4. Fourth problem and the most intractable of all the problems of partition. This was the problem of ‘minorities’ on both sides of the border.
    • Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in the areas that were now in Pakistan and an equally large number of Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped.
    • The minorities on both sides became easy targets of attack.
    • The minorities on both sides of the border were left with no option except to leave their homes, often at a few hours’ notice.

Consequences of partition

  • The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of the population that human history has known.
  • In the name of religion people of one community ruthlessly killed and maimed people of the other community.
  • Lahore Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into ‘communal zones’.
  • Minorities on both sides of the border fled their home and often secured temporary shelter in ‘refugee camps.
  • During this journey, they were often attacked, killed, or raped. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border.
  • In many cases, women were killed by their own family members to preserve the ‘family honor’.
    • Many children were separated from their parents.
  • For lakhs of these ‘refugees’, the country’s freedom meant life in ‘refugee camps, for months and sometimes for years.
  • Women were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage.
  • The Partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border.
  • Between five to ten lakh people were killed in Partition-related violence.

Integration of Princely States

  • During the period of British rule, India was divided into British Indian provinces and princely states.
  • British Indian Provinces were directly under the control of the British Govt.
  • Several large and small states ruled by princes, called the Princely states were ruled by native Kings.
  • They accepted British Supremacy and enjoyed some form of control over internal affairs.
    • It was called paramountcy of the British Crown.

The Problem of Integration

  • Before Independence, it was announced by the British that with the end of their rule over India, the paramountcy of the British crown over the Princely States would also lapse.
  • All the princely states, as many as 565 in all, would become legally independent.
  • 565 Princely states would have three options after getting independence:
    • Free to join India or
    • To join Pakistan or
    • To remain Independent
  • This was a serious problem, and It threatened the unity of independent India.
  • The problems started very soon, the ruler of Travancore announced that the state had decided on Independence.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad made a similar announcement the next day.
  • Rulers like the Nawab of Bhopal were averse to joining the Constituent Assembly. 
  • After Independence, there was a very real possibility that India would get further divided into a number of small countries.

Govt’s Approach

  • The interim govt took a firm stand aganist the division of India into several independent states.
  • Indian independence was aimed at unity, self determination and democracy.
  • Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period immediately following Independence.
  • Sardar Patel played a historic role in bringing most of princely states them into the Indian Union.
    • S. V Patel was assisted by V. P Menon in this task.
  • The government’s approach was guided by three considerations.
    • Firstly, the people of most of the princely states clearly wanted to become part of the Indian union.
    • Secondly, the government was prepared to be flexible in giving autonomy to some regions.
    • Thirdly, the integration and consolidation of the territorial boundaries of the nation had assumed supreme importance.
  • Before 15 August 1947, almost all states whose territories were contiguous to the new boundaries of India, into the Indian Union.
  • The rulers of most of the states signed a document called the ‘Instrument of Accession’ which meant that their state agreed to become a part of the Union of India.
  • Accession of the Princely States of Junagadh, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur proved more difficult than the rest.
  • The issue of Junagarh was resolved after a plebiscite confirmed people’s desire to join India. 

Integration of Hyderabad

  • Hyderabad, the largest of the Princely States was surrounded entirely by Indian territory.
    • Old Hyderabad state are today parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Its ruler carried the title, ‘Nizam’, the ruler of Hydrabad was one of the richest Persons of the world.
  • Nizam wanted to retain Hydrabad as an independent state in side the india.
  • He entered into what was called the Standstill Agreement with India in November 1947 for a year while negotiations with the Indian government were going on.
  • A movement of the People of Hyderabad started agitation against the Nizam.
  • The peasantry in the Telangana region in particular, was the victim of Nizam’s oppressive rule.
  • Hydrabad town was the nerve centre of this movement.
  • The peasantry of Telangana rose against Nizam, due to his oppressive rule.
  • The Communists and the Hyderabad Congress were in the forefront of the movement.
  • Nizam responded it by a paramilitary force known as ” Razakars” on the people.
    • “Razakars”which was an extremist group of muslim religious fanatics.
  • Non muslims were the main targets of Nizam.
  • In Sept 1948, Indian army moved to Hyderabad to control the Nizam’s forces. .
  • Nizam surrendered after a few days of intermittent fighting.
  • It led to the accession of Hydrabad to the Indian Union.

Integration of Manipur

  • Bodhachandra Singh, the Manipur Maharaja, signed the instrument of accession with the Indian government.
  • People of Manipur was against the accession.
  • Election in Manipur held due to the public pressure.
  • The state became a constitutional monarchy in June 1948.
  • Manipur thus became the first region in India to hold election on the basis of universal Adult Franchise.
  • There was a wide difference of opinion in the Manipur Legislative Assembly on the question of the merger of Manipur with India.
  • State Congress Supported merger, while all other parties opposed it.
  • Maharaja signed the merger agreement in September 1949, without consulting the popularly elected Legislative Assembly of Manipur.
  • It created a lot of anger and resentment in Manipur and still it is going on.

Re-Organization of States

  • Drawing the internal boundaries of the Indian states was another task in the process of nation-building.
  • The boundaries had to be drawn in a way so that the linguistic and cultural plurality of the country could be reflected without affecting the unity of the nation.
  • The leaders of our national movement had promised the formation of states on a linguistic basis.
  • After the independence, our national leaders felt that the formation of states on the basis of language might lead to disruption and disintegration.
  • It was also felt that this would draw attention away from other social and economic challenges that the country faced.
  • The center leadership decided to postpone the matter.
    • The fate of the princely states had not been decided.
  • This decision was challenged by local leaders and People.

The Vishalandhra Movement for a separate Andhra

  • Protests began in the Telugu-speaking areas of the old madras province, which included present-day Tamil Nadu parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka.
  • The Vishalandhra movement (as the movement for a separate Andhra was called) demanded that the Telugu speaking areas should be separated from the Madras province of which they were a part and be made into a separate Andhra province.
  • All the political parties in the Andhra Region supported the movement.

Potti Sriramulu

  • On October 19, 1952 Potti Sriramulu, a Congress leader and veteran Gandhian, began the indefinite fasting demanding the formation of Andhra Pradesh on linguistic basis. On the 56th day of fasting he died (Dec 15th, 1952).
  • His death Caused great unrest and resulted in violent outbursts in Andhra region.
  • Several legislators of Madras Assembly resigned.
  • In Dec 1952, PM announced the formation of Andhra Pradesh.
    • Thus, the first linguistic state of India Came into existence in Oct 1953.
  • Formation of AP led to similar movements in other parts of the country.

State Reorganization Commission – 1953

  • The formation of AP on the linguistic basis inspired the people of different parts
    of India to make agitations for linguistic states.
  • It forced the Central govt to appoint a state reorganization Commission in 1953.
    • Its Chairman was justice Fazl Ali, a retired Supreme Court Judge.
    • Hridayanand Kunsru and Sardar KM Panikar were the other members of the
  • On the basis of its report , Lok Sabha Passed States Reorganization Act in 1956.
    • Accordingly 14 states and 6 UTs came in to existence.

Impacts of formation of Linguistic States

  • Regional leaders became the part of national Politics.
  • Uniform division of States.
  • It strengthened the national Unity.
  • Acceptance of the principle of diversity.

Creation of New States

  • Maharashtra and Gujarat were created in 1960.
  • Punjab was created in 1966.
  • Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972.
  • Manipur and Tripura in 1972
  • Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh in 1987.
  • Nagaland had become a state much earlier in 1963.
  • 2000 – Creation of 3 states: Jharkhand, Chattisgargh and Uttarakhand.
  • 2014 – Creation of Telangana.
  • There are many regions in the country where there are movements demanding
    seperate and smaller states. These include Vidarbha in Maharashtra and Harit
    Pradesh in the Western region of UP and the northern region of West Bengal.

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