NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 The Cold War Era


Second World War (1939 – 1945)

  • Allied forces – USA, USSR, UK
  • Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan
  • End of the war – USA dropped atomic Bombs in Japan in August In 1945.

Critics of American Bombing

  • Unnecessary Act
  • Japan was about to surrender.
  • An attempt by the US to overcome Soviet Union in power race.
  • It was to prove the American Supremacy over Moscow.

Supporters of USA

  • It was a necessary act to end the war so quickly and to stop further loss.

Cold War

  • It was an ideological conflict between United States and Soviet Union.
  • USA and USSR were the greatest powers after thre end of second World War.
  • They were called Super powers.
  • Both the super powers possessed nuclear weapons.
  • They feared that a full fledged War between the two might lead to immeasurable destruction.
  • The super powers had the capacity to cause so much destruction to other. So neither want to initiate the war.

Two Power Blocs

American Blocs

  • It was a Western or Capitalist Bloc.
  • They were called as first World Countries.
  • Main Support from Western Europe
  • Its ideology was Liberal Democracy and capitalism.

Soviet Blocs

  • It was also known as Eastern blocs or communist bloc.
  • They were called as Second World Countries.
  • Main Support from Eastern Europe.
  • Its ideology was socialism and Communism.

Military Alliances of US Bloc

  • NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) formed in 1949.
  • 12 Members from Europe and North America.
  • Armed attack on any one of them would be regardded as an attack on all of them.
  • Now 29 members.
  • SEATO ( South East Asian Treaty organisation).
  • CENTO ( Central Treaty organisation). Military alliance with Middle East.

Military Alliances of Soviet Bloc

  • Warsaw Pact (1955 ) to counter NATO.
  • USSR and China had close relation with North vietnam, North Korea and iraq to counter SEATO and CENTO.

Smaller states Joined in power blocs to get:

  1. Protection
  2. Weapons
  3. Economic aid

Super powers helped the smaller states in gaining access to:

  • Vital resources like oil and minerals.
  • Territory to launch Weapons and troops .
  • Location for spy work.
  • Economic support for military expenses.

Main crisis during Cold War

  1. Cuban Missile Crisis
  • USSR feared that US may overthrow the Cuban president Fidel Castro from Power.
  • The Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • American President John F kennedy ordered American warships to intercept Soviet ships heading to Cuba.
  • It was an attempt to warn Soviet Union.
  • World in the grip of fear, doubtful about another world war.
  • Later both sides decided to avoid War.
  1. Korean Crisis ( 1950 – 53)
  2. Berlin crisis ( 1958-62)
  3. Congo Crisis ( 1960s) Arms Race
  • Between the power blocs.
  • It prevented another world war.

Arms Control

  • Limiting or eliminating Certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.

Role of NAM

  • It was a third option for the newly independent Countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
  • NAM stayed away from the power blocs.

Factors behind the formation of NAM

  1. Cooperation among the founding countries.
  2. Growing cold war tensions.
  3. Entry of newly independent Asian-African countries.
  • NAM is not an isolation from international realities.
  • NAM played mediatory role in many cold war disputes.

New International Economic Order

  • Economic development is vital for the least developed countries.
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development was the part of New International Economic order.
  • UNCTAD was an initiative for least developed countries.
  • UNCTAD obtains access to western markets.
  • It reduces the cost of technology.
  • It provides least developed countries with a greater role in international economic institutions.

India and the Cold War

  • Staying away from the two alliances.
  • Raised voice against newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.
  • India’s policy was neither negative nor passive.
  • India tried to reduce cold War tensions.
  • India made negotiations with the alliances to prevent another world war.
  • Non aligned posture helped India to take international decisions independently.

Criticism against India’s NAM Policy

  • India refused to take independent decisions in many international issues to protect the national interest.
  • Indian Policy was inconsistent.
  • India signed a friendship treaty with USSR

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