NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types Causes And Consequences

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types Causes And Consequences

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types Causes And Consequences

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types Causes And Consequences, (Geography) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools.  As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation.  Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those. 

Sometimes, students get stuck withinside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students solve all of the questions and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Solutions for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Solutions as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes And Consequences

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes And Consequences

 

1. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?
(a) Education
(b) Business
(c) Work and employment
(d) Marriage
Answer:
(c) Work and employment

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Delhi
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Bihar
Answer:
(c) Maharashtra

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?
(a) Rural-rural
(b) Urban-rural
(c) Rural-urban
(d) Urban-Urban
Answer:
(c) Rural-urban

Question 1.(iv)
Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share in migrant population?
(a) Mumbai UA
(b) Delhi UA
(c) Bangalore UA
(d) Chennai UA
Answer:
(a) Mumbai UA

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
Differentiate between life-time migrant and migrant by last residence.
Answer:
According to the census of India migration is enumerated on two bases:
(i) Place of birth (life-time migrant).
(ii) Place of residence (migrant by place of last residence)

Question 2.(ii)
Identify the main reason for male/ female selective migration.
Answer:

Work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration. It constitutes 38% of total male migration. 3% of the male population migrates due to business, 6% due to education, 2% because of marriage, 10% male population is migrant by birth, 25% male population has migrated with households whereas 16% of male population migrated due to other reasons. The male migration due to marriage is concentrated in Meghalaya where matriarchy is prevalent.

Question 2.(iii)
What is the
impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure on the place of origin and destination?
Answer:
Migiation leads to redistribution of population within a country. Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from rural areas have adverse effect on rural demographic structure. High out migration results in serious imbalance in age sex composition. Male population within the working age group migrate out of rural areas leaving females, children and old aged people, which increases the share of dependent population in rural areas. The situation is especially difficult for females because they have to look after both domestic and economic work in the villages, leading to higher participation of women in agriculture without decrease in their household workload. Also it leads to loss of human resource from the rural areas, leaving them with unskilled people thus reducing the total productivity and hence hampering the development of rural areas. Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavorable for females, which gives rise to crimes against women and increases their vulnerability.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.
Answer:
Indian census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries. As far as emigration from India is concerned it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian diaspora across 110 countries.

Emigration: A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive veiy significant amount from their international migrants. If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost. Consequently, the existing underdevelopment in the source region gets reinforced.

When people move from one country to another they act as agents of social change, they carry the ideas related to new technology, etc. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite global culture and widens up mental horizon of people. On the other hand when people move out of their own countries to other countries due to differing social and cultural values, they feel alienated and leads a loss of identity and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.

Immigration: The heavy influx of migrants from neighbouring countries, mostly being illegal gives rise to many socio-economic problems. They lead to increase in population, which causes overcrowding, development of unregulated colonies and slums. Also it leads to increase in pressure on infrastructure, which is unable to cope with increasing population, increased unemployment, pressure on government exchequers on social security schemes leads to over exploitation of resources. It also leads to increase in crime rates, especially against women as most of the migrants are male which disturbs the age-sex ratio of recipient cities in India. It also leads to tensions between immigrants and native inhabitants,

Question 3.(ii)
What are social-demographic consequences of migration?
Answer:
Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

Demographic Consequences: Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure creating serious imbalances in age and sex composition. Male population within the working age group migrate out of rural areas leaving females, children and old aged people, which increases the share of dependent population in rural areas. Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavorable for females.

Social Consequences: Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc., get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.

Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and it widens up the mental horizon of the people at large. But it also has serious negative consequences – anonymity, creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection lead people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse. Also it may lead to loss of identities among the emigrants. Due to heavy male out migration from rural areas, situation for females becomes especially difficult because they have to look after both domestic and economic work in the villages, leading to higher participation of women in agriculture without decrease in their household workload. Migration of women either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy.

Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavourable for females, which gives rise to crimes against women and increases their vulnerability. Unemployment leads to increase in crime rate in the urban areas.

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