NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

CBSE Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution.

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science so you can be looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution below and prepare in your tests easily

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History

Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Exercise Questions

 

1. What were the social , economic and Ans . political conditions in Russia before 1905 ?

Ans . Social Conditions Russian society was divided into three classes : the clergy , nobility and the working class .

Slavery was abolished in 1861 , but the peasants , who constituted 85 per cent of the population , had to pay heavy taxes for small holdings .

Economic Conditions After industrialisation , many factories were set up by industrialists . The wages were minimum and the working hours were sometimes 15 hours a day . The condition of the workers was miserable . The state treasury was bankrupt due to heavy expenditure .

Political Conditions Under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II , the Russian empire was vast and feudal . The disastrous defeat of Russia in the Russo – Japanese War of 1904 had eroded the prestige of Tsar Nicholas II .

2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe , before 1917 ?

Ans . The working population in Russia was different from that of those in other countries in Europe before 1917 in the following ways

( i ) About 85 per cent of Russians were agriculturists . Whereas in France and Germany , the farmers were between 40 per cent and 50 per cent .

( ii ) The cultivators in Russia produced for the markets as well as for their own needs . Industrialisation started late in Russia and industries were only found in small pockets . Workers were a divided social group and maintained strong links with the villages they had come from . Metal workers considered themselves aristocrats among other workers . In Russia , sometimes the working hours for workers were 15 hours as compared to 10 or 12 hours in Europe . On the other hand , in Europe , the Industrial Revolution changed a mainly rural society into an urban one .

( iii ) In France , during French Revolution , the French peasants respected nobles and also fought for them . But in Russia , peasants wanted the land of the nobles . They refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords .

( iv ) In Russia , peasants had pooled their land together and divided the profits according to the family needs . In other parts of world , agriculture was done individually by the peasants .

3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917 ?

Ans . The Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to social , economic and political reasons

Social reasons In the First World War , the defeat of the Russian army was shocking and demoralising .

There were over 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees by 1917. The rest of the population became hostile to the Tsar .

Economic reasons There were labour shortages due to the participation of able – bodied men in the war , which led to the shut down of many small factories .

Moreover , large quantities of grain were sent to feed the army . For the people in cities , bread and flour became expensive and scarce . This scarcity led to riots at bread shops . People became very dissatisfied with the policies of the Tsar .

Political reasons Tsar Nicholas II was an autocratic , inefficient and weak ruler who believed in the divine rights of the king . The bureaucracy got special rights and privileges , but the general public got none . Moreover , the Tsar had built a vast empire and imposed Russian language and culture on diverse nationalities . A large section of the Russian empire became hostile to the Tsar and his corrupt bureaucracy . All these factors led to discredit of the government and brought about the end of Tsarist autocracy .

4. Make two lists : One with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution . Write a paragraph on who was involved in each and who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history .

Ans . Events of the February Revolution

( i ) 22nd February , 1917 Lockout of a factory on the right bank of the Neva river . The next day , the workers of 50 factories went on strike in sympathy .

( ii ) 24th and 25th February Demonstrators came back on the streets and were dispersed by imposing curfew .

( iii ) 25th February The government suspended the Duma . Politicians criticised the measure .

( iv ) 26th February Demonstrators returned in force to the streets .

( v ) 27th February Workers ransacked the Police Headquarters .

( vi ) 2nd March The Tsar gave up his throne . Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provincial Government to run the country .

No political party was actively organising the February Revolution . Men and women workers were involved in this movement who were supported by the soldiers .

Effects of the February Revolution

( i ) Restriction on public meetings and associations were removed .

( ii ) Soviets were set up everywhere , but no common system of election was followed .

( iii ) In industrial areas , factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories .

( iv ) Trade unions grew in number .

( v ) Soldiers ‘ committees were formed in the army .

( vi ) Provisional Government’s power reduced and Bolshevik influences grew .

( vii ) The Bolsheviks were repressed .

( viii ) Land committee was formed , peasants seized land between July and September 1917 by the encouragement of the socialist revolutionaries .

Events and Effects of the October Revolution

( i ) 16th October , 1917 Lenin became the leader and he persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power . It led to the formation of a Military Revolutionary Committee for seizure of power .

( ii ) 24th October Uprising began on 24th October . The buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers were seized by the military men loyal to the government . On the same day , Pro – government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace .

Responding to the government’s action , the Military Revolutionary Committee seized the government . offices and arrested the ministers .

The navy played a significant role in the assault on the Winter Palace . The revolutionaries took over different military points .

5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution ?

Ans . The changes brought by the Bolsheviks after October Revolution were

( i ) The Bolsheviks opposed private properties ; thus they nationalised most industries and banks .

( ii ) Lands of the clergy and nobility were seized and land was declared state property .

( iii ) In cities , the large houses were partitioned to accommodate other families .

( iv ) The use of old titles of aristocracy was banned . To assert the social change , new uniforms , e.g. , Soviet t hat , were designed for the army and the officials .

( v ) The Bolshevik Party renamed itself as the Russian Communist Party . Russia became a one – party state .

( vi ) All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country . Trade unions were kept under party control .

( vii ) The secret police kept vigilance on citizens and punished those who criticised the Bolsheviks .

6. Write a few lines to show what you know about

• Kulaks

• The Duma

• Women

• Workers between 1900 and 1930

• The Liberals

• Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme

Ans . Kulaks Kulak is the Russian name for well – to – do peasants . In 1927-1928 , Stalin took the decision to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines . For this purpose , it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks . Many Kulaks ‘ properties were raided .

Under Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme , land of Kulaks was taken away and converted into large modern farms . This programme was severely resisted by the Kulaks . Many of them destroyed their livestock . Those who resisted collectivisation were punished ; many Kulaks were deported and exiled .

The Duma It was the elected consultative Parliament set up after the Revolution of 1905 . Its members were charged with the responsibility of making laws . The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and re – elected the second Duma within 3 months .

The Tsar did not want any questioning of his power . He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians . Finally , in February 1917 , the Duma was suspended . Many members of the Duma became a part of the Provisional Government .

Women Workers between 1900 and 1930 In Russia , the women workers constituted 31 per cent of the factory labour force . They were paid less than their men counterparts . In most of the factories , they were paid between half and three – quarters of a men’s wage . During the February Revolution ( 23rd February , 1917 ) , women led the way to strikes in many factories .

The Liberals One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals . They were opposed to the uncontrolled power of the dynastic rulers . They preferred religious tolerance and wanted to safeguard individual rights . They favoured parliamentary system of government and an independent judiciary .

They did not believe in universal adult franchise . They wanted voting rights to be restricted to men of property only .

Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme

 

( i ) In 1927-1928 , Soviet Russia was facing an acute problem of grain supplies . The peasants refused to sell the grains at the price fixed by the government .

( ii ) Stalin believed that the peasants had surplus grain , but were holding it back , expecting higher prices . So , he introduced the concept of collective farms ( kolkhoz ) .

( iii ) To develop these farms , it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks , take away land from peasants and establish state – controlled large farms .

( iv ) From 1929 , all peasants were forced to work in kolkhoz . The kolkhoz profit was shared by all the peasants who worked on the land . Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished .

( v ) Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation , but treated such peasants unsympathetically .

Intext Questions

Activity on page 28

1. List two differences between the capitalist and socialist ideas of private property .

Ans . The differences between capitalist and socialist ideas of private property were

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Activity on page 33

2. Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 ? What were the demands of the revolutionaries ?

Ans . The causes of the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were

( i ) Russia’s defeat in the Russo – Japanese War of1904 due to the poorly organised Russian army .

( ii ) The prices of essential commodities rose , so that real wages declined by 20 per cent .

( iii ) Workers were dismissed at the Putilov Iron Works .

The revolutionaries demanded a reduction in daily working hours to eight , increase in wages and improvement in working conditions .

Activity on page 41

3. Why did people in Central Asia respond to the Russian Revolution in different ways ?

Ans . The people in Central Asia responded enthusiastically to the February 1917 Revolution because it freed them from the oppression of the Tsar’s reign and they became masters of their land again . They expected to regain their autonomy .

However , they responded negatively to the October Revolution , as it brought violence , robbery , extra taxes and another dictatorial power to rule over them . They feared now that their autonomy would be lost .

Activity on page 47

4. Compare the passages written by Shaukat Usmani and Rabindranath Tagore . Read them in relation to Sources C , D and E and answer the following questions

( a ) What did Indians find impressive about the USSR ?

( b ) What did the writers fail to notice ?

Source F

An Indian arrives in Soviet Russia in 1920

For the first time in our lives , we were seeing Europeans mixing freely with Asians . On seeing the Russians mingling freely with the rest of the people of the country , we were convinced that we had come to a land of real equality .

We saw freedom in its true light . In spite of their poverty , imposed by the counter – revolutionaries and the imperialists , the people were more jovial and satisfied than ever before . The revolution had instilled confidence and fearlessness in them . The real brotherhood of mankind would be seen here among these people of fifty different nationalities . No barriers of caste or religion hindered them from mixing freely with one another . Every soul was transformed into an orator . One could see a worker , a peasant or a soldier haranguing like a professional lecturer . “

Shaukat Usmani , Historic Trips of a Revolutionary

Source G

Rabindranath Tagore wrote from Russia in 1930

‘ Moscow appears much less clean than the other European capitals . None of those hurrying along the streets look smart . The whole place belongs to the workers … Here the masses have not in the least been put in the shade by the gentlemen … those who lived in the background for ages have come forward in the open today … I thought of the peasants and workers in my own country . It all seemed like the work of the Genii in the Arabian Nights . [ here ] only a decade ago ,

they were as illiterate , helpless and hungry as our own masses … Who could be more astonished than an unfortunate Indian like myself to see how they had removed the mountain of ignorance and helplessness in these few years . “

Ans . ( a ) Indians were impressed by the fact that all persons in Russia were treated equally . In spite of them , not being very prosperous , they were happily going about their work . Asians and Europeans mingled freely in Russia , whereas it was unthinkable in India at that time .

( b ) The two writers failed to notice that essentially the people were not free to do as they liked . The Bolsheviks ruled like dictators and followed repressive policies to develop the nation quickly . The hard lives and poor working conditions of the people went unnoticed by these writers .

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution contains extremely important points, and for each chapter, each concept has been simplified to make it easier to remember and increase your chances of achieving excellent exam results. Exam Preparation References Here are some tips on how these solutions can help you prepare for the exam.

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