NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 French Revolution

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 French Revolution in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 French Revolution.

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science India-Size And Location below and prepare in your tests easily.

Exercise Questions

 

1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France .

Ans . The outbreak of revolutionary protest in France was a culmination of social , political , economic and intellectual factors . These were

( 1 ) Social Causes or Social Conditions French society was divided into three estates . The first estate and the second estate belonged to the privileged section who were exempt from payment of state taxes . The third estate consisted of the lower and middle classes . The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members but they were who bore the burden of the taxes . They did not have any political rights and social status .

( ii ) Political Causes Louis XVI , the King of France , was an autocratic , inefficient ruler who led a luxurious life with his queen . People of France became tired of this rotten system of administration and wanted a change .

( iii ) Economic Causes The treasury of the king was empty on account of long wars , involvement in the American War of Independence , luxurious living of the king and faulty system of taxation . The state also undergone to a great debt .

( iv ) Influence of the Philosophers and Writers There were many French Philosophers and thinkers like Montesquieu , Roussean , Voltaire , Mirabeau who exposed the evils prevailing in the system . The ideas of them were discussed intensively in salons and coffee – houses and spread among people through books and newspapers . They inspired people with the idea of liberty , equality and fraternity .

There was a wide gap between rich and poor people in the society . Increasing price of staple food caused a wide spread anger among masses .

( v ) Immediate Cause Forced by financial bankruptcy , Louis XVI was compelled to call an assembly of the Estates General to pass proposals for new taxes in 1789. This time , voting method was not accepted by the third estate . They demanded that each member should have one vote . This controversy led to agitation among the people which became the immediate cause of the French Revolution .

2. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution ? Which groups were forced to relinquish power ? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution ?

Ans . All the groups which formed the third estate were benefited from the revolution . These groups included workers , businessmen , merchants , court officials , lawyers , teachers , doctors etc. Previously these people had to pay state taxes and they did not enjoy equal status . But after the revolution they began to be treated equally with the upper sections of the society .

The classes which formed the privileged sections of society like the nobility and clergy were forced to relinquish ( give up ) their executive powers and privileges .

The privileged classes , would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution because their privileges were taken away from them .

3. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the people of the world during the 19th and 20th centuries .

Ans . The legacy of the French Revolution for the people of world during 19th and 20th centuries can be discussed in the following ways .

• The idea of liberty expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen laid the foundation of a new social order . The ideals of freedom and liberty formed the basis of national sovereignty .

• The idea of equality led to the end of a society based on privileges . All individuals have the same rights ‘ became the new slogan for world politics .

• The idea of fraternity promotes the ideals of love , unity and cooperation among different sections of society .

• Another great legacy of the French Revolution was the idea of nationalism . The French Revolution promoted the concept of ‘ nationalist ‘ which inspired the people of Poland , Germany and Italy to establish nation- states in their countries .

• These ideas played a great role in reshaping the boundaries of Europe and South America . In India Tipu Sultan and Raja Ram Mohan Roy got deeply . influenced by the ideas of revolution . Even today , people get inspiration by the great ideals of the French Revolution .

4. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution .

Ans . Some of the democratic rights which we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution are given in the Indian Constitution . They are

( i ) Right to Equality The Right to Equality has its origin in the French Revolution . In the Indian Constitution , Right to Equality means equality before law , prohibition of discrimination and equality of opportunity in matters of employment .

( ii ) Right to Liberty or Freedom The origin of this right can also be traced to the French Revolution .. In the Preamble to the Indian Constitution , Right to Liberty or Freedom means ‘ freedom of thought , expression , belief , faith and worship ‘ .

( iii ) Encouraging the Spirit of Fraternity The French Revolution introduced the growth of the spirit of fraternity and social welfare .

In the Indian Constitution , the concept of ” fraternity ‘ abolishes untouchability and local or provincial anti – social feelings .

( iv ) Inspiring the Spirit of Democracy The French Revolution inspired the spirit of democracy which ensured many rights , viz . , right against exploitation , right to life , right to vote etc , which we are enjoying today .

5. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions ? Explain .

Ans . Yes , I agree that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions . Many ideals in the ” Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen ” were not . clear in their meanings .

Examples are

( i ) ” The law has the right to forbid only actions injurious to society ” did not mention about criminal offences against individuals .

( ii ) The declaration stated that ” law is the expression of the general will . All citizens have the right to participate in its formation . All citizens are equal before it . ” Although , France became a Constitutional Monarchy , millions of citizens ( men under the age of 25 and women ) were still not allowed to vote at all .

( iii ) Women were still regarded are passive citizens . They did not have any political rights , such as right to vote and hold political offices like men . Thus , their position contradicts the concept ‘ men are born and remain free and equal in rights . “

( iv ) French colonies and slavery still continued till the Nineteenth Century . All these were in striking contrast to the ideals that the revolution supported .

6. How would you explain the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte .

Ans . The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte was the result of following reasons

Political Instability The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte was an indirect result of the French revolution . After the revolution there was a struggle for power going on in France .

New Constitution After the fall of the Jacobin government , a new constitution was introduced . It provided for two elected legislative councils and a Directory which was made of five members . The Director often clashed with the legislative councils , who then sought to dismiss them . Napoleon took advantage of this instability and become a military dictator .

Napoleon became the Emperor In 1804 , Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France .

Many people saw him as a liberator , who would bring freedom for the people . But his rise to power did not last for a long time . In 1815 at Waterloo , he was finally defeated .

Intext Questions

Activities on page 12 and 13

1. Identify the symbols which stand for liberty , equality and fraternity .

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Ans . Liberty ( i ) Broken chain ( vi ) Red Phrygian cap .

Equality ( viii ) Winged woman ( ix ) Law tablet .

Fraternity ( ii ) Bundle of rods or fasces ( vii ) National colours of France , viz , Blue – White – Red .

2. Explain the meaning of the painting of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen by reading only the symbols .

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Ans . The figure on the left symbolises the right to liberty , property , equality , etc enshrined in the new Constitution of France . The figure on the right symbolises the The law tablet signifies equality before the law for all .

3. The political rights which the Constitution of 1791 gave to the citizens with Articles 1 and 6 of the Declaration ( Source C ) . Are the two documents consistent ? Do the two documents convey the same idea ?

Source C

The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights .

2. The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man ; these are liberty , property , security and resistance to oppression .

3. The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation ; no group or individual may exercise authority that does not come from the people .

4. Liberty consists of the power to do whatever is not injurious to others .

5. The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society .

6. Law is the expression of the general will . All citizens have the right to participate in its formation , personally or through their representatives . All citizens are equal before it .

7. No man may be accused , arrested or detained , except in cases determined by the law .

11. Every citizen may speak , write and print freely : he must take responsibility for the abuse of such liberty in cases determined by the law .

13. For the maintenance of the public force and for the expenses of administration a common tax is indispensable ; it must be assessed equally on all citizens in proportion to their means .

17. Since property is a sacred and inviolable right , no one may be deprived of it , unless a legally established public necessity requires it . In that case a just compensation must be given in advance .

Ans . The two documents are consistent and convey the same idea that human beings are born equal and all citizens are equal before the law . However , the Constitution of 1791 did not give practical shape to these ideas .

4. Which groups of French society would have gained from the Constitution of 1791 ? Which groups would have had reason to be dissatisfied ? What developments does Marat ( Source B ) anticipate in the future ?

Source B

The revolutionary journalist Jean – Paul Marat commented in his newspaper L’Ami du peuple ( The friend of the people ) on the Constitution drafted by the National Assembly :

‘ The task of representing the people has been given to the rich …… the lot of the poor and oppressed will never be improved by peaceful means alone . Here we have absolute proof of how wealth influences the law . Yet laws will last only as long as the people agree to obey them . And when they have managed to cast off the yoke of the aristocrats , they will do the same to the other owners of wealth ’

Source An extract from the newspaper L’Ami du peuple .

Ans . Only some members of the third estate , who were rich and propertied , would have gained from this Constitution . Members of the first and second estates would have been dissatisfied as their privileges were abolished and they had to pay taxes . Marat anticipated another revolution in which the poor would rebel against the rich persons of the third estate and overthrow them , just like they had done to the noblemen and clergy .

5. Imagine the impact of the events in France on neighbouring countries such as Prussia , Austria – Hungary or Spain , all of which were absolute monarchies . How would the kings , traders , peasants , nobles or members of the clergy here have reacted to the news of what was happening in France ?

Ans . The reaction of the kings , traders , peasants , nobles , clergy and other privileged sections of these countries was that they would become fearful about what has happened in France can happen in their country also . The peasants would welcome the developments in France and sympathise with the peasants and underprivileged sections of that country .

Activity on page 16

6. Compare the views of Desmoulins and Robespierre ( Source D ) . How does each one understand the use of state force ? What does Robespierre mean by ‘ the war of liberty against tyranny ‘ ? How does Desmoulins perceive liberty ? Refer once more to Source C ( page 11 ) . What did the constitutional laws on the rights of individuals lay down ? Discuss your views on the subject in class .

Source D

What is liberty ? Two conflicting views :

The revolutionary journalist Camille Desmoulines wrote the following in 1793. He was executed shortly after , during the Reign of Terror .

‘ Some people believe that Liberty is like a child , which needs to go through a phase of being disciplined before it attains maturity . Quite the opposite . Liberty is Happiness , Reason , Equality Justice , it is the Declaration of Rights … You would like to finish off all your enemies by guillotining them .

Has anyone heard of something more senseless ? Would it be possible to bring a single person to the scaffold without making ten more enemies among his relations and friends ? On 7th February , 1794 , Robespierre made a speech at the Convention , which was then carried by the newspaper Le Moniteur Universal . Here is an extract from it .

‘ To establish and consolidate democracy , to achieve the peaceful rule of constitutional laws , we must first finish the war of liberty against tyranny .. We must annihilate the enemies of the republic at home and abroad , or else we shall perish . In time of Revolution , a democratic government may rely on terror . Terror is nothing but justice , swift , severe and inflexible ; … and is used to meet the most urgent needs of the fatherland . To curb the enemies of Liberty through terror is the right of the founder of the Republic . ’

Ans . Robespierre felt that use of terror by a democratic government was justified , as it preserved the ideals of the revolution . However , Desmoulins saw liberty as freedom to do anything which was based on principles of equality , reason and justice without being injurious to others .

Robespierre saying , ‘ the war of liberty against tyranny ‘ meant that they should kill the enemies of the republic both in France and outside France .

Desmoulins perceived liberty as laid down in the Declaration of Rights , i.e. it was happiness , reason , equality and justice . The constitutional laws on the rights of individuals laid down the rights of liberty , equality , property , security and resistance to oppression .

Activity on page 18

7. Describe the persons represented in figure below their actions , their postures , the objects they are carrying . Look carefully to see whether all of them come from the same social group . What symbols has the artist included in the image ? What do they stand for ? Do the actions of the women reflect traditional ideas of how women were expected to behave in public ? What do you think : does the artist sympathise with the women’s activities or is he critical of them ? Discuss your views in the class .

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Ans . They are all women and belong to the same social group , i.e. the underprivileged . The symbols that are included in the image are the agricultural implements , the clothes , symbol of justice , woman on the horse and the drum .

The agricultural implements in their hands confirm that they are peasants . The clothes also show their poverty . The symbol of justice held by one woman depicts that they are striving for it .

The woman on the horse symbolises power and strength . The drum symbolises that they are proclaiming their march to all concerned .

The actions of the women do not reflect the traditional ideas of how women should publicly behave . The artist definitely sympathises with the activities of the women .

 

Benefits of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 French Revolution

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1 French Revolution contains extremely important points, and for each chapter, each concept has been simplified to make it easier to remember and increase your chances of achieving excellent exam results. Exam Preparation References Here are some tips on how these solutions can help you prepare for the exam.

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