NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Civics Chapter 2 Constitutional Design
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Civics
Chapter 2 – Constitutional Design
Exercises on page 31
1. Here are some false statements . Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter .
( a ) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence .
( b ) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution .
( c ) A country that has a Constitution must be a democracy .
( d ) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the Supreme Law of a country .
Ans . ( a ) Leaders of the freedom movement had a consensus that the country should be democratic after independence .
( b ) The members of the Constituent Assembly of India held same views on the principles of the Constitution .
( c ) A country that is democratic must have a Constitution .
( d ) The Constitution needs to be amended because it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society .
2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic Constitution in South Africa ?
( a ) Between South Africa and its neighbours
( b ) Between men and women
( c ) Between the white majority and the black minority
( d ) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
Ans . ( d ) Between the coloured minority and the black majority .
3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic Constitution does not have ?
( a ) Powers of the head of the state
( b ) Name of the head of the state
( c ) Powers of the Legislature
( d ) Name of the country
Ans . ( b ) Name of the head of the state
4. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution
Ans . ( a ) – ( iv ) , ( b ) – ( iii ) , ( c ) – ( i ) , ( d ) – ( ii ) .
5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ” Tryst with Destiny ” and answer the following
( a ) Why did Nehru use the expression ” not wholly or in full measure ” in the first sentence ?
( b ) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take ?
( c ) ” The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye ” . Who was he referring to ?
Ans . ( a ) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru used the expression not wholly or in full measure ‘ because the task of building a large nation like India was a gigantic one which cannot even be completed in one’s lifetime and thus not yet complete .
( b ) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru wanted the makers of the Constitution to take a pledge of dedication to the service of the nation and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity .
( c ) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru was referring to Mahatma Gandhi .
6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meanings . Rewrite them by matching them correctly .
Ans . ( a ) – ( ii ) , ( b ) – ( iii ) , ( c ) – ( iv ) , ( d ) – ( i ) .
7. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy . How much importance would you give to each of these factors ?
( a ) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers . We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule .
( b ) Freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians . Free India could not be anything but democratic .
( c ) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions . The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders .
Ans . ( a ) Democracy in India was not a gift of the British rulers . It was decided by our Constituent Assembly that India will have a democratic form of government . At the same time we cannot ignore the fact that India received some training to work with representative legislative institutions under the Acts of 1919 and 1935 .
( b ) Freedom struggle against colonial exploitation contributed a lot to make India a democracy because it spread the idea of nationalism and inculcated the practice of making decisions by consensus .
( c ) India had leaders like Mahatma Gandhi , Jawaharlal Nehru , Dr BR Ambedkar , etc who were in favour of Democracy . They drafted a democratic constitution . Whereas leaders like Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana , General Musharraf of Pakistan and the military leaders of Myanmmar left democratic convictions and denied democracy . Thus , we are lucky to have the above mentioned leaders who propagated the idea of democracy .
8. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘ married women ‘ , published in 1912 . ‘ God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally , pitiably incapable of self – defence . They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection of father , husband and son – all their lives . Women should , therefore , not despair , but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men ‘ .
Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our Constitution ? Or does this go against the constitutional values ?
Ans . No , the values expressed in the above paragraph do not reflect the values underlying our Constitution .
It goes against the constitutional values because in this paragraph , women are shown as unequal , weak and fragile who should serve men , whereas the Constitution provides equality for both men and women . The governmental policies also favour women to bring them in mainstream .
9. Read the following statements about a constitution . Give reasons why each of these is true or not true . (
a ) The authority of the rules of the Constitution is the same as that of any other law .
( b ) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed .
( c ) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the Constitution .
( d ) A Constitution is about institutions , not about values .
Ans . ( a ) Not true Constitution is the Supreme law . It describes how government elects and their powers , rights of the citizens and their protection . This is totally different than any other law .
( b ) True Constitution defines the role of the Legislature , the executive and the Judiciary and how they should be formed and by whom .
( e ) True Constitution set up limits the power of government through different institutions and also talks about the right of citizens .
( d ) Not true The Constitution contains all the values and which the institutions have promote . The preamble to the Constitution is a shining example of this and states clearly that justice , liberty , equality and fraternity have to be promoted .
Check Your Progress on page 21
1. Does the story of South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian National Movement ? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points
( a ) Nature of colonialism
( b ) Relationship between different communities
( c ) Leadership : Gandhi / Mandela
( d ) Party that led the struggle : African National Congress / Indian National Congress
( e ) Method of struggle
Ans . Yes , the story of South African struggle for freedom reminds us of the Indian National Movement .
( a ) Nature of colonialism
Similarities During the 17th and 18th centuries , the trading companies from Europe occupied South Africa forcibly in the same way that they had occupied India .
Dissimilarities Unlike India , a large number of whites had settled in South Africa and became the local rulers .
( b ) Relationship between different communities
Similarities The white rulers treated all non – whites as inferiors in both the countries . The whites regarded Indians and Africans inferior and uncivilised people .
Dissimilarities The relationship between different religions and regional communities in India was cordial . They all believed themselves to be Indians . But in South Africa , different communities like the whites , blacks , coloured people and Indians did not have cordial relations or respect for each other .
( c ) Leadership : Gandhi / Mandela
Similarities Both were apostles of truth and non – violence .
Dissimilarities Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment ; though Gandhiji was also put behind the bars several times , he was not sentenced to life imprisonment .
( d ) Party that led the struggle : ANC / INC
Similarities Both the African National Congress ( ANC ) and the Indian National Congress ( INC ) were umbrella organisations working at national level .
Dissimilarities The purpose of both the parties was different . ANC was fighting against apartheid and the segregation policies of the racial African Government , whereas the INC was fighting against the British rule in India .
( e ) Method of struggle
Similarities Both the South African struggle and Indian National Movement followed the same policy , i.e. the policy of non – violence .
Dissimilarities In South Africa there was only one group , that of the moderates , who adopted peaceful means against the government , whereas in India besides the moderates , there were also the extremists , who used violent methods to attain their goal of freedom .
Question on page 22
2. This is not fair ! What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided ?
Ans . We cannot say that there was no point in having a Constituent Assembly to discuss and frame a Constitution if the basics had already been decided . The basics were relating to right to freedom , Universal Adult Franchise and Rights of Minorities , which are the basis of any democratic society .
These basics were the guiding principles which were further developed and expanded to establish a welfare state .
In a democracy , it is the Constituent Assembly which makes the Constitution with the help of the basics . So , the Constituent Assembly in India was established , even if all the basics were already decided .
Check Your Progress on page 25
3. Read the information about the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here . You don’t need to memorise this information . Just give examples from these to support the following statements
( a ) The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress .
( b ) The Assembly represented members from different social groups .
( c ) Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies .
Ans . ( a ) Sarat Chandra Bose ( 1889-1950 ) , Jaipal Singh
( 1903-70 ) , Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
( 1891-1956 ) , Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
( 1901-53 ) were not with the Congress .
( b ) Some members who represented different social groups were
( i ) Vallabhbhai Patel – Landlords
( ii ) Abul Kalam Azad – Muslims
( iii ) Jaipal Singh – Tribals
( iv ) Bhimrao Ranji Ambedkar – Depressed classes
( c ) The following members believed in different ideologies
( i ) Socialists and Communists – Pt Jawaharlal Nehru
( ii ) Gandhian ideals – K M Munshi
( iii ) Rightists – Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Check Your Progress on page 27
4. Read the three quotations carefully .
( i ) I shall strive for a constitution which will release India from all thralldom and patronage …. I shall work for an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice ; an India in which there shall be no high class and low class of people ; an India in which all communities shall live in perfect harmony . There can be no room in such an India for the curse of untouchability or the curse of the intoxicating drinks and drugs . Women will enjoy the same rights as men … I shall be satisfied with nothing else .
( ii ) On the 26th of January 1950 , we are going to enter a life of contradictions . In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality . In politics we will be recognising the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value . In our social and economic life , we shall , by reason of our social and economic structure , continue to deny the principle of one man one value . How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions ? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life ? If we continue to deny it for long , we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril .
( iii ) Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny , and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge , not wholly or in full measure , but very substantially . At the stroke of the midnight hour , when the world sleeps , India will awake to life and freedom . A moment comes , which comes but rarely in history , when we step out from the old to the new , when an age ends , and when the soul of a nation , long suppressed , finds utterance . It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity …… .
Freedom and power bring responsibility . The responsibility rests upon this Assembly , a sovereign body representing the sovereign . people of India . Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow . Some of those pains continue even now . Nevertheless , the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now .
That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfil the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today . The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer . It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity . The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye . That may be beyond us , but as long as there are tears and suffering , so long our work will not be over .
( a ) Can you identify central idea that is common to all these three quotations ?
Ans . The central idea that is common to all these three quotations is the ending of inequality in Indian society .
( b ) What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea ?
Ans . The differences in expressing their common ideas is given below
• Gandhiji strived for an India in which there should be no higher or lower class of people and all communities should live in perfect harmony .
• Dr BR Ambedkar felt that , in term of politics people would have equality but in social and economic life people would face inequality .
• Jawaharlal Nehru believed that the service of India meant the service of the millions who suffered . It meant ending of poverty , ignorance , disease and inequality of opportunity among the people . It was the duty of the leader to remove the sufferings of common men .
Check Your Progress on page 30
5. Compare the Preambles to the Constitutions of the United States of America , India and South Africa .
( a ) Make a list of ideas that are common to all these three .
Ans . The ideas that are common to all these three are
( i ) Each of these Preambles starts with , ” We , the people . ” It means , the source of all authority to govern these countries are the people of these countries .
( ii ) In all these three , the idea of justice is embodied .
( b ) Note down at least one of the major differences among them .
Ans . In the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States , there is a statement for the formation of a more perfect union , which is not there in the Preambles to the Indian and South African Constitutions .
( c ) Which of the three makes a reference to the past ?
Ans . The Preamble to the Constitution of South Africa makes a reference to the past .
( d ) Which of these does not invoke God ?
Ans . The Preambles to the Constitutions of the United States and India do not invoke God . Both the Preambles suggest that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion . There is no official religion .
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