NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

Exercise Questions

Write in brief

Q. 1. Explain :

( a ) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti – colonial movement .

( b ) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India .

( c ) Why were the Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?

( d ) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement ?

Ans . ( a ) Nationalism is a strong feeling of oneness which the people feel when they live under the same political , social and economic system . The growth of nationalism is intimately connected to the Anti – colonial Movement .

The colonial powers exploit the people of their colonies , so much that all sections of the people decide to throw off the foreign rulers .

In India , the growing anger against the colonial government brought together various groups and classes into a common struggle for freedom .

Moreover , the oppressed people realised that it was necessary to fight colonial rule to restore their glorious past and their freedom .

Thus , what started as anti – colonial movement turned into nationalist movement . Everybody had his own interpretation of anti – colonialism , but the ultimate aim was to get rid of them . This single point was the unifying factor for diverse mass of India . Finally , the idea of India as a nation started to emerge .

( b ) The first World War created a new economic and political situation which led to increase in defence expenditure . This expenditure increased was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes . Moreover ,

( i ) Price hike during the war years ( 1914-1918 ) led to extreme hardships for commoners .

( ii ) Villagers and farmers were forcefully recruited in the British army , this caused widespread anger .

( iii ) Incidents such as implementation of Rowlatt Act , Jallianwala Bagh massacre , martial law in Punjab , disintegration of the Ottoman Empire , further aggravated the situation , resulting in the emergence of the national movement .

( c ) Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919. This act had been hurriedly passed through the imperial legislative council despite the opposition from the Indian members . Under this act , the police could arrest anybody and put in prison for two years . Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi , condemned it as a black legislation and strongly opposed this act . The provisions of this act outraged Indians . Meetings were held everywhere and processions were taken out . It was the first time when the Indians unitedly opposed the Britishers .

( d ) Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non – cooperation movement because the movement took a violent turn at Chauri – Chaura , Uttar Pradesh where the people set on fire a police station in which 22-23 policemen were burnt alive in 1922. Gandhiji wanted to stop violence at any cost .

Q.2 . What is meant by the idea of satyagraha ?

Ans . Satyagraha is a method of agitation and protest based on truth and non – violence . It was first introduced by Mahatma Gandhi in the national movement . The method was passive resistance , consisting of defiance of laws , non – payment of taxes , boycott of government institutions etc.

First , Gandhiji applied satyagraha in 1916 in Champaran district of Bihar to help the peasants against the unjust plantation owners . Then he organised satyagraha in Kheda district of Gujarat in support of peasants in 1917 and also in Ahmedabad . in favour of cotton mill workers in 1918 .

Q. 3 . Write a newspaper report on :

( a ) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

( b ) The Simon Commission

Ans . ( a ) Jallianwala bagh is situated in Amritsar ( Punjab ) .Here as a mark of protest against the Rowlatt Act , a peaceful assembly was going on . People from many surrounding villages were participating . Some came here to attend the annual Baisakhi fair . This garden is closed from three sides and has only one entrance . In order to terrorise the people General Dyer entered the park with troops .

Without giving any warning to the people , he ordered his sepoys to fire at them . In this fire , many people were killed and wounded .

( b ) Simon commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with black flags and slogans like ” Simon go back ” . Both congress and Muslim league protested against it .

This commission was boycotted with the Indian people as it did not include any Indian member in it . Also , the commission did not give any hope for ” Swaraj to Indians . “

Q.4 . Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1 .

Ans . Germania was the allegory used for German nation . In visual representations , Germania wears a crown of oak leaves , as the German oak stands for heroism .

It was in the twentieth century , with the growth of nationalism , that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata . The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay . In the 1870s he wrote ‘ Vande Mataram ‘ as a hymn to the motherland . Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal . Moved by the Swadeshi movement , Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata . In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure ; she is calm , composed , divine and spiritual . In subsequent years , the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms , as it circulated in popular prints , and was painted by different artists . Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism .


Q. 1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non – Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement .

Ans . The non – cooperation , khilafat movement started . in January 1921. Various social groups which joined the non – cooperation movement were :

( i ) Middle class people in towns : In towns , middle class people who consisted of students , teachers and lawyers responded to the clarion call of non cooperation and boycott . They saw the movement as a passport to freedom from foreign rule . They boycotted foreign goods and clothes and liquor shops were picketed .

( ii ) Plantation workers : They participated in the movement with the hope that they would be free to move out of the confined space in which they had been enclosed . They hoped that Gandhi raj was coming , and everyone would be given land in his own country .

( iii ) Peasants and Tribal people : In various places , peasants and tribals also participated in the movement . The movement was launched against the talukdars and landlords . For them , Swaraj meant that they would not be required to pay land dues i.e. , land revenue and the land they were cultivating would be distributed against them . When the colonial government began forcing the tribal people to contribute ” begar ( free labour ) ” for road building , they revolted .

( iv ) Business class people : In many places , merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade . The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 , its value dropped from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees .

Q. 2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism .

Ans . Salt march was an effective symbol or tool for resistance against colonialism because :

( i ) All classes could identify with salt as it was an essential food item .

( ii ) Tax on salt and monopoly over its manufacturing was a sign of the oppression of British rule . Gandhiji reached Dandi on 6th April , 1930 and violated salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water .

Breaking the salt law was an apparent defiance of British authority and was a direct challenge to British rule in India . People were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British , but to break the unjustified colonial law .

Thousands of the people from different parts of the country broke salt law , manufactured it point and demonstrated in front of government salt factories . With the spread of movement foreign cloth was boycotted , liquor shops were picketed , peasants refused to pay revenue , chaukidari taxes , village officials resigned , forest people violated forest laws by collecting wood and grazing their cattle in the forest . In this way , salt march inspired dan people from different segments of our society and became our effective tool of resistance against the colonial power .

Q. 3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement . Explain what the experience meant to your life .

Ans . I am very happy to participate in the civil disobedience movement because I understood that I had to serve the nation in whatever capacity I could . I had heard Gandhiji speaking and asking or us to participate in this movement . Inspired by him , I also offered satyagraha , picketed liquor shops and shops selling foreign cloth and also courted arrest . I felt empowered by these activities and felt that women also could help the men actively in the ultimate goal of achieving independence from the British . This also has made me realise that women also have an important role to play in realising our freedom .

Q. 4 . Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?

Ans . Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because :

( i ) The Britishers sowed in the seeds of ” Divide and rule ” , which would weaken the national movement .

( ii ) The Muslim leaders thought that their interest could only be protected in a Muslim state , and in Hindu majority state , they would be at the mercy of Hindus .

( iii ) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar , the leader of oppressed class was in favour of separate electorates for his community but Gandhiji believed that separate electorate for dalits would slow down their integration into society . Later , Ambedkar accepted Gandhiji’s position and signed “ Poona pact . ”

Intext Questions

Q.1 . Read the text carefully . What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance ? [ Activity , Page no . 31 ] 

Ans . What Gandhiji meant by about satyagraha being an active resistance was that it requires a lot of soul force activity . It involves very great sacrifices to be made , which can be done only by strong – willed persons . It requires resistance to oppression without using any force . The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth . It suggested that if the cause was true , if the struggle was against injustice , then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor . Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive , a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence .

This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor . People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth , instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence . By this struggle , truth was bound to ultimately win .

Q. 2. If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920 , how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj ? Give reasons for your response . [ Activity , Page no . 35 ]

Ans . I would have responded by participating in the peasant’s movement by demanding reduction of revenue and abolition of begar also . I would have socially boycotted the oppressive landlords . As a peasant , this would have been my way of responding to the Gandhi’s call for swaraj .

Q. 3. Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British . Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo – China . [ Activity , Page no . 36 ]

Ans . Participants in the national movement who were captured and put to death by Britishers were – Bhagat Singh , Sukhdev , Rajguru , Chandra Shekhar Azad , Lala Lajpat Rai , Khudiram Bose , Madan Lal Dhingra .

Q.4 . Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ?  [ Discuss , Page no . 45 ] 

Ans . Covered in NCERT Exercise Questions .

Q. 5. Read the Source D carefully . Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism ? Can you define communalism in a different way ? [ Discuss , page no . 45 ]

Ans . No , I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism . He believed that it is the quest of the community to develop on its own lines . He believed the religion is the basis on which thinking and behaviour are based . He felt that religion gives a person a common culture and literature . He believed in the concept that Hindus and Muslims should exist as separate entities in India . This line of thinking encouraged separatism and ultimately led to the partition of the country .

We nowadays , understand communalism as having negative connotation i.e. , it is understood as conflict between people of two religions which can often lead to violence .

Activity ( Page no . 48 )

Q. 6. Look at Figs . 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities ? Explain your views briefly .

Ans . These images are of Hindu goddesses , so it will certainly appeal to Hindus but not to other caste and communities . India is inhabited by people from various communities and castes and they may have objections to these images . Since India is a secular country so an image which is loved by all the people would have been better .



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