Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
|1. Exercise Questions
|2. Intext Questions
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
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Q. 1. Explain :
( a ) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti – colonial movement .
( b ) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India .
( c ) Why were the Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?
( d ) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement ?
Ans . ( a ) Nationalism is a strong feeling of oneness which the people feel when they live under the same political , social and economic system . The growth of nationalism is intimately connected to the Anti – colonial Movement .
The colonial powers exploit the people of their colonies , so much that all sections of the people decide to throw off the foreign rulers .
In India , the growing anger against the colonial government brought together various groups and classes into a common struggle for freedom .
Moreover , the oppressed people realised that it was necessary to fight colonial rule to restore their glorious past and their freedom .
Thus , what started as anti – colonial movement turned into nationalist movement . Everybody had his own interpretation of anti – colonialism , but the ultimate aim was to get rid of them . This single point was the unifying factor for diverse mass of India . Finally , the idea of India as a nation started to emerge .
( b ) The first World War created a new economic and political situation which led to increase in defence expenditure . This expenditure increased was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes . Moreover ,
( i ) Price hike during the war years ( 1914-1918 ) led to extreme hardships for commoners .
( ii ) Villagers and farmers were forcefully recruited in the British army , this caused widespread anger .
( iii ) Incidents such as implementation of Rowlatt Act , Jallianwala Bagh massacre , martial law in Punjab , disintegration of the Ottoman Empire , further aggravated the situation , resulting in the emergence of the national movement .
( c ) Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919. This act had been hurriedly passed through the imperial legislative council despite the opposition from the Indian members . Under this act , the police could arrest anybody and put in prison for two years . Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi , condemned it as a black legislation and strongly opposed this act . The provisions of this act outraged Indians . Meetings were held everywhere and processions were taken out . It was the first time when the Indians unitedly opposed the Britishers .
( d ) Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non – cooperation movement because the movement took a violent turn at Chauri – Chaura , Uttar Pradesh where the people set on fire a police station in which 22-23 policemen were burnt alive in 1922. Gandhiji wanted to stop violence at any cost .
Q.2 . What is meant by the idea of satyagraha ?
Ans . Satyagraha is a method of agitation and protest based on truth and non – violence . It was first introduced by Mahatma Gandhi in the national movement . The method was passive resistance , consisting of defiance of laws , non – payment of taxes , boycott of government institutions etc.
First , Gandhiji applied satyagraha in 1916 in Champaran district of Bihar to help the peasants against the unjust plantation owners . Then he organised satyagraha in Kheda district of Gujarat in support of peasants in 1917 and also in Ahmedabad . in favour of cotton mill workers in 1918 .
Q. 3 . Write a newspaper report on :
( a ) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
( b ) The Simon Commission
Ans . ( a ) Jallianwala bagh is situated in Amritsar ( Punjab ) .Here as a mark of protest against the Rowlatt Act , a peaceful assembly was going on . People from many surrounding villages were participating . Some came here to attend the annual Baisakhi fair . This garden is closed from three sides and has only one entrance . In order to terrorise the people General Dyer entered the park with troops .
Without giving any warning to the people , he ordered his sepoys to fire at them . In this fire , many people were killed and wounded .
( b ) Simon commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with black flags and slogans like ” Simon go back ” . Both congress and Muslim league protested against it .
This commission was boycotted with the Indian people as it did not include any Indian member in it . Also , the commission did not give any hope for ” Swaraj to Indians . “
Q.4 . Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1 .
Ans . Germania was the allegory used for German nation . In visual representations , Germania wears a crown of oak leaves , as the German oak stands for heroism .
It was in the twentieth century , with the growth of nationalism , that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata . The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay . In the 1870s he wrote ‘ Vande Mataram ‘ as a hymn to the motherland . Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal . Moved by the Swadeshi movement , Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata . In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure ; she is calm , composed , divine and spiritual . In subsequent years , the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms , as it circulated in popular prints , and was painted by different artists . Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism .
Q. 1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non – Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement .
Ans . The non – cooperation , khilafat movement started . in January 1921. Various social groups which joined the non – cooperation movement were :
( i ) Middle class people in towns : In towns , middle class people who consisted of students , teachers and lawyers responded to the clarion call of non cooperation and boycott . They saw the movement as a passport to freedom from foreign rule . They boycotted foreign goods and clothes and liquor shops were picketed .
( ii ) Plantation workers : They participated in the movement with the hope that they would be free to move out of the confined space in which they had been enclosed . They hoped that Gandhi raj was coming , and everyone would be given land in his own country .
( iii ) Peasants and Tribal people : In various places , peasants and tribals also participated in the movement . The movement was launched against the talukdars and landlords . For them , Swaraj meant that they would not be required to pay land dues i.e. , land revenue and the land they were cultivating would be distributed against them . When the colonial government began forcing the tribal people to contribute ” begar ( free labour ) ” for road building , they revolted .
( iv ) Business class people : In many places , merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade . The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 , its value dropped from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees .
Q. 2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism .
Ans . Salt march was an effective symbol or tool for resistance against colonialism because :
( i ) All classes could identify with salt as it was an essential food item .
( ii ) Tax on salt and monopoly over its manufacturing was a sign of the oppression of British rule . Gandhiji reached Dandi on 6th April , 1930 and violated salt law by manufacturing salt from sea water .
Breaking the salt law was an apparent defiance of British authority and was a direct challenge to British rule in India . People were not only asked to refuse cooperation with the British , but to break the unjustified colonial law .
Thousands of the people from different parts of the country broke salt law , manufactured it point and demonstrated in front of government salt factories . With the spread of movement foreign cloth was boycotted , liquor shops were picketed , peasants refused to pay revenue , chaukidari taxes , village officials resigned , forest people violated forest laws by collecting wood and grazing their cattle in the forest . In this way , salt march inspired dan people from different segments of our society and became our effective tool of resistance against the colonial power .
Q. 3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement . Explain what the experience meant to your life .
Ans . I am very happy to participate in the civil disobedience movement because I understood that I had to serve the nation in whatever capacity I could . I had heard Gandhiji speaking and asking or us to participate in this movement . Inspired by him , I also offered satyagraha , picketed liquor shops and shops selling foreign cloth and also courted arrest . I felt empowered by these activities and felt that women also could help the men actively in the ultimate goal of achieving independence from the British . This also has made me realise that women also have an important role to play in realising our freedom .
Q. 4 . Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?
Ans . Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because :
( i ) The Britishers sowed in the seeds of ” Divide and rule ” , which would weaken the national movement .
( ii ) The Muslim leaders thought that their interest could only be protected in a Muslim state , and in Hindu majority state , they would be at the mercy of Hindus .
( iii ) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar , the leader of oppressed class was in favour of separate electorates for his community but Gandhiji believed that separate electorate for dalits would slow down their integration into society . Later , Ambedkar accepted Gandhiji’s position and signed “ Poona pact . ”
Q.1 . Read the text carefully . What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance ? [ Activity , Page no . 31 ]
Ans . What Gandhiji meant by about satyagraha being an active resistance was that it requires a lot of soul force activity . It involves very great sacrifices to be made , which can be done only by strong – willed persons . It requires resistance to oppression without using any force . The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth . It suggested that if the cause was true , if the struggle was against injustice , then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor . Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive , a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence .
This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor . People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth , instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence . By this struggle , truth was bound to ultimately win .
Q. 2. If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920 , how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj ? Give reasons for your response . [ Activity , Page no . 35 ]
Ans . I would have responded by participating in the peasant’s movement by demanding reduction of revenue and abolition of begar also . I would have socially boycotted the oppressive landlords . As a peasant , this would have been my way of responding to the Gandhi’s call for swaraj .
Q. 3. Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British . Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo – China . [ Activity , Page no . 36 ]
Ans . Participants in the national movement who were captured and put to death by Britishers were – Bhagat Singh , Sukhdev , Rajguru , Chandra Shekhar Azad , Lala Lajpat Rai , Khudiram Bose , Madan Lal Dhingra .
Q.4 . Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ? [ Discuss , Page no . 45 ]
Ans . Covered in NCERT Exercise Questions .
Q. 5. Read the Source D carefully . Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism ? Can you define communalism in a different way ? [ Discuss , page no . 45 ]
Ans . No , I do not agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism . He believed that it is the quest of the community to develop on its own lines . He believed the religion is the basis on which thinking and behaviour are based . He felt that religion gives a person a common culture and literature . He believed in the concept that Hindus and Muslims should exist as separate entities in India . This line of thinking encouraged separatism and ultimately led to the partition of the country .
We nowadays , understand communalism as having negative connotation i.e. , it is understood as conflict between people of two religions which can often lead to violence .
Activity ( Page no . 48 )
Q. 6. Look at Figs . 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities ? Explain your views briefly .
Ans . These images are of Hindu goddesses , so it will certainly appeal to Hindus but not to other caste and communities . India is inhabited by people from various communities and castes and they may have objections to these images . Since India is a secular country so an image which is loved by all the people would have been better .
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