Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
Q.1 . Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century , choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas .
Ans . Two examples of different types of global exchanges were :
( i ) Before the 17th century , China exported silk and pottery to Europe in exchange for gold and silver from Europe . This trade was carried out using the traditional silk routes .
( ii ) Many common food items like potatoes , soya , groundnuts , maize , tomatoes , chillies and sweet potatoes were introduced into Europe from America , after it was discovered by Christopher Columbus in the end of 15th century .
Q. 2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre – modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas .
Ans . The Portuguese and the Spanish had a strong fire power and army . But along with these , germs and viruses helped them in conquering parts of Americas .
As Americas was isolated earlier , the original inhabitants had no immunity against the germs . and viruses present in Europe .
The diseases once introduced , spread very fast . The disease like smallpox affected whole communities that were paving the way for the conquest of the colonisers .
These germs were more dangerous as compared to guns and firearms because guns could be bought or captured , but there was no ways to escape from these diseases .
Thus , the Portuguese and Spanish colonisers conquered the local population easily to enable the colonisation of Americas .
Q. 3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following :
( a ) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws .
( b ) The coming of rinderpest to Africa .
( c ) The death of men of working – age in Europe because of the World War .
( d ) The Great Depression in the Indian economy .
( e ) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries .
Ans . ( a ) After the abolition of Corn Laws , food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country . Due to this , farmers did not grow corn , leaving the land uncultivated . This resulted in unemployment on a large scale and the people started migrating to the cities or migrating overseas , looking for work .
( b ) The coming of rinderpest to Africa caused a loss of livelihood for countless Africans . Rinderpest was a cattle plague spread by Asian cattle taken to Africa to feed the Italian soldiers by the European colonisers .
The disease affected the African cattle , which spread like forest fire . Rinderpest killed 90 percent of the cattle . This virtually destroyed the African economic system based on cattle and land .
Africans , who worked rearing cattle were unemployed and forced to earn their livelihood . by working in mines and on plantations set – up by Europeans .
Using this situation to their advantage , colonising nations successfully monopolised cattle resources . By this , they strengthen their power and forced Africans into labour market .
( c ) After the First World War , most men of working age were either injured or dead . Those deaths and injuries reduced the workforce of the able bodied people with fewer members in the family . Thus , household incomes declined after the war .
( d ) The great depression immediately affected Indian trade in agriculture goods . Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934 .
As international prices crashed , prices in India also plunged . Wheat prices fell in India by 50 percent and prices of raw jute crashed by 60 percent . Peasants and farmers were worst hit . The colonial government refuse to reduce revenue demands in spite of this . The jute producers of Bengal faced a severe loss . The depression less affected urban land owners and salaried people who had fixed income .
( e ) Wages are relatively low in Asian countries due to excess supply of workers and a lower standard of living . Thus , they become attractive destination for investments by foreign MNCs competing to capture world markets . Most of the economies of Asian countries have a low cost structure .
Most of these countries also have a huge market . The low cost structure of these economies enabled mass production at a much lower cost . It led to a stimulation of world trade and capital flow . It benefitted the Asian countries by increase of employment and a quick economic transformation .
Q.4 . Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability .
Ans . Two examples of impact of food technology on food availability :
( i ) The technique of cold storage and use of refrigerated ships boosted the export of perishable foods over long distances . Meat exported from America , Australia and New Zealand could be sent to Europe where meat was not available easily or cheaply .
( ii ) Faster railways , larger ships and lighter wagons enabled cheaper and quicker movement of perishable foodstuffs from far away farms to their final markets . Now the poor in Europe could add meat ( even butter and eggs ) to their daily diet .
Q. 5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?
Ans . The Bretton Woods Conference was held in July of 1944 at Bretton Woods in Hampshire , USA . Under this system , the international monetary fund ( IMF ) and international bank of reconstruction and development ( IBRD ) popularly known as world bank were established .
Their objective was to preserve global economic stability and full employment in the industrialised world .
The IMF and World Bank are referred as Bretton Woods institutions or Bretton Woods twins .
Q. 6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean . Drawing from the details in this chapter , write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings .
Ans . To ,
XYZ , Block C – 69 , Vasant kunj
I am working in Trinidad ( Caribbean ) as an indentured labourer . Through this letter , I want to tell you about my hard ship and misbehaviour of the contractor towards me . The contractor at the time of hiring did not provide the correct information regarding place of work , mode of travel and living and working conditions .
Very few legal rights are provided to us . The contractor uses harsh and abusive language at the work site . He treats us like coolies and we are an uneasy minority in the cocoa plantation in Trinidad . Whenever I do not attend my work , I am prosecuted and sent to jail . There is lot of work at the plantations with heavy work load and sometimes I have to finish all of it in one day .
In case of unsatisfactory work ( in the contractor’s thinking ) , my wages are cut .
I am living a life of slave and is in great trouble .
Q. 7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange . Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians , and write a short account of it .
Ans . The three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange are :
( i ) Flow of trade : This refers to trade in goods like wheat , cotton etc. Historically fine cotton cloth was produced in India by weavers and exported to European countries . But when the industrial revolution started in Europe and the European countries imposed tariff barriers , the export of textiles dropped drastically . In fact , India started exporting raw cotton and importing mill – made cloth from England .
( ii ) Flow of Labour : This refers to migration of people in search of employment . During the 19th century , a large number of Indian labourers migrated to Africa , the West Indies and other countries . They migrated to work on plantations , in mines , railways and road construction projects set up by the Europeans .
( iii ) Flow of capital : This refers to the movement of capital over long distances for short term and long term investments . Groups of Indian financers , traders like the Shroffs , Chettiars , etc financed agriculture and plantations in various Asian and African Countries . They use their own funds or those borrowed from European banks .
Q. 8 . Explain the causes of the Great Depression .
Ans . Covered in the self assessment part . 2 , Q. No. 11
Q. 9 . Explain what is referred to as the G – 77 countries . In what ways can G – 77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins ?
Ans . The developing countries did not benefit from the economic growth of the developed countries . To remove this disparity , these 77 countries organised themselves into a group called the G – 77 countries .
Later on , more developing countries joined the group and now it consists of about 130 countries . They have demanded a new international economic order ( NIEO ) in which they have a real control over their natural resources .
By NIEO , they get more development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials , and better access to the markets in developed countries for their manufactured goods . G – 77 is seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins , because the Bretton Woods twins , IMF and world Bank were mainly set up to favour the developed nations .
They did not help the developing nations significantly as both of these institutions controlled their investment in the developing countries . So , the developing countries decided to set up their own group , the G – 77 .
Q. 1. Explain what we mean when we say that the world’shrank ‘ in the 1500s . [ Discuss , Page no . 56 ]
Ans . The world shrank in 1500s can be understood as :
( i ) Europeans discovered the sea route to Asia and trade activities increased between Europe and Asia .
( ii ) The American continent was discovered only when the sea route through the Atlantic ocean to America was found .
Due to the above mentioned factors there was an increased interaction among people living in different continents of the world , thereby causing the world to shrink in a metaphorical term .
Activity ( Page no . 59 )
Q. 2. Imagine that you are an agricultural worker who has arrived in America from Ireland . Write a paragraph on why you chose to come here and how y you are earning your living .
Ans . The potato crop failed in Ireland last year and I was reduced to poverty . There was no food to eat and I had no money . The cities were very crowded and many diseases were prevalent . I immigrated to America for a better future . Here , I am earning my living as an agricultural labourer in a big wheat farm . I get a regular salary and I am happy that I left Ireland .
Q. 3. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity . [ Discuss , Page no . 64 ]
Ans . A person is identified as belonging to a particular nation by his cultural traditions and the language that he speaks . The language as well as the traditional practices usually develop and get established over a long period of time . They gave an identity to the individual wherever he is . For example , A French man will speak the French language . He will also follow French customs and traditions wherever he is in the world as he would have imbibed them in his family from his childhood days . He will be identified as a French national everywhere .
Q. 4. Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers ‘ lament ? Explain . [ Discuss , Page no . 73 ]
Ans . The jute growers ‘ lament was that only traders and moneylenders profited from the jute cultivation and not the jute growers . Peasants from Bengal cultivated raw jute which was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags . But as gunny exports collapsed , the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent . Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced ever lower prices , and fell deeper and deeper into debt .
Q. 5. Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter – war economic experience ? [ Discuss , Page no . 75 ]
Ans . The two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter – war economic experience are :
( i ) An industrial society based on large production is unstable without consumption on a large scale . For this , high and stable incomes through full employment are necessary . But markets alone could not guarantee full employment . Therefore governments would have to step in to minimise fluctuations of price , output and employment . Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government .
( ii ) The second lesson related to a country’s economic links with the outside world . The goal of full employment could only be achieved if governments had power to control flows of goods , capital and labour .
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