Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022 (Solved)
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Sample Question Papers for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022
- The paper has 14 questions.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section A-Question number 1 and 2 are one-mark source based questions. The answer to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
- Section B-Question number 3 to 9 are two-marks questions. These are very short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
- Section C-Question number 10 to 12 are four-marks questions. These are short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
- Section D-Question number 13 and 14 are six-marks questions. These are long answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 200 words.
Section – A
(1 Mark each)
1. “Cities had a key role in the economic system of empires. Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured. From here primary commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported. Colonial cities were the prime link between the economic centre or core in Britain and the periphery or margins in colonised India. Cities in this sense were the concrete expression of global capitalism. In British India, for example, Bombay was planned and re-developed so that by 1900 over three-quarters of India’s raw cotton was shipped through the city. Calcutta exported jute to Dundee while Madras sent coffee, sugar, indigo dyes and cotton to Britain.
Read the source and answer the following question. 1
How did the cities contribute to the economic system during industrialisation?
2. There is a close connection between agriculture and culture. The nature and practice of agriculture vary greatly across the different regions of the country. These variations are reflected in the different regional cultures. One can say that both the culture and social structure in rural India are closely bound up with the agricultural and the agrarian way of life.
Read the source and answer the following question. 1
How is “Is agriculture connected to culture? Justify your answer.”
Section – B
(2 Marks each)
3. Rural life also supported many other specialists and crafts persons as storytellers, astrologers, priests, water-distributors, and oil-pressers. The diversity of occupations in rural India was reflected in the caste system, which in most regions included specialist and ‘service’ castes.
(i) What are the other activities that support agriculture? 2
(ii) How does the caste system affect occupation in Indian society?
4. The value of education became very important. It was seen as very crucial for a nation to become modern but also retain its ancient heritage. The idea of female education was debated intensely. It was the social reformer Jyotiba Phule who opened the first school for women in Pune.
(i) Why was women’s education considered important? 2
(ii) Why was the idea of female education debated intensely?
5. Explain Karl Marx’s concept of alienation. 2
6. Why does a social movement arise? Explain using examples. Also write its aim. 2
7. What does the theory of relative deprivation emphasise? 2
8. What do you understand by the term ‘organised sector’? 2
What was the status of women with respect to ownership of land in rural India?
9. State the difference between modernisation and westernisation. 2
Section – C
(4 Marks each)
10. What is the role of agricultural labourers under the agrarian structure? What is meant by the term agrarian structure? Explain the challenges faced by the agricultural labourers. 4
11. How did the policy of liberalisation affect the private sector in India? 4
Discuss the impact of disinvestment on employees.
12. Analyse the redemptive and reformist types of social movements in detail. 4
Section – C
(6 Marks each)
13. Elaborate the features of Social Movement. 6
What is Sanskritisation? Elucidate the criticisms of M. N. Srinivas concept of Sanskritisation.
14. How were labourers recruited in the tea industry in Assam? 6
Solution of Sample Paper
Section – A
1. They were the prime link between the economic centre of Britain and the periphery or margins in colonised India. 1
2. In rural India it can be observed that the culture and social structure are closely bounded with the agrarian way of life. Thus, we can say that agriculture and culture are closely connected. 1
Section – B
3. (i) The activities that support agriculture and village life are artisans such as potters, carpenters, weavers, ironsmiths, and goldsmiths.
(ii) The caste system restricts the occupation choices in the rural society of India. Most of the lower castes are confined to low paying jobs like barber, washerman , while the upper castes are mostly rich landowners. 1+1=2
4. (i) Reformers argued that for a society to progress women have to be educated. It was seen as very crucial for a nation to become modern.
(ii) Reformers argued that for a society to progress women have to be educated. Some of them believed that in pre-modern India, women were educated while the others contested this on the grounds that this was so only for a privileged few.
Thus, attempts to justify female education were made by debating both modern and traditional ideas. 1+1=2
5. (i) Industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour. People often do not see the result of their work because they are producing only one small part of a product.
(ii) The work is often repetitive and exhausting. 2
6. (i) Social movements often arise to bring about changes on a public issue.
(ii) For example, ensuring the right of the tribal population to use the forests or the right of displaced people to settlement and compensation. 2
7. (i) According to the theory of relative deprivation, social conflict arises when a social group feels that it is worse off than others around it.
(ii) This theory emphasises the role of psychological factors such as resentment and rage in inciting social movements. 2
8. Organised sector refers to those companies which are registered with the government. People get assured work and the employment terms are fixed and regular. In unorganised sector, there is no job security, stable income, social benefits and no scope for trade unions. 2
(i) Inmost regions women were excluded from ownership of land due to patrilineal kinship system and mode of inheritance.
(ii) Although according to the law, women are now eligible for an equal share of family property but in reality they only have limited rights
9. (i) Westernization refers to the emergence of a westernised sub-cultural pattern through a minority section of Indians who first came in contact with Western culture.
(ii) Modernisation referred to improvement in technology and production processes. Increasingly, however, the term had a wider usage. It referred to the path of development that much of West Europe or North America has taken. 2
Section – C
10. (i) The term agrarian structure is often used to refer to the structure or distribution of landholding.
(ii) In the rural areas, there are many agricultural labourers.
(iii) Agricultural labourers are more often paid below the statutory minimum wage and earn very little. The employment of agricultural labourer is insecure.
(iv) Most agricultural labourers are daily-wage workers and do not have work for many days of the year. This is known as seasonal unemployment. Thus, they are poor also. 4
11. Since the 1990s, however, the government has followed a policy of liberalisation. Private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power; etc. Licenses are no longer required to open industries. Foreign products are now easily available in Indian shops. At the same time, some Indian companies are becoming multinational companies. The first instance was is when Parle drinks was bought by Coca Cola. 4
Many public-sector employees are afraid that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs. For example, when Modern Foods, which was set up by the government to make healthy bread available at cheap prices, was the first company to be privatised, more than 55 per cent of the workers were forced to retire in the first few years.
However, in the agricultural sector, as well as the service sector, such as shops, banks, the IT sector, hotels and other sectors do not share such problems.
12. A redemptive social movement mms to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its members. For instance, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala were led by Narayana Guru to change their social practices. Reformist social movements strive to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual, incremental steps. The 1960s movement for the reorganisation of Indian states based on language and the recent Right to Information campaign are examples of reformist movements. 4
Section – D
13. A social movement has the following characteristics and requirements:
• Sustained collective and organised action over a long period of time. It is often directed against the State, demanding changes in the State policy or practice.
• Leadership and a structure that defines how members relate to each other, make decisions and carry them out.
• Shared objectives and ideologies. A social movement has a general orientation or way of approaching to bring about (or to prevent) change. These defining features are not constant. They may change over the course of a social movement’s life.
• Aims to bring about changes on a public issue, such as ensuring the right of the tribal population to use the forests or the right of displaced people to settlement and compensation.
• The activists carry it out by holding meetings to mobilise people, lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion, distinct modes of protest. This could be candle and torch light processions, use of black cloth, street theatres, songs, poetry.
• Social movements cannot change society easily. Since it goes against both existing status quo, interests and values, it is faced with opposition and resistance.
It should be kept in mind that any social movement may acquire any local feature also. 6
(i) Sanskritisation is the process by which a ‘low’ caste or tribe or other group takes up the customs, ritual, beliefs, ideology and style of life of a high and, in particular, a ‘twice-born (dwija) caste’.
(ii) Sanskritisation as a concept has been criticised at different levels. One, it has been criticised for exaggerating social mobility or the scope of ‘lower castes’ to move up the social ladder. In other words inequality continues to persist though some individuals may be able to improve their positions within the unequal structure.
(iii) Two, it has been pointed out that the ideology of sanskritisation accepts the ways of the ‘upper caste’ as superior and that of the ‘lower caste’ as inferior.
(iv) Third, ‘sanskritisation’ seems to justify a model that rests on inequality and exclusion. It appears to suggest that to believe in pollution and purity of groups of people is justifiable or all right.
(v) Fourth, since sanskritisation results in the adoption of upper caste rites and rituals it leads to practices of secluding girls and women, adopting dowry practices and practising caste discrimination against other groups, etc.
(vi) Fifth, the effect of such a trend is that the key characteristics of dalit culture and society have eroded. For example, the very worth of labour which, ‘lower castes’ do is degraded and rendered ‘shameful’.
14. Tea industry began in India in 1851. Most of the tea gardens were situated in Assam. In 1903, the industry employed 4,79,000 permanent and 93,000 temporary employees. Since, Assam was sparsely populated and the tea plantations were often located on uninhabited hill sides, the labourers had to be imported from other provinces. But, to bring thousands of people every year from their far-off homes into strange lands, possessing an unhealthy climate and infected with strange fevers, required the provision of financial and other Incentives, which the tea-planters of Assam were unwilling to offer. Instead, they had recourse to fraud and coercion; and they persuaded the government to aid and abet them in this unholy task by passing penal laws. The recruitment of labourers for tea gardens of Assam was carried on for years mostly by contractors under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863 of Bengal as amended in 1865, 1870 and 1873. This labour system was basically that of indenture by which the labourers went to Assam under contract for a number of years, The government helped the planters by providing for penal sanction in case of non-fulfillment of the contract by the labourers. 6