Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022 (Solved)
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Sample Question Papers for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022
- The paper has 14 questions.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section A-Question number 1 and 2 are one-mark source based questions. The answer to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
- Section B-Question number 3 to 9 are two-marks questions. These are very short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
- Section C-Question number 10 to 12 are four-marks questions. These are short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
- Section D-Question number 13 and 14 are six-marks questions. These are long answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 200 words.
Section – A
(1 Mark each)
1. “The rough correspondence between caste and class means that typically the upper and middle castes also had the best access to land and resources and hence, to power and privilege.”
What were the consequences of such differences between caste and class? 1
2. “Britain, where the impact of industrialization led to more people moving into urban areas, in India the initial impact of the same British industrialization led to more people moving into agriculture.”
Industrialization and urbanization were different in India than in Britain. Explain. 1
Section – B
(2 Marks each)
3. Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, the emission of gases and ventilation failures. 1+1
(i) Elaborate on the struggles and consequences of working in underground mines.
(ii) What does ‘The Mines Act 1952’ imply?
4. The varied social reform movements did have common themes. Yet, there were also significant differences. 1+1
(i) Discuss some of those differences.
(ii) Who debated the issue of polygamy and purdah?
5. What is the difference between social change and social movements? Give one example. 2
6. What are the different types of social movements? Define them with examples. 2
7. Discuss the migration of people with reference to colonialism. 2
8. Sanskritisation as a concept has been criticized at different levels. Give any two points. 2
What does the word Secularization imply?
9. Why are long working hours central to the industry’s work culture? State your reasons. 2
Section – C
(4 Marks each)
10. Often Westernization among the middle class makes generational difference more complex. Elaborate. 4
11. Is agriculture the only source of livelihood for the people living in rural areas? 4
Give one example and explain class-based movement.
12. Who coined the term ‘alienation’? Explain the meaning. 4
Section – D
(6 Marks each)
13. Explain the drawbacks of The Green Revolution. 6
Several profound transformations like social relations in rural areas took place in the post-independence period. Elaborate.
14. The policy of liberalisation that India has been following since the late 1980s has had a very significant impact on agriculture and rural society. What was the policy? 6
Solution of Sample Paper
Section – A
1. In rural areas, the consequences were that the higher castes have more land and higher incomes than that of the lower castes. 1
2. From a textile exporter, India became an Importer of cheap machine-made clothes. Therefore, artisans became unemployed and fell back into agriculture. 1
Section – B
3. (i) Many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis. Those working in mines have to face injuries due to mine blasting, falling objects, etc. The rate of mining accidents in India is higher than other countries.
(ii) The Mines Act 1952, specifies the maximum number of hours a person can be made to work in a week, the need to pay overtime for any extra hours worked and safety rules. 1+1
4. (i) For some, the concerns were confined to the injustices suffered by the discriminated castes were central questions. For others, some social evils had emerged because of a decline of the true spirit of Hinduism. Caste and gender oppression was intrinsic to the religion. 1
(ii) The resolution against the evils of polygamy was proposed by Jahanara Shah Nawas at the All India Muslim Ladies Conference. 1
5. Social change is continuous and ongoing. It highlights the sum total of countless individual and collective actions gathered across time and space. For e.g., sanskritisation and westernisation as social change and 19th century social reform movements as social movements. Social movements are directed towards some specific goals. It involves long and continuous social effort and action by people. 2
6. There are different kinds of social movement that aim to bring specific changes. They can be classified into three categories as (i) redemptive or transformative; for example: In Kerala, the Ezhava community led by Narayana Guru to change their social practices. (ii) reformist; for example: Right to Information campaign and (iii) revolutionary; for example: Naxalite movement in India 2
7. Colonialism led to the movement of people from one part to another within India. For instance, a newly emerging middle-class region of Bengal and Madras moved to different parts of the country. 2
8. It has been criticized for exaggerating social mobility or the scope of ‘lower castes’ to move up the social ladder. It seems to justify a model that rests on inequality and exclusion. 2
Secularisation has usually meant a process of decline in the influence of religion. It has been an assumption by all theorists of modernisation that modern societies become increasingly secular.
9. An average workday has 10—12 hours and it is not uncommon for employees to stay overnight in the office when faced with a project deadline. Also, timelines are usually underestimated in terms of mandays. 2
Section – C
10. There are different types of westernisation. One type refers to the emergence of a westernized sub cultural pattern through a minority section of Indians who first came in contact with Western culture. Apart from this, there has been also the general spread of Western cultural traits, such as the use of new technology, dress, food, and changes in the habits and styles of people in general. However, when we take the generational difference into account, it might be understood how different one generation might feel from the other. 4
11. No. While agriculture is an important source of livelihood, it is not the only one. Many people are employed in rural non-farm activities. For instance, there are rural residents employed in government services such as the Postal and Education Departments, factory workers, or in the army, who earn their living through non- agricultural activities. Many activities, for example, a large number of artisans such as potters, carpenters, weavers, ironsmiths, and goldsmiths are found in rural areas that support sources of livelihood for people in rural India. Other examples are craftspersons as storytellers, astrologers, priests, water-distributors, and oil-pressers. 4
Between 1920 and 1940 many examples of class-based movement can be founded. The Sabhas organised by the peasants, demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes. At the time of independence, there were two most classical cases of peasant movements, namely the Tebhaga movement (1946-47) and the Telangana movement (1946—51). The first was a struggle of sharecroppers in Bengal in North Bihar for a two-thirds share of their products instead of the customary half. The second was directed against the feudal conditions in the princely state of Hyderabad, and was led by the CPI.
12. Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated several social features with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships that were found in rural areas. People often do not see the result of their work because, they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed. Marx called this situation as alienation. It refers to when people do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only to survive. 4
Section – D
13. • The Green Revolution was a government programme with reference to agricultural modernization. It led to use of high yielding variety or hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and other inputs to farmers. There are adverse drawbacks of this initiative.
(i) Inmost of the Green Revolution areas, it was primarily the medium and large farmers who were able to benefit from the new technology. This was because inputs were expensive and small and marginal farmers could not afford to spend as much as large farmers to purchase these inputs.
(ii) When agriculturists produce primarily for themselves and are unable to produce for the market, it is known as ‘subsistence agriculture. Agriculturists or farmers are those who can produce a surplus, over and above the needs of the family, and so are linked to the market. It was the farmers who were able to produce a surplus for the market, who were able to reap the most benefits from the Green Revolution and from the commercialisation of agriculture that followed.
• Machinery such as tillers, tractors, threshers, and harvesters (in areas such as Punjab and parts of Madhya Pradesh) led to the displacement of the service caste groups who carried out these agriculture-related activities. This process of displacement also increased the rural-urban migration.
• The negative outcome of the Green Revolution was a process of ‘differentiation’, in which the rich grew richer and many of the poor stagnated or became poorer. In addition, rising prices and a shift in the mode of payment of agricultural workers from payment in kind (grain) to cash, further worsened the economic condition of them.
• It led to worsening of regional inequalities. The areas that underwent this technological transformation became more developed while other areas remained stagnated. For instance, the Green Revolution was promoted more in the western and southern parts of the country, and in Punjab, Haryana, and western U.P., than in the eastern parts of the country. As a result, we find agriculture in states such as Bihar and in eastern U.P., and in dry regions such as Telengana, to be relatively undeveloped.
• In view of the negative environmental and social consequence of modern methods of cultivation that has been observed, a number of scientists and farmers’ movements now suggests return to traditional, more organic seeds and methods of cultivation. In fact, many rural people believe that hybrid varieties are less healthy than the traditional ones. 6
• Several profound transformations in rural society took place after independence like social relations in rural areas took place in the post-independence period, especially in those regions that underwent the Green Revolution.
• Agriculture was commercialized and farmers had a direct link with the international companies.
• This led to the flow of money in villages and increased employment opportunities.
• Maharashtra became famous for producing cotton and the farmers were linked to world market.
• Circulation of labourers was high during the peak season of agriculture.
• Feminization of agriculture took place and more women were involved in agriculture. But, they were under-waged as compared to men.
Globalization and Liberalization in Rural Society took another important step after independence.
• In cooperation with World Trade Organization during 1980 India encouraged imports and exports.
• It encouraged foreign investments and exposed farmers to compete in the global market.
• It reversed self-reliance policy of food grains.
• Farmers involved in contract farming with government as well as private companies.
• Contract farming was widely prevalent in the production of specialised items such as cut flowers, fruits such as grapes, figs and pomegranates, cotton and oilseeds.
• Globalization policy also influenced the consumption of agricultural inputs.
• Farmers are forced to buy these expensive fertilisers.
• The process of globalization has led to the increased number of suicides.
14. (1) The policy of liberalisation that India has been following since the late 1980s, have had a very significant impact on agriculture and rural society.
(2) As a consequence of India’s joining the World Trade Organization, Indian agriculture has been exposed, in a new and unprecedented way, to volatility in the international prices of food and non-food crops and, in the case of several commodities, prolonged periods of steep declines in prices.
(3) The policy entails participation in the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which aims to bring about freer international trading system and requires the opening up of Indian markets to imports.
(4) After decades of state support and protected markets, Indian farmers have been exposed to competition from the global market.
(5) Recently, India has also decided to import wheat, a controversial decision that reverses the earlier policy of self-reliance in foodgrains and bring back bitter memories of dependency on American foodgrains in the early years after Independence. 6
This problem of peasant incomes is particularly intense in the present context of the removal of quantitative restrictions on the import of agricultural products, the emphasis on export-oriented production, and the fall in the prices of primary commodities internationally. It is not fortuitous that the 1990s was also the first period since the beginning of the ‘green revolution’ in which the rate of growth of food grain production was lower than the rate of growth of population in India.