Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Questions Change And Development In Rural Society Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Questions Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022

Sociology Chapter 4 Important Questions Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Questions Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Questions Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022

 

(A) Objective Questions (1 Mark Each)

 

Stand Alone MCQs

Q. 1. Which of the following festivals is celebrated by farmers in Tamil Nadu ?

(A) Pongal  (B) Bihu

(C) Baisakhi (D) Ugadi

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 2. Green Revolution refers to :

(A) Modernization of education.

(B) Modernization of cattle breeding.

(C) Modernization of agriculture.

(D) Modernization of film industry.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 3. Example of dominant land owning castes are

(A) Jats and Rajputs of U. P.

(B) Vokkaligas and Lingayats in Karnataka

(C) Kammas and Reddys in Andhra Pradesh

(D) All the above

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 4. Land reforms took away rights from the claimants, the upper caste who were in the sense that they played no part in the agricultural economy other than claiming. (CBSE SQP, 2019)

(A) Tenants              (B) Absentee landlords

(C) Dominant caste (D) Political Leaders

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 5. Which of these states faced stagnation in development during the Green Revolution?

(A) Bihar        (B) Delhi

(C) Karnataka (D) None of these

Ans. Option (A) is correct

Q. 6. _______ is famous for cotton production.

(A) Maharashtra (B) Punjab

(C) Haryana       (D) Bengal

Ans. Option (A) is correct

Q. 7. What is the nature of rural transformation after independence?

(A) Cultivation became intensive

(B) Increase in the use of agricultural labour

(C) A shift from payment of kind to payment of cash

(D) All the above

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

8. The capitalist mode of production lead to :

(A) Feminization of agriculture.

(B) Labour welfare.

(C) Elimination of class hierarchy.

(D) Separation of workers from the means of production.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 9. According to Karl Marx, separation of workers from the means of production is called as

(A) Alienation (B) Demonetization

(C) Circulation (D) None of these

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

 

Fill in the Blanks

Q. 1. According to 2001 census, _______ per cent of population is involved in agriculture for their living.

Ans. 67

Q. 2. In India there are usually just one or two major landowning castes, who are also numerically very important. Such groups were termed by the sociologist M.N. Srinivas as _____ .

Ans. dominant castes

Q. 3. _____ system in Gujarat refers to the traditional ‘hereditary’ labour.

Ans. Halpati

Q. 4. In most of the Indian regions, colonial government ruled through _____ .

Ans. Zamindars

Q. 5. ____________ imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family.

Ans. Land Ceiling Act

Q. 6. Sociologist Jan Breman defines the impact of Green Revolution on caste/class relations as a shift from ____ .

Ans. Patronage to exploitation

Q. 7. The seasonal demand for agricultural labour led to the growth of ______ .

Ans. Migration of labour

Q. 8. WTO stands for

Ans. World Trade Organization

Q. 9. Jam Breman defines the migrating labours as ________ .

Ans. footloose labour

 

True or False

Q. 1. Green Revolution led to displacement of people to urban areas.

Ans. True

Q. 2. Organic farming is the modernized method of agriculture.

Ans. False

Q. 3. 1950s to 1960s is the first wave of Green Revolution.

Ans. False

Q. 4. Kerala primarily follows capitalist economy.

Ans. False

Q. 5. Sociologists attempted to study the phenomenon of farmer’s suicide through studying the changing agrarian structure and social relations.

Ans. True

Q. 6. Migrating labours have job security.

Ans. False

 

Correct the Statements

Q. 1. In most of the Green Revolution areas, farmers have switched from a mono-crop system, which allowed them to spread risks, to a multi-crop regime, which means that there is nothing to fall back on in case of crop failure.

Ans. In most of the Green Revolution areas, farmers have switched from a multi-crop system, which allowed them to spread risks, to a mono-crop regime, which means that there is nothing to fall back on in case of crop failure.

Q. 2. Contract farming is held between farmers and private/multinational companies only.

Ans. Government can also use contract farming.

Q. 3. Feudal system was abolished during the structural changes in the agrarian society.

Ans. Even today, few regions continue to have entrenched feudal system, where dominant land­owning castes control the landless people.

Q. 4. Cultivation has become a task for females due to the impact of illiteracy.

Ans. Cultivation has become a task for females due to the migration of male labours.

Q. 5. India still holds the policy of self-reliance regarding food grains.

Ans. Due to economic liberalization, India reversed the policy of self-reliance regarding food grains.

Q. 6. India adapted to capitalist economy.

Ans. India adapted to mixed economy.

 

(B) Subjective Questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each)

Q. 1. What does agrarian structure mean?

Ans. Agrarian structure refers to the structure as well as distribution of landholding in rural India.

Q. 2. Which varnas are major land-holding groups?

Ans. Varnas such as Shudras and Vaishyas are the major land-holding groups.

Q. 3. During the colonial period, how did the British control the local administration?

Ans. In Colonial India, the British controlled most of the local administration through Zamindars.

Q. 4. How did the government bring land reforms?

Ans. From the 1950s to the 1970s a series of land reforms were legislated to reduce inequality, poverty and the shortage of food grains.

Q. 5. What changes were brought in by the Green Revolution?

Ans. The Green Revolution was funded by international agencies regarding the utilization of high yielding variety or hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and other inputs to farmers.

Q. 6. What is the nature of rural transformation after independence?

Ans. The nature of rural transformation after independence was:

(i) Cultivation became intensive

(ii) Increase in the use of agricultural labour

(iii) A shift from payment of kind to payment of cash

Q. 8. What did the capitalist mode of production lead to?

Ans. The capitalist mode of production led to the separation of workers from the means of production.

Q. 9. What did Karl Marx term the separation of workers from the means of production?

Ans. According to Karl Marx, the separation of workers from the means of production is called Alienation.

Q. 10. Whom did sociologist M.N. Srinivas consider as ‘dominant castes’ in India?

Ans. In India, there are usually just one or two major landowning castes, who are also numerically very important. Such groups were termed by the sociologist M.N. Srinivas as ‘dominant castes’.

Q. 11. What were the risks that farmers in most of the Green Revolution areas face from switching from the multi-crop regime to a mono-crop system?

Ans. in most of the Green Revolution areas, farmers have switched from a multi-crop system, which allowed them to spread risks, to a mono-crop regime, which means that there is nothing to tall back on in case of crop failure.

Q. 12. The feudal system was abolished during the structural changes in the agrarian society. Comment.

Ans. Even today few regions continue to have entrenched feudal systems, where dominant land­ owning castes control the landless people.

Q. 13. Cultivation has become a task for females due to the impact of illiteracy.

Ans. Cultivation has become a task for females due to the migration of male labours.

Q. 14. Explain how India still holds the policy of self- reliance regarding food grains.

Ans. Due to economic liberalization, India reversed the policy of self-reliance regarding food grains.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-I (2 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Express the correlation between agricultural productivity and agrarian structure.          (CBSE SQP, 2019)

Ans. (i) Agrarian structure refers to the sustaining divide between land owners and peasants.

(ii) If there is an unequal distribution of lands among people, only few will get profit from out of the cultivation.

(iii) Peasants will get wages, while land owners get profit.

(iv) It increases the class inequality.

(v) The rich becomes richer and poor becomes poorer.

Q. 2. What are the various occupations followed in rural society?             (CBSE SQP 2020)

Ans. (i) Most of the rural people depend on agriculture for their livelihood.

(ii) Artisans such as weavers, carpenters, ironsmiths, goldsmiths and potters live in the rural areas, and they support the agriculture in some form or the other.

(iii) The above said occupations are carried out based on their respective castes.

(iv) Few of the rural people get into government services in the Department of Education, Postal Department and few are employed as factory workers.

Q. 3. Explain Contract farming.

Ans. (i) Contract farming is the trade pertaining to agricultural production.

(ii) It is an agreement between the farmers and buyers.

(iii) In a liberalized economy, a farmer can have contract farming with government, private as well as multi-national companies.

Q. 4. Discuss the concept of ‘footloose labour’.

Ans. (i) This term was coined by Jan Breman in 1985.

(ii) He used this concept to describe the situation of migrating labours.

(iii) Since the migrating labours have no job security, they have the compulsion of migrating from one place to another based on the demand.

Q. 5. What factors lead to ‘feminization of agricultural labour force’?

Ans. (i) In villages men migrate from their native village for work

(ii) The women stay in the village and take care of the household as well as agricultural activities.

(iii) Eventually, agriculture has become a female oriented task.

Q. 6. Read the source and answer the following question.

There is a direct correspondence between agricultural productivity and the agrarian structure. In areas of assured irrigation, those with plentiful rainfall or artificial irrigation works (such as rice-growing regions in river deltas, for instance, the Kaveri basin in Tamil Nadu) more labour was needed for intensive cultivation. Here the most unequal agrarian structures developed. The agrarian structure of these regions was characterised by a large proportion of landless labourers, who were often ‘bonded’ workers belonging to the lowest castes. (Kumar 1998).

(i) Where can plentiful rainfall or artificial irrigation works be found?

Ans. In areas of assured irrigation, those with plentiful rainfall or artificial irrigation works (such as rice­ growing regions in river deltas, for instance, the Kaveri basin in Tamil Nadu).

(ii) How was the agrarian structure of these regions characterised?

Ans. The agrarian structure of these regions was characterised by a large the proportion of landless labourers, who were often ‘bonded’ workers belonging to the lowest castes.

Q. 7. Read the source and answer the following question.

The spate of farmers’ suicides that has been occurring in different parts of the country since 1997-98 can be linked to the ‘agrarian distress’ caused by structural changes in agriculture and changes in economic and agricultural policies. These include the changed pattern of landholdings; changing cropping patterns, especially due to shifting to cash crops; liberalisation policies that have exposed Indian agriculture to the forces of globalisation; heavy dependence on high-cost inputs; withdrawal of the State from agricultural extension activities to be replaced by multinational seed and fertiliser companies; decline in state support for agriculture; and individualisation of agricultural operations. According to official statistics, there have been 8,900 suicides by farmers between 2001 and 2006 in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra (Suri 2006:1523).

(i) Why are farmers committing Indian suicides since the late 90s?

Ans. The spate of farmers’ suicides that has been occurring in different parts of the country since 1997-98 can be linked to the ‘agrarian distress’ caused by structural changes in agriculture and changes in economic and agricultural policies.

(ii) What are the reasons for agrarian distress?

Ans. The changed pattern of landholdings; changing cropping patterns, especially due to shifting to cash crops; liberalisation policies that have exposed Indian agriculture to the forces of globalisation; heavy dependence on high-cost inputs; withdrawal of the State from agricultural extension activities to be replaced by multinational seed and fertiliser companies; decline in state support for agriculture; and individualisation of agricultural operations.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-ll (4 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Green revolution led to Regional inequalities. Give examples.       (SQP, 2020)

Ans. (i) Green Revolution involved the deployment of technological advancement in the cultivation.

(ii) Only few states like Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh were able to adopt the technologies in agriculture.

(iii) As a result, they had enormous socio-economic development.

(iv) On the other hand dry regions such as Telangana, Bihar and Eastern U. P were relatively under developed.

Q. 2. Mention the loopholes of implementing Land Ceiling Act.      (Delhi, 2019)

Ans. (i) Land Ceiling Act was implemented to fix the upper limit for an individual land owning.

(ii) Accordingly, an individual has to give away the excess land to the government.

(iii) Concerned landowner was allowed to give share to the son or daughter before surrendering it to the government.

(iv) The loopholes included dividing land among relatives, and servants. This was called as Benami transfer. Divorcing the wife but living with her which will allow a share for unmarried women for the accumulation of land by a family.

Q. 3. Write a short note on Bhoodan movement.

Ans. (i) Boodhan movement refers to land gifting movement.

(ii) It is a voluntary land reform movement.

(iii) The movement persuaded landowners to voluntarily donate the land to the landless people

(iv) The movement was started by Vinoba Bhave in 1951.

Q. 4. Explain farmer’s relationship with global market with example.

Ans. (i) Globalization of agriculture has influenced the farmers from Indian villages.

(ii) Farmers from Punjab and Karnataka have entered into contracts with a multi-national company like Pepsi Co.

(iii) The farmers export potatoes and tomatoes.

(iv) This has led to the considerable flow of money in the village markets.

Q. 5. Discuss the reasons for farmer’s suicide.

Ans. (i) Cultural lag due to technological advancement,

(ii) Mono-crop farming and crop failure.

(iii) Increased marginalization due to green revolution.

(iv) Debt burden.

(v) High competition from big land owning farmers.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (6 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Explain Agrarian society in terms of class and caste.

Ans. In terms of class, the Agrarian society is divided based on land ownership. There are medium and large landowners on one hand and, agricultural labourers on the other hand. The medium and large landowners earn large incomes from the agricultural produce. However, the agricultural labourers do not own the land and work in others lands. This makes their job and income insecure, leading to unemployment and low incomes. Another category is the tenant cultivator, who lease their land from landowners and earn low incomes as they pay often as much as 50 to 75 per cent of the income from the cultivation to the land-owner as rent. The Agrarian society is divided based on caste and this also influences the class they occupy. In general, the land owners belong to the dominant castes or the ‘upper castes’. For example, the Jats and Rajputs of U.P, the Vokkaligas and Lingayats in Karnataka, Kammas and Reddys in Andhra Pradesh, and J at Sikhs in Punjab. These dominant caste are powerful economically, socially and politically. Similarly, the menial or agricultural labourers are predominantly from the ‘lower’ caste. They are marginal farmers or landless labourers. For example. Scheduled Castes or Tribes (SC/ STs) or Other Backward Classes (OBCs). It can be observed that class and caste are intertwined. Class is determined by access to land, resources and the ability to command labour and make profit from the produce. Caste plays a major role in determining ones class, therefore, access to power and privilege. The Halpati system in Gujarat and the Jeeta system in Karnataka show that the caste system affects the ones class. These systems have tied the poor to the landowners, leading to bonded labour.

Q. 2. Discuss some of the changes in the rural society after independence of India.

Ans. Some of the changes in the rural society after independence of India include the following:

(i) Increase in the use of agricultural labour as cultivation became more intensive.

(ii) Shift from payment in kind (grain) to payment in cash.

(iii) Loosening of traditional bonds or hereditary relationships between farmers or landowners and agricultural workers (known as bonded labour) and a rise of a class of ‘free’ wage labourers.

(iv) Change in the nature of the relationship between landlords and agricultural workers (usually low caste). The transformation in labour relations is regarded by some scholars as indicative of a transition to capitalist agriculture.

(v) Fanners in the more developed regions were becoming more oriented to the market. As cultivation became more commercialised, these rural areas were also becoming integrated to the wider economy.

(vi) This process increased the flow of money into villages and expanding opportunities for business and employment.

(vii) Government promoted modern methods of cultivation and attempted to modernise the rural economy through other strategies.

(viii) The state invested in the development of rural infrastructure, such as irrigation facilities, roads and electricity, and on the provision of agricultural inputs, including credit through banks and cooperatives. A recent example is Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana.

(ix) In the coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh, western Uttar Pradesh and central Gujarat, which have fertile agricultural lands, well-to-do farmers belonging to the dominant castes began to invest their profits from agriculture in other types of business ventures.

(x) This process of diversification gave rise to new entrepreneurial groups that moved out of rural areas and into the growing towns of these developing regions, giving rise to new regional elites that became economically as well as politically dominant (Rutten 1995).

(xi) Spread of higher education, especially private professional colleges, in rural and semi-urban areas, allowed the new rural elites to educate their children – many of whom then joined professional or white collar occupations or started businesses, feeding into the expansion of the urban middle classes. Thus, in areas of rapid agricultural development there has been a consolidation of the old landed or cultivating groups, who have transformed themselves into a dynamic entrepreneurial, rural-urban dominant class.

(xii) The overall outcome of these efforts at ‘rural development’ was not only to transform the rural economy and agriculture, but also the agrarian structure and the rural society itself.

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