Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Important Questions Cultural Change Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Important Questions Cultural Change Term 2 2022

Sociology Chapter 2 Important Questions Cultural Change Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Important Questions Cultural Change Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Important Questions Cultural Change Term 2 2022

 

(A) Objective Questions (1 Mark Each)

 

Stand Alone MCQs

Q. 1. Colonial impact of ______ is seen in the field of art, literature, music and architecture in the Indian society.              (Delhi, 2020)

(A) Westernisation (B) Secularisation

(C) Modernisation (D) Sanskritisation

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 2. Who wrote about navya-nyaya logic in ‘The Sources of Knowledge’?

(A) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

(B) Kandukuri Veeresalingam

(C) Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan

(D) Pandita Ramabai

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Q. 3. Who opened the first school for women in Pune?

(A) Pandita Ramabai

(B) Kandukuri Veeresalingam

(C) Jyotiba Phule

(D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 4. Who proposed a resolution against the evils of polygamy at the All India Muslim Ladies Conference?

(A) Jahanara Shah Nawas

(B) Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan

(C) Jyotiba Phule

(D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

 

Fill in the Blanks

Q. 1. Defenders of Sati formed Dharma Sabha in defense of status quo is an example of ____     (Delhi, 2020)

Ans. Freedom of Ideas

Q. 2. ______ was opposed by the Brahmo Samaj.

Ans. Sati

Q. 3. ________ coined the term Sanskritisation.       (Delhi, 2020)

Ans. M.N. Srinivas

Q. 4. The high caste is referred to as ______ caste.

Ans. twice-born or dvija

 

True or False

Q. 1. Sati and Girl Education were two social causes being highlighted during 19th and 20th century.

Ans. True

Q. 2. The caste system follows purity and pollution belief system.

Ans. True

Q. 3. Secularization increases the influence of religion.

Ans. False

Q. 4. In Nagaland, festivals emerged as an emphatic projection of a unified tribe identity.

Ans. False

 

Correct the Statement

Q. 1. Bal Gangadhar Tilak thus recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age and Jyotiba Phule emphasized the glory of the Aryan period.

Ans. Jyotiba Phule thus recalled the glory oi pre-Aryan age and Bal Gangadhar Tilak emphasized the glory of the Aryan period.

Q. 2. Sati was opposed by Dharma Sabha.

Ans. Sati was opposed by Brahmo Samaj.

Q. 3. Secularization pertains to social mobility that existed before the onset of colonialism.

Ans. Sanskritization pertains to social mobility that existed before the onset of colonialism.

Q. 4. According to M.N. Srinivas ‘lower castes’ sought to be Secularized and ‘upper castes’ sought to be Sanskritized.

Ans. According to M.N. Srinivas ‘lower castes’ sought to be Sanskritized and ‘upper castes’ sought to be Westernized.

 

(B) Subjective Questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each)

Q. 1. Give an example of ideas.

Ans. Defenders of Sati formed Dharma Sabha in defence of the status quo of Sati is an example of ideas.

Q. 2. Who was the founder of Brahmo Samaj? What did he oppose?

Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj. He opposed Sati Pratha.

Q. 3. Who coined the term Sanskritisation?             (Delhi, 2020)

Ans. M.N. Srinivas, a prominent Sociologist of Modern India, coined this term.

Q. 4. Which castes is referred to as twice-born?

Ans. The high caste is referred to as twice-born caste.

Q. 5. In which fields are the colonial impact of Sanskritisation?       (Delhi/ 2020)

Ans. The colonial impact of Sanskritisation is seen in the field of art, literature, music and architecture in Indian society.

Q. 6. Which book was written by Kandukuri Veeresalingam ?

Ans. He wrote about Navya-Nyaya logic in ‘The Sources of Knowledge’.

Q. 7. What did Jyotiba Phule do for women in Pune?

Ans. He opened the first school for women in Pune.

Q. 8. What was proposed by Jahanara Shah Nawas at the All India Muslim Ladies Conference?

Ans. Jahanara Shah Nawas proposed a resolution against the evils of polygamy at the All India Muslim Ladies Conference.

Q. 9. Who recalled the glory of the pre-Aryan age and who emphasized the glory of the Aryan period?

Ans. Jyotiba Phule recalled the glory of the pre-Aryan age and Bal Gangadhar Tilak emphasized the glory of the Aryan period.

Q. 10. Who opposed Sati Pratha?

Ans. Sati Pratha was opposed by Brahmo Sabha.

Q. 11. What did Secularisation pertain to before colonialism?

Ans. Sanskritisation pertains to social mobility that existed before the onset of colonialism.

Q. 12. Who according to M.N. Srinivas sought to be Secularized and who sought to be Sanskritised?

Ans. According to M.N. Srinivas ‘lower castes’ sought to be Sanskritised and ‘upper castes’ sought to be Westernized.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-I (2 Marks Each)

Q. 1. State the main concerns of social reformers of 19th century.          (Delhi, 2017)

Ans. Main concerns of social reformers of 19th century:

(i) Removal of the prevailing social evils

(ii) Education for the deprived, backward, and weaker sections

(iii) Widow remarriage

(iv) Child marriage

(v) Against caste and gender discrimination

(vi) Religious discrimination

(Any two)

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 2. What ideas of society did the Dharma Sabha project?             (Delhi, 2019)

Ans. Orthodox members of the Hindu community in Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha. They petitioned to the British arguing that reformers had no right to interpret sacred texts.

They opposed education for girls, widow remarriage and upheld Sati system. Therefore, they defended the status quo and traditional belief systems of the Hindus.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 3. Name any two modern social organisations formed in the 19th or early 20th century.      (Delhi, 2020)

Ans. (i) Brahmo Samaj

(ii) Arya Samaj

Q. 4. Give the meaning of the term Secularisation.         (Delhi, 2020)

Ans. (i) Secularisation is meant to be a process of decline in the influence of religion.

(ii) It indicates reduced level of involvement with religious organisations, the social and material influence of religious organisations, and the degree to which people hold religious beliefs.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 5. Modernisation and secularisation are part of a set of modern ideas. How are the two processes linked.             (Delhi, 2019)

Ans. (i) Change in attitude towards religion and celebration of festivals, change in ceremonies, taboos and sacrifices.

(ii) Modern ways lead to decline in traditional and religious ways.

(iii) This leads to a scientific and rational outlook.

(iv) Work gets based on choice, not birth.

(v) A vibrant secular and democratic political system.

(vi) Caste and community based mobilisation.

(Any two)

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 6. What does the term ‘modernity’ assume?           (Delhi, 2016)

Ans. Modernity involves:

(i) Local ties and parochial perspective give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes.

(ii) Behaviour, thought, attitude is not decided by family, tribe, caste, community, etc.

(iii) Occupation / work based on choice, not birth.

(iv) Scientific & rational approach / attitude prevails over emotion.

(v) Positive and desirable values – humanitarian, egalitarian, etc.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 7. Kumudtai’s journey into Sanskrit began with great interest and eagerness with Gokhale Guruji, her teacher at school…At the University, the Head of the Department was a well-known scholar and he took great pleasure in taunting Kumudtai… Despite the adverse comments she successfully completed her Masters in Sanskrit….

Source: Kumud Pawade (1938)

Read the source and answer the following question.

Do you think Sanskritisation is a gendered process? Give a reason for your answer.

Ans. Yes. She felt that the study of Sanskrit can help her break into a field that was not possible for her to enter on grounds of gender and caste. As she proceeds with her studies, she meets with varied reactions ranging from surprise to hostility, from guarded acceptance to brutal rejection.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-ll (4 Marks Each)

Q. 1. How have social reformers helped in the emancipation of women in India?        (Outside Delhi, 2016)

Ans. Emancipation of women by the social reformers:

(i) Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s campaign against sati,etc.

(ii) Ranade’s efforts for remarriage of widows.

(iii) Jyotiba Phule attacked both caste and gender discrimination.

(iv) Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan wanted Muslim girls to be educated.

(v) Dayanand Saraswati stood for women education.

(vi) Tarabai Shinde through her writings attacked the double standards of male dominated society.

(vii) Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain through her writing of Sultanas Dream.

(Any four)

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 2. Elaborate on three aspects of change in Colonial India as stated by Satish Saberwal.        (Delhi, 2015)

Ans. Three aspects of change in colonial India as stated by Satish Saberwal are:

(i) Modes of communication

(ii) Forms of organization

(iii) The nature of ideas

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 3. Elaborate on the discussion on the women education during the 19th and 20th century.

Ans. (i) The idea of female education was debated – Social reformer Jyotiba Phule opened the first school for women in Pune.

(ii) Reformers argued that women’s education is important for the society to progress leading to the justifications of the thoughts based on the modern and traditional ideas.

(iii) Jyotiba Phule recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age while Bal Gangadhar Tilak emphasized the glory of the Aryan period.

(iv) 19th century reform was a period of questioning, reinterpretations and intellectual and social growth.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 4. ‘Process of Sanskritisation encourages inequality and discrimination.’ Explain.           (Delhi, 2019)

Ans. (i) Sanskritisation as a concept has been critiqued at different levels. One, it has been criticised for exaggerating social mobility or the scope of ‘lower castes’ to move up the social ladder.

(ii) Ideology of Sanskritisation accepts the ways of the ‘upper caste’ as superior and that of the ‘lower caste’ as inferior.

(iii) ‘Sanskritisation’ seems to justify a model that rests on inequality and exclusion.

(iv) Sanskritisation results in the adoption of upper caste rites and rituals. It leads to practices of secluding girls and women, adopting dowry practices, instead of bride-price and practicing caste discrimination against other groups, etc.

(v) The effect of such a trend is that the key characteristics of Dalit culture and society have eroded.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 5. What is the relationship between modernisation and secularisation?           (Outside, 2017)

Ans. Relationship between Modernisation and Secularisation:

(i) The two are together for they are linked.

(ii) They are both part of a set of modern ideas.

(iii) Change in attitude towards religion, superstitions.

(iv) Change in ceremonies, rituals, taboos, festivals, sacrifices, social networking, etc.

(To be assessed as a whole)

Q. 6. Write a short note on Westernisation.

Ans. (i) M.N. Srinivas defines westernisation as “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels such as technology, institutions, ideology and values”.

(ii) The emergence of a westernised sub-cultural pattern with the understanding of the experience of the Indians who first came in contact with Western culture. This includes the Indian intellectuals who not only adopted the cognitive patterns also but emphasized on its expansion.

(iii) There has been a general spread of Western cultural traits, such as the use of new technology, dress, food and changes in the habits and styles of people in general.

(iv) Apart from ways of life and thinking, the West has influenced Indian art and literature.

(v) M.N. Srinivas suggested that while lower castes’ sought to be Sanskritised, ‘upper castes’ sought to be Westernised.

(To be assessed as a whole)

 

Long Answer Type Questions (6 Marks Each)

Q. 1. What were the conditions required in India to start a social reform movement?

Ans. The conditions required were:

(i) Western Education: When the British started to rule over India, then they begin to spread western education here. When Indians came in contact with western education, they came to know about science and reasoning. They came to know that the prevailing customs of Indian society are useless and baseless. That’s why enlightened Indians started social movements here.

(ii) Development of means of transport: The British developed means of transport for their own convenience, but Indians took the maximum advantage of these means. With the advent of means of transport, Indians came in contact with each other. Enlightened and educated Indians reached different parts of the country and explained to the people that the prevailing customs are useless. People were already fed up with these customs. They responded well to these calls and conditions became conducive with the development of means of transport.

(iii) Advent of Indian Press: Press started in India after the advent of the British. Organizers of movements started to publish small newspapers and magazines so that Indians could read them and should understand that these evils are very harmful to society. It was necessary for them to throw these evils out of society. In this way, Indians came to know that it was necessary for them to remove these social evils.

(iv) Increasing impact of Missionaries: When the British came to India, Christian Missionaries also came with them. The main function of these missionaries was to propagate Christianity, but their way of propagating was somewhat different. First, they used to work for social welfare. They solved the problems of the people and then they propagated their religion. Gradually, people started to adopt Christianity. When Indian social reformers came to know about this, then they also started reform movements in India. In this way, these movements were started due to the impact of Christian missionaries.

(v) Evils of Indian Society: Most of the social reform movements were started to remove the social evils of the society. Sad Pratha, child marriage, restriction on widow remarriage, dowry system, untouchability, etc. are examples of some of the social evils of the Indian society. People were fed up with the prevailing social evils. When these movements started to take place, they were welcomed with both hands by the people. That’s why these movements got a conducive environment and social reform movements became successful.

Q. 2. What changes came in Indian society due to social movements? Explain them.

Ans. (i) End of Sati Pratha: Sati Pratha (system) prevailed in Indian society from the very beginning. Widows had to die with the death of there husband. She had to sit alive on the funeral pyre of her husband. This inhuman custom was started by higher castes. Due to social movements, the British government started to oppose this system and it passed a law called ‘Sati Prohibition Act’ in 1829. This law declared Sati Pratha as illegal. In this way, the custom of ancient times came to an end. All this happened due to social movements.

(ii) End of Child Marriage: Child marriages were taking place in Indian society. Due to child marriage, parents used to marry off their children at the age of 4-5 years. The parents gave no consideration if their child even knew the meaning of marriage. The British government fixed a minimum age of child marriage due to social movements. The British Government made a law in 1860 and fixed a minimum age of 10 years for marriage.

(iii) Widow Remarriage: Widows in our society were not allowed to remarry and this custom was going on from the very beginning. They were not allowed to take part in family functions. They had no right to live a happy life. Due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the British Government passed an act in 1856 called “Widow Remarriage Act, 1856′ with which widows got permission to remarry. In this way, they got the legal right to remarry and to live a happy life.

(iv) End of Purdah System: Purdah system prevailed among the Muslims. Females always had to live behind purdahs. They were not allowed to move anywhere without a purdah. Gradually, this system spread all over the country. Social reformers raised their voice against the purdah system. Even Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan raised his voice against this system. In this way, this system started to decrease and with the passage of time, it came to an end.

(v) Change in Custom of Dowry System: Dowry is the gift that the father of the bride gives the groom at the time of her marriage. But many problems also came along with it. Parents of bridegrooms started to demand dowry because of which parents of the girls had to face a number of problems. Many movements were started against this. That’s why the British government and later on in 1961, the Indian Government declared it illegal.

(vi) End of Untouchability: The custom of untouchability was prevalent in Indian society from the very beginning. In this, lower castes were not allowed to touch the people of higher castes. So voices were raised in social movements against untouchability. That’s why an atmosphere was created for declaring it illegal. After independence, the Indian government passed an act with which it was declared illegal.

Q. 3. What is the meaning of Secularisation? Explain its different elements.

Ans. According to M.N. Srinivas, Secularisation implies that what was previously regarded as religious is now ceasing to be such and it also implies as a process of differentiation which results in the various aspects of society, economic, political, legal and moral becoming increasingly discrete in relation to each other.”

In this way, on the basis of the given definition, we can say that secularisation is that process in which the explanation of human behaviour is not done on the basis of religion, but is based upon rationalism. Phenomena are understood on the basis of their reason with function. The effect of religion is decreasing in our daily life. Now the impact of science and objectivity has increased.

M.N. Srinivas gave three essential elements of secularisation which are given below:

(i) Lack of religiousness: First and the important element of secularisation is the decline in the importance of religion. An increase in secularisation will automatically bring change in religious beliefs. A person starts to feel that those religious beliefs or traditions in which he believes, are unable to fulfill any one of his needs. In this way, religious views start to decline.

(ii) Rationality: Through rationality, humans start to examine every type of superstitions, beliefs, etc. on the basis of rationality. According to Srinivas, “In rationality, with other things traditional beliefs and views were changed into modern knowledge.” In this way, rationality increased in humans with the development of modern ideas and values.

(iii) Process of differentiation: The process of differentiation is also related to the process of secularisation. Every sector of society i.e., social, moral, political, etc., is different from each other. Occupation of the person, in modern society, is not decided on the basis of religion but is determined on the basis of his/her ability. Now everyone is equal before the law. The impact of religion has decreased in every sector of society. A person has started to get everything on the basis of his ability, not on the basis of religion.

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