Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Important Questions Change And Development In Industrial Society Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Important Questions Change and Development in Industrial Society Term 2 2022

Sociology Chapter 5 Important Questions Change and Development in Industrial Society Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Important Questions Change and Development in Industrial Society Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Important Questions Change and Development in Industrial Society Term 2 2022

 

(A) Objective Questions (1 Mark Each)

 

Stand Alone MCQs

Q. 1. _________ consists of all units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits.

(A) Primary sector     (B) Service sector

(C) Organised sector (D) Public sector

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 2. _________ is not a feature of the unorganised sector.

(A) Unions              (B) Unstable income

(C) No job security (D) Exploitation

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q.3. Private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government, such as,

(A) Railways

(B) Airport Authority of India

(C) Defence

(D) Telecom

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 4. The example of secondary sector is:

(A) Banking (B) Agriculture

(C) Mining (D) Manufacturing

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 5. In the Kanpur textile mills, the ______ were known as mistris.

(A) employers               (B) employees

(C) contractors/jobbers (D) None of these

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 6. ______ invented a new system in the 1890s, which he called ‘Scientific Management’.

(A) Henry Ford

(B) Frederick Winslow Taylor

(C) Karl Marx

(D) Harry Braverman

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

 

Fill in the Blanks

Q. 1. ________ refers to the situation when people do not enjoy work and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive.

Ans. Alienation

Q. 2. Modernisation theorist Clark Kerr put forward thesis that industrialised India of the 21st century shares more features with China or the United States in the 21st century than it shares with 19th century India.

Ans. Convergence

Q. 3. In India’s, some sectors were reserved for government, while others were open to the private sector.

Ans. mixed economy policy

Q. 4. Industrialisation involves a detailed ______ .

Ans. division of labour

Q. 5. Since the 1990s, the government has encouraged private investment through the policy of _____ :

Ans. Liberalisation

Q. 6. When the government tries to sell its share in several public sector companies, it is known as:

Ans. Disinvestment

 

True or False

Q. 1. In 1991, small-scale and traditional industry employed more than large-scale industry.

Ans. True

Q. 2. Scientific Management is also known as Taylorism or Industrial Engineering.

Ans. True

Q. 3. The famous sociologist, Harry Braverman, argues that the use of machinery actually makes the workers skilled.

Ans. False

Q. 4. Explosion in mining fields occurs due to methane and carbon monoxide.

Ans. True

Q- 5. Liberalisation and privatisation worldwide appear to be associated with rising income equality.

Ans. False

Q. 6. Mining workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis.

Ans. True

 

(B) Subjective Questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each)

Q. 1. What were some of the features of industrialization?

Ans. Urbanisation, loss of face-to-face relationships that were found in rural areas and their substitution by anonymous professional relationships in modern factories and workplaces.

Q. 2. Give one demerit of industrialisation.

Ans. Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, e.g., the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for similar work.

Q. 3. Mention one feature of the organised sector.

Ans. The organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits.

Q. 4. In which sector the private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest?

Ans. In the telecom sector, which was earlier reserved for the government.

Q. 5. Who invented a new system in the 1890s?

Ans. Frederick Winslow Taylor invented a new system of production in the 1890s, which he called ‘Scientific Management’.

Q. 6. In which situation people do not enjoy work?

Ans. The situation when people do not enjoy work is called Alienation’. They see work as something they have to do only in order to survive.

Q. 7. What is the Convergence thesis put forward by Clark Kerr?

Ans. Modernisation theorist Clark Kerr put forward the Convergence thesis that industrialised India of the 21st century shares more features with China or the United States in the 21st century than it shares with 19th century India.

Q. 8. How much workforce is in the informal sector?

Ans. In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector.

Q. 9. Who led the Bombay Textile strike of 1982?

Ans. The Bombay Textile strike of 1982, was led by the trade union leader, Dr. Datta Samant. It lasted for about 2 years.

Q. 10. Why do the bidi manufacturers earn the maximum amount rather than the bidi workers?

Ans. The manufacturer gets the maximum amount because of the image of the brand, showing the power of images.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-I (2 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Mention the two important components of employment opportunities.

Ans. (i) Job in an organisation as a casual wage labourer or regular salaried.

(ii) Self-employment.

Q. 2. Provide examples for the following: Primary sector, secondary sector, tertiary sector and home­ based work.

Ans. (i) Primary sector: Agriculture, mining, and fishing.

(ii) Secondary sector: Manufacturing industries, and energy production.

(iii) Tertiary sector: Teaching, banks, hospitals, and transportation.

(iv) Home-based work: Manufacture of lace, zari or brocade, carpets, bidis, and agarbattis.

Q. 3. Provide an example for a strike in an industry led by a union.

Ans. Dr. Datta Samant, the trade union leader, led the Bombay Textile strike of 1982. It affected more than 2 lakh workers and their families. The strike lasted nearly two years. Their demand was better wages and the right to form their own union. However, the workers went back to work after 2 years or lost their jobs and went to smaller towns to take up casual labour.

Q. 4. How do people find jobs?

Ans. (i) Through advertisements and employment exchanges.

(ii) Through personal contacts for those who are self- employed, e.g., plumbers, private tuitions and freelance photographers.

(iii) Through Contractors/Jobbers (who are called as mistris in the Kanpur textile mills).

(iv) As Badli workers, who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave.

Q. 5. Mention two safety’ measures to be followed in coal mines.

Ans. Water sprinkling facilities and gas testing machines should be available in the colliery (mines and infrastructure associated with mining).

Q. 6. How did early sociologists perceive industrialisation?

Ans. Thinkers like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships. In rural areas, however, people had face-to-face relationships, worked on their own farms or for a landlord they knew. This was substituted by anonymous professional relationships in modern factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour. People often do not see the end result of their work because they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often repetitive and exhausting. Marx called this situation alienation, where people do not enjoy work and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive, and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any human labour.

Q. 7. Read the source and answer the following question.

According to the convergence thesis put forward by modernisation theorist Clark Kerr, an industrialised India of the 21st century shares more features with China or the United States in the 21st century than it shares with 19th century India.

(i) According to the Convergence thesis, with which country does India share similar features?

Ans. According to the Convergence thesis, industrialised India of the 21st century shares more features with China or the United States in the 21st century than it shares with 19th century India.

(ii) Who gave the Convergence thesis?

Ans. It was put forward by Clark Kerr.

Q. 8. Read the source and answer the following question.

Dyal Singh College

(Delhi University Maintained College)

Lodi Road, New Delhi 110003

Applications are invited for the post of PRINCIPAL in the scale of pay Rs. 16,400-22400 (with a minimum of Rs. 17,300 p.m.) plus D.A., CCA, H.R.A., TA. and other benefits as permissible under the rules of the University of Delhi.

QUALIFICATIONS

(i) A Master’s Degree in a relevant subject with at least 55% marks or an equivalent grade of ‘B’ in the seven point scale with letter grade O, A, B, C, D, E & F.

(ii) Ph.D. or equivalent degree

(iii) Total experience of fifteen years of teaching and/or post-doctoral research in Universities/Colleges and other institution of higher education.

Applications stating full details of qualifications, experience, age, etc. with all the supporting documents should reach “The Chairman, Governing Body, Dyal Singh College, Lodi Road, New Delhi – 110 003” in a sealed cover within 15 days from the date of publication of this advertisement.

Chairman

Governing Body

(i) For which post is the vacancy about and what is the scale? Also mention the other perks.

Ans. For the post of PRINCIPAL in the scale of pay Rs. 16,400-22400 (with a minimum of Rs. 17,300 p.m.) plus D.A., CCA, H.R.A., T.A. and other benefits as permissible under the rules of the University of Delhi

(ii) What are the qualifications for this post?

Ans. (a) A Master’s Degree in a relevant subject with at least 55% marks or an equivalent grade of ‘B’ in the seven point scale with letter grade O, A, B, C, D, E & F.

(b) Ph.D. or equivalent degree

(c) Total experience of fifteen years of teaching and/or post-doctoral research in Universities/Colleges and other institution of higher education.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-ll (4 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Analyse the impact of Industrialisation.

Ans. Early sociologists saw industrialisation as both positive and negative. By the mid-20lh century, from the perspective of modernisation theory, industrialisation came to be seen as inevitable and positive. According to modernisation theory, societies are at different stages on the road to modernisation, but they are all heading in the same direction. Modem society, for these theorists, is represented by the West. The impact can be analysed based on its merits and demerits.

Q. 2. Briefly mention Gandhiji’s take on machinery.

Ans. Gandhiji was not against machinery but, against the craze for machinery. Machinery saves time and labour. However, it deprives people of their jobs and leads to starvation. Therefore, Gandhiji opined that machinery should save time and labour for all and accumulation of wealth for all and not in the hands of a few. He suggested the use of the spinning wheel to end exploitation and unemployment. Both Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment.

Q. 3. Discuss some of the hazards of the mining industry.

Ans. Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, the emission of gases and ventilation failures. Many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis. Those working in overground mines have to work in both hot sun and rain, and face injuries due to mine blasting, falling objects, etc. The rate of mining accidents in India is very high compared to other countries.

Q. 4. Explain contractor system in employment.

Ans. The contractor system is the prominent hiring system for casual labour for work at construction sites, brickyards, etc. The contractor goes to villages and asks if people want work. He will loan them some money. This loan includes the cost of transport to the work site. The loaned money is treated as an advance wage and the worker works without wages until the loan is repaid. In the past, agricultural labourers were tied to their landlord by debt. Now, however, by moving to casual industrial work, while they are still in debt, they are not bound by other social obligations to the contractor. In that sense, they are freer in an industrial society. They can break the contract and find another employer. Sometimes, whole families migrate and the children help their parents.

Q.5. Explain ‘Time Slavery’ in the IT Sector.

Ans. Long working hours are central to the industry’s ‘work culture’. This is due to the time difference between India and the client site, such that conference calls tend to take place in the evening when the working day in the U.S. begins. Another reason is that overwork is built into the structure of outsourced projects: project costs and timelines are usually underestimated in terms of mandays, and because mandays are based on an eight-hour day, engineers have to put in extra hours and days in order to meet the deadlines. Extended working hours are legitimised by the common management practice of ‘flexi-time’, which in theory gives an employee freedom to choose his or her working hours (within limits) but, which in practice, means that they have to work as long as necessary to finish the task at hand. But even when there is no real work pressure, they tend to stay late in office either due to peer pressure or because they want to show the boss that they are working hard.

Q. 6. Explain the chain of work in the bidi industry.

Ans. (i) An agent provides raw materials and picks up the finished product. The manufacturer gets the maximum value of the finished bidi because of the image of the brand, showing the power of images.

(ii) Village workers pluck tendu leaves which they sell to the Forest Department or a private contractor. Government auctions the leaves to bidi factory owners. Bidi factory owners give it to contractors. The Contractors supply tobacco and leaves to home-based workers. These workers are mostly women. They roll the bidis, dampen the leaves, cut them and tie it with a thread. This is then picked up by the contractors. They sell them to the manufacturer who roasts them and puts on his own brand label. The manufacturer then sells them to a distributor who in turn distributes to wholesalers. Subsequently, it reaches the pan shops for sale.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (6 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Discuss how work is carried out in a large manufacturing industry.

Ans. (i) The aim of any industry is good output and it is the responsibility of manager to get more work done from the workers. Therefore, the work is carried out in respect to this aim. The two main ways of making workers produce more are: extend the working hours and to increase the amount that is produced within a given time period.

(ii) Another way of increasing output is by organising work.

Taylorism: Frederick Winslow Taylor invented a system in the 1890s, called ‘Scientific Management’ or Taylorism or industrial engineering. All work was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers. Workers were timed with the help of stopwatches and had to fulfil a certain target every day.

(iii) Assembly line: Production was further speeded up by this. Each worker sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product. The speed of work could be set by adjusting the speed of the conveyor belt.

(iv) Indirect control: In the 1980s, there was an attempt to shift from this system of direct control to indirect control, where workers are supposed to motivate and monitor themselves.

(v) Outsourcing and just-in-time: All services like cleaning, security and manufacture of parts are outsourced. The parts suppliers are located around the factory and send the parts every two hours or just-in-time.

(vi) E.g., In Maruti Udyog Ltd., two cars roll off the assembly line every minute.

Q. 2. What are the social implications of the small size of the organised sector in India?

Ans. (i) Very few people have the experience of employment in large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds. E.g., Urban settings of your neighbours in a city may be from a different place. Personal relationships determine many aspects of work. E.g., If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raise and if you have a fight with him or her, you may lose your job. This is different from an organised sector, which has well-defined rules, transparent recruitment, mechanisms for complaints and redressal in case of disagreement with superiors.

(ii) Second, very few Indians have access to secure jobs with benefits. Of those who do, two-thirds work for the government. The rest are forced to depend on their children in their old age. Government employment in India has played a major role in overcoming boundaries of caste, religion and region.

(iii) Third, since very few people are members of unions, a feature of the organised sector, the unorganised or informal sector workers do not have the experience of collectively fighting for proper wages and safe working conditions. The government has laws to monitor conditions in the unorganised sector, but in practice they are left to the whims and fancies of the employer or contractor.

Q. 3. “This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for them”. Explain the statement by bringing the differences between the developed and developing countries’ economies.

Ans. According to ILO figures, in developed countries, majority of the people are in the service sector, followed by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture. However, in developing countries it is the opposite. E.g., in India during 2018-19, the figures were as follows:

Employment:

(i) 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining),

(ii) 17% iii the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and

(iii) 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.).

Contribution to economic growth: Share of agriculture has declined sharply and services contribute approximately more than half. Another difference is the number of people in regular salaried employment. In developed countries, the majority are formally employed. In India, over 52% of the workers are self-employed, only about 24% are in regular salaried employment, while approximately 24% are in casual labour. The adjacent chart shows the changes between 1972-73 and 2018-2019. There is distinction between the organised or formal and unorganised or informal sector. According to one definition, the organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits. For example, working in a construction site, domestic help, care-taking, self-employed through contacts like plumbers, electricians, beauticians. In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector. Hence, it means that the sector in which majority of the people are employed in India, is not producing to the economic growth. And the services sector, which employs a smaller population, has contributed more to the country’s economic growth. This also means that majority of the people in India do not have job security, social and health benefits from the employer and a stable income.

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