NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation  

Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age Of Industrialisation, in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.  

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class ten Social Science the Age Of Industrialisation so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class ten Social Science The Age Of Industrialisation below and prepare in your tests easily.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation  

Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation  

Exercise Questions

Q.1 Explain the following :

( a ) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny .

Ans . James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced the demand for labour . By the use of this machine , a single worker could turn a number of spindles and spin several threads at a time . Many workers survived on hand spinning . Due to fear of unemployment , women workers attacked the new machines .

( b ) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages .

Ans . World trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th century . The acquisition of colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand . The producers in the towns failed to produce the required quantity of cloth .

The producers could not expand the production in the towns because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful and restricted the entry of new people into the trade . The rulers granted different guilds , the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products . It was therefore , difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns .

So , they turned to the country side and employed poor peasants and artisans for their work .

( c ) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century .

Ans . The European companies were gaining power by securing a variety of concessions from the local courts . They operated from the ports of Bombay and Calcutta .

It was very difficult for the Indian merchants ( trading from Surat port ) and traders to face the competition as most of the European countries had huge resources .

Some of the European companies got the monopoly rights to trade . All this resulted in the decline of the Surat port by the end of the 18th century .

( d ) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India .

Ans . The East India Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade and establish a more direct control over the weavers . Therefore , it appointed a paid servant called gomasthas to supervise weavers , collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth .

Q. 2. Write True or False against each statement :

( a ) At the end of the nineteenth century , 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector .

Ans . False

( b ) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century .

Ans . True

( c ) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India .

Ans . False

( d ) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity .

Ans . True

Q. 3 . Explain what is meant by proto – industrialisation .

Ans . Even before factories began to appear on the landscape of England and Europe , large scale industrial production for an international market was going on . This was not based on factories . Many historians refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto- industrialisation .

It affected the life of the 18th century English countryside in the following way .

( i ) In the urban areas , there were craft guilds which produced a variety of things much before the introduction of machines .

( ii ) In the rural areas , the merchants had set up their own production units where most of the work was done by workers manually . Many workers even produced in their family farms . By working for the merchants , they could cultivate their small plots . Income from proto – industrial production supplemented their income .

Discuss

Q.1 . Why did some industrialists in nineteenth – century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ?

Ans . In the 19th century Europe , there was no shortage of human labour . Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs . Thus , industrialists have no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs .

In many industries , the demand for labour was seasonal . Gas work and breweries were busy in the cold months . At the time of Christmas , book binding , printing , catering sector needed extra work force . In all such industries , where need was fluctuating , industrialists preferred hand labour , employing labour only for the busy season .

The industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment . Machine could produce uniforms , standardised goods for a mass market . A range of products could be produced only with land labour . In Victorian Britain , the upper classes viz , the aristocrats and bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hands .

Q.2 . How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers ?

Ans . The East Indian Company established political power to assert their monopoly right to trade . The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with cloth trade and establish a more direct control over the weavers .

It appointed paid servants called gomasthas to supervise weavers , collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth .

It prevented the company weavers from dealing with other buyers . Once an order was placed , the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material . Those , who took loans had to handover the cloth they produced to the gomasthas only . They could not take it to any other trader . They developed a system of management and control that would eliminate competition , control cost and ensure supply of cotton and silk goods . The weavers had to sell at a price dictated by the company . By giving the weavers a loan , the company tied the weavers with it .

Q. 3. Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton . Write your piece using information from the entire chapter .

Ans . The following inventions in the 18th century England ( given in chronological order ) are important milestones in the history of cotton .

( i ) James Hargreaves invented the ” spinning Jenny ” in 1764. This speeded up spinning work significantly .

( ii ) John Key invented the ‘ flying shuttle ‘ in 1769 , which speeded up the weaving process .

( iii ) Richard Arkwright improved the spinning Jenny 1769 , so that it could be run by water power . He called it the ‘ water frame ‘ .

( iv ) In 1776 , Samuel Crompton invented the ” mule ” which combined the advantage of both the water frame and spinning jenny .

( v ) In 1785 , Edmund Cartwright invented the Power loom , which used steam power for both spinning and weaving .

( vi ) Eli Whitney ( in the USA ) invented the ‘ cotton Jini ‘ in 1793 , which solved the problem of removing seeds from the cotton fibres . This could separate the seeds from the fibres 300 times faster than hand .

( vii ) Later on , Arkwright created a complete cotton mill where all the textile manufacturing process could be completed under one roof and management . The history of cotton can be understood from the points given below –

( i ) The use of steam power played a very significant role in running cotton mills . Production of textiles increased in a very short time and with less manual labour . At the beginning of 19th century , there were near about 321 steam engines in England and out of them 80 were in use in cotton textile mills .

( ii ) The East Indian Company appointed gomasthas , a paid servant of the company to supervise weavers , collect supplies and judge and inspect the quality of textiles . Gomasthas were the link between the East India Company and the weavers .

( iii ) The Indian weavers could not compete and so by the beginning of 19th century , there had been virtually no import of cotton- piece goods into India . Cotton weavers of India faced two problems simultaneously , the export market collapsed and the local market shrank .

( iv ) In the 1860s , weavers faced a new problem of insufficient supply of raw cotton from USA due to American civil war . The price of raw cotton increased rapidly due to the big demand of raw cotton export from India . Weavers found themselves unable to pay for it .

( v ) After the First World War , Manchester could never capture again its old position in the Indian market . Britain could not match with the USA , Germany and Japan in reference of modernisation and competition . As a result , production of cotton collapsed and export of cotton textiles from England fell down heavily .

Q. 4 . Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War ?

Ans . As the British mills were busy with the First World War production to meet the needs of the army , Manchester imports into India declined . Then the Indian industrial growths suddenly shoot up . The reasons behind the growth were –

( i ) With the decline of imports suddenly , Indians mills had a vast domestic market to supply their products .

( ii ) As the war prolonged , Indian factories were called upon to supply for war needs also , such as jute bags , cloth for uniforms of soldiers , tents , leather boots etc. , and many other items .

( iii ) New factories were set up and old ones organised multiple shifts ; many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work for longer hours during the war years .

As a result , Indian industries boomed .

Intext Questions

Q.1 . Give two examples where modern development that is associated with progress has led to problems . You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues , nuclear weapons or disease . [ Activity , Page no – 80 ]

Ans . ( i ) Modern development led to the invention of the nuclear bomb . The USA used it on Japan during the Second World War . Millions died and the people there are still facing problems because of the harmful radiations emitted by the bomb . Until today , 9 countries have developed nuclear weapons . In case of any nuclear war in future , the whole world will be destroyed .

( ii ) Modern development led to the invention of many vehicles . Vehicles emit the carbon di – oxide and carbon monoxide gases which are very harmful for our health .

Q. 2 . The way in which historians focus on industrialisation rather than on small workshops is a good example of how what we believe today about the past is influenced by what historians choose to notice and what they ignore . Note down one event or aspect of your own life which adults such as your parents or teachers may think is unimportant , but which you believe to the be important . [ Activity , Page no – 83 ]

Ans . We humans are social beings . We like to have a social life and many friends , but most parents think that this is a wastage of time .

Q. 3 . Look at Figs . 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way the two images show industrialisation ? Explain your view briefly . [ Activity , Page no – 83 ]

Ans . Fig 4 shows a well lit cotton mill which according to the artist is an impressive sight . Fig 5 shows an industrial landscape with chimneys emitting smoke . The first figure paints a rosy picture and shows only the positive aspect of industrialisation while the second figure shows the harmful effects ( pollution ) of the industrialisation .

Q. 4. Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine . Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology . [ Activity , Page no – 85 ]

Ans . A sample letter is given below –

London

25th August , 1790

Dear John ,

This refers to your quotation regarding the new weaving machine which you want to sell us . I am afraid I won’t be able to purchase it because of the following reasons –

( a ) The price of the machine is too high for the output that you claim it gives . I don’t have the money to buy it .

( b ) I already have labourers doing the work by hand . There is no shortage of labour here and they are very efficient .

( c ) Since , the requirement is seasonal and I can lay off the workmen when work is not there , I save money at that time . The machine will always remain with me and I will always be paying the interest on the loan that I took to buy it irrespective of whether I use the machine or not .

( d ) The machine can produce only the standardised cloth , whereas different customers demand different designs . I can supply it easily if the cloth is handmade .

( e ) If the machine breaks down then I have to spend money to get it repaired which will put financial constraints on me .

For all these reasons , I won’t be able to purchase the machine offered by you .

Yours Sincerely ,

Edward

Q. 5. Look at Figs . 3 , 7 and 11 , then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny . [ Discuss , Page no – 87 ]

Ans . Workers who survived on hand spinning were opposed to the use of spinning jenny as it was taking away their jobs . Earlier , the spinning was done by hand so the whole family got involved in the process of making yarn but now the same work could be done by the machine . Therefore , workers attacked the use of spinning jenny for the fear of loss of employment .

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