Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
Q.1 Explain the following :
( a ) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny .
Ans . James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced the demand for labour . By the use of this machine , a single worker could turn a number of spindles and spin several threads at a time . Many workers survived on hand spinning . Due to fear of unemployment , women workers attacked the new machines .
( b ) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages .
Ans . World trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th century . The acquisition of colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand . The producers in the towns failed to produce the required quantity of cloth .
The producers could not expand the production in the towns because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful and restricted the entry of new people into the trade . The rulers granted different guilds , the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products . It was therefore , difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns .
So , they turned to the country side and employed poor peasants and artisans for their work .
( c ) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century .
Ans . The European companies were gaining power by securing a variety of concessions from the local courts . They operated from the ports of Bombay and Calcutta .
It was very difficult for the Indian merchants ( trading from Surat port ) and traders to face the competition as most of the European countries had huge resources .
Some of the European companies got the monopoly rights to trade . All this resulted in the decline of the Surat port by the end of the 18th century .
( d ) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India .
Ans . The East India Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade and establish a more direct control over the weavers . Therefore , it appointed a paid servant called gomasthas to supervise weavers , collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth .
Q. 2. Write True or False against each statement :
( a ) At the end of the nineteenth century , 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector .
Ans . False
( b ) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century .
Ans . True
( c ) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India .
Ans . False
( d ) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity .
Ans . True
Q. 3 . Explain what is meant by proto – industrialisation .
Ans . Even before factories began to appear on the landscape of England and Europe , large scale industrial production for an international market was going on . This was not based on factories . Many historians refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto- industrialisation .
It affected the life of the 18th century English countryside in the following way .
( i ) In the urban areas , there were craft guilds which produced a variety of things much before the introduction of machines .
( ii ) In the rural areas , the merchants had set up their own production units where most of the work was done by workers manually . Many workers even produced in their family farms . By working for the merchants , they could cultivate their small plots . Income from proto – industrial production supplemented their income .
Q.1 . Why did some industrialists in nineteenth – century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ?
Ans . In the 19th century Europe , there was no shortage of human labour . Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs . Thus , industrialists have no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs .
In many industries , the demand for labour was seasonal . Gas work and breweries were busy in the cold months . At the time of Christmas , book binding , printing , catering sector needed extra work force . In all such industries , where need was fluctuating , industrialists preferred hand labour , employing labour only for the busy season .
The industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment . Machine could produce uniforms , standardised goods for a mass market . A range of products could be produced only with land labour . In Victorian Britain , the upper classes viz , the aristocrats and bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hands .
Q.2 . How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers ?
Ans . The East Indian Company established political power to assert their monopoly right to trade . The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with cloth trade and establish a more direct control over the weavers .
It appointed paid servants called gomasthas to supervise weavers , collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth .
It prevented the company weavers from dealing with other buyers . Once an order was placed , the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material . Those , who took loans had to handover the cloth they produced to the gomasthas only . They could not take it to any other trader . They developed a system of management and control that would eliminate competition , control cost and ensure supply of cotton and silk goods . The weavers had to sell at a price dictated by the company . By giving the weavers a loan , the company tied the weavers with it .
Q. 3. Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton . Write your piece using information from the entire chapter .
Ans . The following inventions in the 18th century England ( given in chronological order ) are important milestones in the history of cotton .
( i ) James Hargreaves invented the ” spinning Jenny ” in 1764. This speeded up spinning work significantly .
( ii ) John Key invented the ‘ flying shuttle ‘ in 1769 , which speeded up the weaving process .
( iii ) Richard Arkwright improved the spinning Jenny 1769 , so that it could be run by water power . He called it the ‘ water frame ‘ .
( iv ) In 1776 , Samuel Crompton invented the ” mule ” which combined the advantage of both the water frame and spinning jenny .
( v ) In 1785 , Edmund Cartwright invented the Power loom , which used steam power for both spinning and weaving .
( vi ) Eli Whitney ( in the USA ) invented the ‘ cotton Jini ‘ in 1793 , which solved the problem of removing seeds from the cotton fibres . This could separate the seeds from the fibres 300 times faster than hand .
( vii ) Later on , Arkwright created a complete cotton mill where all the textile manufacturing process could be completed under one roof and management . The history of cotton can be understood from the points given below –
( i ) The use of steam power played a very significant role in running cotton mills . Production of textiles increased in a very short time and with less manual labour . At the beginning of 19th century , there were near about 321 steam engines in England and out of them 80 were in use in cotton textile mills .
( ii ) The East Indian Company appointed gomasthas , a paid servant of the company to supervise weavers , collect supplies and judge and inspect the quality of textiles . Gomasthas were the link between the East India Company and the weavers .
( iii ) The Indian weavers could not compete and so by the beginning of 19th century , there had been virtually no import of cotton- piece goods into India . Cotton weavers of India faced two problems simultaneously , the export market collapsed and the local market shrank .
( iv ) In the 1860s , weavers faced a new problem of insufficient supply of raw cotton from USA due to American civil war . The price of raw cotton increased rapidly due to the big demand of raw cotton export from India . Weavers found themselves unable to pay for it .
( v ) After the First World War , Manchester could never capture again its old position in the Indian market . Britain could not match with the USA , Germany and Japan in reference of modernisation and competition . As a result , production of cotton collapsed and export of cotton textiles from England fell down heavily .
Q. 4 . Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War ?
Ans . As the British mills were busy with the First World War production to meet the needs of the army , Manchester imports into India declined . Then the Indian industrial growths suddenly shoot up . The reasons behind the growth were –
( i ) With the decline of imports suddenly , Indians mills had a vast domestic market to supply their products .
( ii ) As the war prolonged , Indian factories were called upon to supply for war needs also , such as jute bags , cloth for uniforms of soldiers , tents , leather boots etc. , and many other items .
( iii ) New factories were set up and old ones organised multiple shifts ; many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work for longer hours during the war years .
As a result , Indian industries boomed .
Q.1 . Give two examples where modern development that is associated with progress has led to problems . You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues , nuclear weapons or disease . [ Activity , Page no – 80 ]
Ans . ( i ) Modern development led to the invention of the nuclear bomb . The USA used it on Japan during the Second World War . Millions died and the people there are still facing problems because of the harmful radiations emitted by the bomb . Until today , 9 countries have developed nuclear weapons . In case of any nuclear war in future , the whole world will be destroyed .
( ii ) Modern development led to the invention of many vehicles . Vehicles emit the carbon di – oxide and carbon monoxide gases which are very harmful for our health .
Q. 2 . The way in which historians focus on industrialisation rather than on small workshops is a good example of how what we believe today about the past is influenced by what historians choose to notice and what they ignore . Note down one event or aspect of your own life which adults such as your parents or teachers may think is unimportant , but which you believe to the be important . [ Activity , Page no – 83 ]
Ans . We humans are social beings . We like to have a social life and many friends , but most parents think that this is a wastage of time .
Q. 3 . Look at Figs . 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way the two images show industrialisation ? Explain your view briefly . [ Activity , Page no – 83 ]
Ans . Fig 4 shows a well lit cotton mill which according to the artist is an impressive sight . Fig 5 shows an industrial landscape with chimneys emitting smoke . The first figure paints a rosy picture and shows only the positive aspect of industrialisation while the second figure shows the harmful effects ( pollution ) of the industrialisation .
Q. 4. Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine . Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology . [ Activity , Page no – 85 ]
Ans . A sample letter is given below –
25th August , 1790
Dear John ,
This refers to your quotation regarding the new weaving machine which you want to sell us . I am afraid I won’t be able to purchase it because of the following reasons –
( a ) The price of the machine is too high for the output that you claim it gives . I don’t have the money to buy it .
( b ) I already have labourers doing the work by hand . There is no shortage of labour here and they are very efficient .
( c ) Since , the requirement is seasonal and I can lay off the workmen when work is not there , I save money at that time . The machine will always remain with me and I will always be paying the interest on the loan that I took to buy it irrespective of whether I use the machine or not .
( d ) The machine can produce only the standardised cloth , whereas different customers demand different designs . I can supply it easily if the cloth is handmade .
( e ) If the machine breaks down then I have to spend money to get it repaired which will put financial constraints on me .
For all these reasons , I won’t be able to purchase the machine offered by you .
Yours Sincerely ,
Q. 5. Look at Figs . 3 , 7 and 11 , then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny . [ Discuss , Page no – 87 ]
Ans . Workers who survived on hand spinning were opposed to the use of spinning jenny as it was taking away their jobs . Earlier , the spinning was done by hand so the whole family got involved in the process of making yarn but now the same work could be done by the machine . Therefore , workers attacked the use of spinning jenny for the fear of loss of employment .
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