Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
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Q. 1. Write a note on :
( a ) Guiseppe Mazzini
( b ) Count Camillo de Cavour
( c ) The Greek war of independence
( d ) Frankfurt parliament
( e ) The role of women in nationalist struggles .
Ans . ( a ) He was an Italian revolutionary , who was born in Genoa in 1807. He was sent into exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria . He founded two secret societies , namely Young Italy and Young Europe . He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities .
Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies , more such secret societies were set up in Germany , France , Switzerland and Poland . Austrian Chancellor Duke Matternich once described him as ” the most dangerous enemy of our social order . “
( b ) He was the chief minister of Piedmont . He was neither a democratic nor a revolutionary . But he led the movement to unify the regions of Italy . Through tact and diplomacy , he entered into an alliance with France and succeeded in defeating Austrian forces in 1859 .
( c ) It was a successful war waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 to 1832 against the Ottoman Empire . Greek nationalists were influenced by the idea of liberal nationalism . They were supported by the West European countries in this war of independence . Further , the poets and artists , who added romanticism into the Greek struggle for independence , participated in this war against the Ottoman Empire .
With the treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 , Greece was recognised as an independent nation .
( d ) The German middle class decided to vote for an all German National assembly in 1848 and 831 sons were elected . They comprised the national assembly .
The assembly decided to organise the parliament in Frankfurt in the church of St. Paul . Thus on 18th May 1848 , the famous Frankfurt parliament was convened . The assembly decided that the German nation would be a constitutional monarchy controlled by Parliament and offered the crown to the Prussian king , Friedrich Wilhelm IV . But he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly .
The parliament also faced strong opposition from the aristocracy and military as it was joined by the middle – class who resisted the demands of workers and artisans . As a result of this , the middle class lost their mass support . Ultimately the monarchy and military combined together with the aristocracy won over the liberal nationalist middle class .
This forced the assembly to disband itself . Therefore , the Frankfurt parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and a victory of monarchy .
( e ) Women played very significant roles in nationalist struggles all over the world . They actively participated in movements , faced the tortures of police , stood by their male counterparts , spread the idea of liberal nationalism and were also members of various revolutionary organisations .
A good example is the French revolution , in which men and women participated equally . Even the concept of liberty is personified as a woman . Liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage , leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe . In spite of this , they were given little or no political rights or right to vote till the end of 19th century .
Q. 2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people ?
Ans . The French revolutionaries took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people :
( i ) They introduced the ideas of La patrie ( the fatherland ) and La citoyen ( the citizen ) emphasizing the concept of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution .
( ii ) They chose a new French flag , the tricolour , to replace the royal standard .
( iii ) The Estates general was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed as the National assembly .
( iv ) In the name of the nation , new hymns were composed , oaths taken and martyrs commemorated .
( v ) They established a centralised administrative system , which formulated uniform laws for all citizens .
( vi ) They adopted a uniform system of weights and measures .
( vii ) All internal custom duties were abolished .
( viii ) They promoted the French language , as spoken and written in Paris and discouraged regional dialects .
( xi ) They declared that it was the mission and destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism . It is meant that they would help other people of Europe to become nation – states like them .
Q.3 . Who were Marianne and Germania ? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed ?
Ans . Marianne and Germania were the feminine allegories of France and German nation respectively .
Significance / importance of portraying female figures :
The female allegories stood as personifications of the ” Republic ” and ” the liberty ” . They were portrayed such that it would instil a sense of nationality in the citizens of these countries . In France , Marianne’s characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic – the red cap , the tricolour , the cockade . Statues of Marianne were erected in the public squares to remind the public of national symbol of unity . Germania wears a crown of oaks leaves which stands for heroism .
Q. 4. Briefly trace the process of German unification .
Ans . The Frankfurt parliament , which was convened in the church of St. Paul on the 18th May , 1848 was the first major step , towards the unification of German states . Otto Bismarck , the chief minister of Prussia , carried out the process of unification with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy . The other four stages towards the unification of Germany were :
( i ) The liberal initiatives of nation building were repressed by the monarchy and big landlords of Prussia . From then on , Prussia took the initiative to unify Germany .
( ii ) Bismarck was convinced that the unification of Germany could be only achieved by the princes , not by the common people .
He wanted to achieve his aim by merging Prussia into Germany . In 1867 , Bismarck became the chancellor of the north confederation .
( iii ) Bismarck’s main objective was to unify Germany and it was accomplished by three wars with Austria , Denmark and France which were fought in a brief period of seven years .
( iv ) These wars ended with the victory of Prussia which helped in completing the process of German unification . On 18th January , 1871 , in the royal palace of Versailles , the king of Prussia , Kaiser William I was crowned as the German emperor . It symbolised the birth of united Germany .
Q. 5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him ?
Ans . Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him
( i ) He established the civil code of 1804 , also known as Napoleonic code . This did away with all privileges based on birth . It established equality before law and secured the right to property .
( ii ) He simplified administrative divisions .
( iii ) He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues .
( iv ) In towns , guild systems were removed .
( v ) Transport and communications services were improved .
Due to the above measures , peasants , artisans , businessmen and workers enjoyed a new found freedom . Businessmen and small – scale producers realised that uniform laws , a common currency and standardised weights and measures would facilitate movements and exchange of goods between regions .
Q. 1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals . What were the political , social and economic ideas supported by the liberals ?
Ans . By the 1848 revolution of the Liberals , we mean the revolution led by the educated middle classes of Europe . Events of 1848 , in France , brought about the abdication of the monarchy and a Republic based on universal male franchise was formed .
The political , social and economic ideas supported by the Liberals in the 19th century were :
( i ) Politically , it emphasized the concept of government by consent , abolition of autocracy and privileges .
( ii ) Socially , the liberals supported the abolition of discrimination of birth .
( iii ) Economically , it stood for the abolition of trade restrictions imposed by the state .
Q. 2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe .
Ans . Examples of contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe :
( i ) The ideas of nation can be created through stories , poems and writings . Music too can help in expressing nationalist feelings or sentiments .
( ii ) Romanticism , a cultural movement which emerged in Europe , sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiments or national feelings . The main aim of romantic artists was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past .
( iii ) Language also played an important role in developing the nationalist sentiments or nationalist feelings . For example , in Poland . language began to be used as a weapon of national resistance . The wide scale use of Polish language came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against national dominance .
Q. 3 . Through a focus on any two countries , explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century .
Ans . We will focus on the development of the German and Italian nation states in the 19th century , considering the following points .
( i ) Political Fragmentation : Till the middle of the 19th century , the present day states of Germany and Italy were fragmented into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely states .
( ii ) Revolutionary uprisings : 19th century Europe was characterised by both popular uprisings of the masses and revolutions led by the educated and liberal middle classes . In the case of German people , the middle classes belonging to different German regions came together to form an all German national assembly in 1848 .
However , on facing opposition from aristocracy and military and on losing its mass support base , it was forced to disband . In the Italian region , during the 1830s , revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini tried to establish an Italian republic , However , the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy .
( iii ) Unification with the help of the Army : After the failure of revolutions , the process of unification was pursued by the aristocracy and the army in both these nations .
Germany was united by the Prussian chief minister Otto van Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy . Prussia fought three wars with Austria , Denmark and France over seven years and won . It completed the process of unification . Finally , the German Empire was proclaimed in 1871 .
The Italian state of Sardinia – Piedmont played the role of uniting Italy , similar to that played by Prussia in the case of Germany . Count Camillo de Cavour ( the chief minister of Sardinia – Piedmont ) led the movement to unite the separate states of 19th century Italy with the help of the army and an alliance with France .
The regions annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his red shirts joined with the Northern regions to form a united Italy in 1861. The papal states joined in 1870 .
Q. 4 . How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
Ans . History of nationalism in Britain
Before the 18th century , different ethnic groups of people were there in the British isles , such as English , Welsh , Scot and Irish . Each of these ethnic groups had its own cultural and political traditions . Nationalism in Britain was not the result of a sudden upheaval and revolution . It was due to a long drawn process .
The English nation possessed the three nations of the islands through a steady growth in property , wealth and power . Besides this , the English language , British flag and national anthem were promoted as national symbols to identify the nationality of the nation .
The British Parliament became the chief instrument to curb the power of the monarchy in 1688 through a bloodless revolution . The act of union ( 1707 ) between England and Scotland formed the united kingdom of Britain .
Q. 5 . Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans ?
Ans . Nationalist tensions emerged in Balkans because the Balkan states were aspiring for nationalism . The Balkans were region comprising modern day Romania , Bulgaria , Albania , Greece , Macedonia , Croatia , Bosnia – Herzegovina , Slovenia , Serbia and Montenegro and their inhabitants were called slavs . In the 19th century , the major portions of the Balkans was under the Ottoman Empire . The ideas of romantic nationalism developed in the Balkans . The rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought that their struggle was the attempt to win back their long – lost independence .
Q.1 . In what way do you think this print ( Fig . 1 ) depicts a utopian vision ? ( Activity , Page no . 3 )
Ans . Utopian vision means depicting something idealistic , something which is not possible in reality . The French artist Frederic Sorrieu was visualising a dream of world made up of nations ( all of these did not exist as nations at the time when this painting was made ) .He had showed the German people with a common flag , although they were a number of different states at that time . So , it is an idealistic or a utopian vision .
Q.2 . Summarise the attributes of a nation , as Renan understands them . Why , in his view , are nations important ? [ Discuss , Page no . 4 ]
Ans . According to Renan A nation is the culmination of Ima long past of endeavours , sacrifice and devotion . A heroic past and great men glorifies the social capital upon which one bases a national idea . To have common glories in the past , to have a a common will in the present , to have performed great deeds together , to wish to perform still more are the essential conditions of being a people .
He says that the existence of nations is a good thing , rather it is a necessity . Their existence is a guarantee of liberty , which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master .
Q.3 . Describe the political ends that Friedrich List hopes to achieve through economic measures . ( Zollverein ) [ Discuss , Page no . 10 ]
Ans . ( i ) ‘ The aim of the Zollverein is to bind the Germans economically into a nation .
( ii ) It will strengthen the nation materially as much by protecting its interests externally as by stimulating its internal productivity .
( iii ) It ought to awaken and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests .
Q.4 . What is the caricaturist trying to depict ? [ Discuss , Page no . 11 ]
Ans . Conservative regimes set up in the early 17th century were autocratic . They did not tolerate criticism and dissent , and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments . Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers , books , plays and songs .
Q. 5. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity . [ Discuss , Page no . 15 ]
Ans . Language , traditions and culture plays an important role in creating the idea of the nation . Art and poetry , stories and music helps express and shape nationalist feelings . They all create a sense of a shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation .
Q. 6 . Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers ‘ uprising . Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist . [ Discuss , Page no . 16 ] Ans . The Silesian weavers revolted against their contractors because they had drastically reduced their payments . The journalist was sympathetic towards the weavers , he has described how the contractors were taking advantage of their misery .
Activity ( Page no . 16 )
Q. 7. Imagine you are a weaver who saw the events as they unfolded . Write a report on what you saw .
Ans . I have worked very hard to supply the woven cloth in time , but received very little payment than what was agreed to by the contractor . Since , by other weavers have also got less payment , on the afternoon of 4th June at 2 PM , I went along with my partner and other weavers to the contractor’s house asking for better wages for our weaving .
Our demands were scornfully refused , we were even threatened that no more work will be given to us if we did not work at the same rate as to what was paid to us earlier . Some of my fellow weavers got angry at this and broke the windowpanes of the contractor’s house , barged inside and damaged his house . To escape from this , the contractor ran away from his house with his family to a nearby village but there also he was denied shelter .
Next day , the contractor returned with soldiers from the army and fired at our group of weavers , killing eleven of us . I was injured in the leg by a bullet and I am still nursing my wound .
Q . 8. Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above . What do they reveal about liberal ideology ? [ Discuss , Page no . 18 ]
Ans . According to the view of first writer Carl Welcker , Nature has created men and women to carry out different functions … Man , the stronger , the bolder and freer of the two , has been designated as a protector of the family and as a provider . He is meant for public tasks in the domain of law , production and defence . Woman , the weaker , dependent and timid , requires the protection of man . Her sphere is the home where she is solely concerned about the care of the children and the nurturing of the family . He says that because of the differences , equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family .
The second writer Louise Otto Peters also expressed similar opinions .
The third writer says that it is ridiculous and unreasonable to deny women , the political rights when they already enjoy the rights to property . He says that it is clearly an injustice to women that although they perform functions and assumes responsibilities ; they are denied rights which are given to men .
Although liberal ideology promises equal rights and freedom to all , but here even the liberal political thinkers are not in favour of granting the same to women .
Activity ( Page no . 20 )
Q.9 . Describe the caricature . How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament ? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey ?
Ans . The caricature depicts Bismarck , the chancellor of Germany as holding a whip ( signifying that he is a ruthless man ruling with an iron hand ) leading the parliament . The deputies who were elected are afraid of him and so are hiding under the table . The caricature depicts the dominance of Bismarck over the deputies . The artist is trying to make fun of the democratic processes and says that it is there in name only .
Activity ( Page no . 21 )
Q. 10. Look at Fig . 14 ( a ) . Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians ?
Examine Fig . 14 ( b ) . Which was the first region to become a part of unified Italy ? Which was the last region to join ? In which year did the largest number of states join ?
Ans . ( i ) Italy had a long history of political fragmentation . Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as in the multi – national Habsburg Empire . During the middle of the nineteenth century , Italy was divided into seven states , of which only one , Sardinia – Piedmont , was ruled by an Italian princely house . The north was under Austrian Habsburgs , the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain . Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations . So , obviously they did not think themselves as a state .
( ii ) The first region to join unified Italy was Lombardy , The last region was papal state . The largest number of regions joined in 1860 .
Activity ( Page no . 22 )
Q. 11. The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot , so that the King of Sardinia – Piedmont can enter it from the top . Look at the map of Italy once more . What statement is this caricature making ?
Ans . The boot symbolises the map of Italy and the base of the boot is the Kingdom of both Sicilies which was won by Garibaldi and handed over to the king . This caricature depicts the final unification of Italy and Garibaldi’s role in it .
Activity ( Page no . 24 )
Q. 12. With the help of the chart in Box 3 , identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting . In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836 , Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain . Explain the significance of this change .
Ans . The painting signifies the emergence of the nation state of Germany . The allegory Germania represents the German nation . The symbolical meaning of each attribute of Germania is given in the chart .
The replacement of Kaiser’s crown with broken chain signifies that the nation of Germany is now free from autocratic monarchical rule .
Activity ( Page no . 24 )
Q. 13. Describe what you see in Fig . 17. What historical events could Hübner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation ?
Ans . The painter depicted Germania as a fallen woman with the crown and stick thrown aside because hopes of the German people to get united under one monarch ( King Friedrich Wilhelm IV ) was dashed as the King rejected their demand in 1848. The artist Hubner depicted Germania in a the forlorn state due to this rejection by the king . It symbolised the loss of hope . The crown and stick are symbols of the monarchy which have been cast aside .
Q. 14. Look once more at Fig . 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament . How would you ( i ) as a man seated in the hall of deputies , and ( ii ) as a woman observing from the galleries , relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling ? ( Activity , Page no . 25 )
Ans . ( i ) As a man seated in the hall of Galleries , I would say that we are on the way to achieve what the banner depicts .
( ii ) As a woman who is allowed inside , only as an observer , I would be disappointed . The banner of Germania depicts freedom for all but women are not totally free yet . They are still bound by some chains . Even though we had participated equally with men in the political struggles , the time has come to give us equal representation that we have been denied . We have been denied our political rights . We are allowed inside only as passive citizens and observers . We cant take active participation in the political proceedings yet .
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