Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World
Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World
Q.1 . Give reasons for the following :
( a ) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295 .
Ans . Marco Polo , the Italian explorer visited China and learnt the technology of woodblock printing When he returned to Italy in 1295 , he brought this knowledge back with him . Gradually this knowledge spread from Italy to other parts of the world .
( b ) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it .
Ans . In 1517 , Martin Luther , the religious reformer wrote ” Ninety five Theses ” criticising many of the corrupt practices of the catholic church and pasted a printed copy of this on the church door in Wittenberg Very soon , thousands of copies of Luther’s Theses were printed spreading his ideas among people . Martin Luther was deeply moved by realising the power of printing , which brought about the Reformation movement in Germany . Thus , he said ” Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one . “
( c ) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid sixteenth century
Ans . Print and popular literature encouraged many distinctive interpretations of religious faith and ideas . In the 16th century , Menocchio , a miller in Italy began to read books available readily in his locality . He gave a new interpretation of the Bible and formulated a view of God and creation which made the Roman catholic church angry . As a result , Menocchio was hauled up twice and was ultimately executed when the Roman Catholic Church began its inquisition to repress the heretical ideas ,
After this , several control measures were imposed on publishers and book – sellers . In 1558 , the Roman church decided to maintain an index of the prohibited books .
( d ) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech , liberty of the press , and freedom of association .
Ans . Mahatma Gandhi said those words in 1922 during the Non – cooperation movement ( 1920-1922 ) . According to him , without the liberty of speech , the liberty of press and freedom of association , no nation can even survive . If the country was to get free from foreign domination , then these liberties were quite important .
If there is no liberty of press and freedom of association , then there is no nationalism . Nationalism requires these three pre requisites for its survival That is why , he said so , particularly about these three freedoms To Gandhiji , Swaraj meant the freedom of press before anything else .
Q. 2. Write short notes to show what you know about :
( i ) The Gutenberg Press
Ans . Gutenberg Press was the first printing press of Europe . It was invented by Johann Gutenberg of Strasbourg , He grew up in a large agricultural estate and had knowledge and experience in operating olive and wine presses . The olive press provided him the model for the printing press and he used moulds for casting metal types for letters of the alphabet . He invented the printing press around the year 1448 .
( ii ) Erasmus’s idea of the printed book
Ans . Erasmus , a Latin scholar was not happy with printing of books because he was afraid that this would lead to circulation of books with rebellious ideas . He felt that although a few books may give useful information , the majority of books may be just useless or give stupid , scandalous or irreligious ideas which may lead to provoke rebellion .
( iii ) The Vernacular Press Act
Ans . It was passed in 1878 by the British government in India . This act provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press . If a vernacular press published any seditious material , the paper was banned and its printing machinery was seized .
Q.3 . What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to :
( i ) Women
( ii ) The poor
( iii ) Reformers
Ans . ( i ) Women became important as readers and writers . Reading habits improved among them With increase in literacy , women took great interest in reading and writing . Many journals started emphasising the importance of women’s education . Many magazines and books were specially published for women .
The print culture gave women some amount of freedom to read and develop their own views on various issues specially those related to women . Women novelists such as Jane Austen and Bronte sisters in Europe and Kailashbashini Debi , Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai in India presented the new type of woman ; a woman . with the power to think and with the ability to act with determination .
( ii ) As the literacy rate improved in Europe as well as India , printed material especially for entertainment , began to reach even to the poor . In England , Penny magazines were carried by pedlars and sold for a penny , so that even poor people could buy them . Those who could not read could listen to stories and folklores . These could . be read out to them by others .
Books could be hired on nominal fee from some book owners . Even in India , very cheap small books were brought to market in 19th century , Madras and small towns , allowing poor people to have access to print culture . Public libraries were set up in the early 20th century where poor people could visit and borrow books . Gradually , even poor people began to read religious stories , books with simple instructions or stories and folklore .
( iii ) Reformers used newspapers , journals and books to highlight the social evils prevailing in society .
Raja Ram Mohan Roy published the ‘ Sambad Kaumudi ‘ to highlight the plight of widows . This , newspaper actively campaigned for the abolition of ” Sati ‘ .
From the 1860s , many Bengali writers like Kailash bhashini Devi , wrote books highlighting the experience of women , about how women were imprisoned at home , kept in ignorance , forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the menfolk they served .
In the 1880s , Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai Wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of the upper – class Hindu women especially the widows . Jyotiba Phule wrote about the poor condition of the ‘ low class people ‘ . In his book Gulamgiri ‘ ( 1871 ) he wrote about the injustices of caste system . In the 20th century , B R Ambedkar also wrote powerfully against the caste system . He also wrote against untouchability ,
E V Ramaswamy Naicker , also known as Periyar wrote about the caste system prevailing in Madras at that time .
Q. 1. Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring Enlightenment and end despotism ?
Ans . Due to the following reasons , some people in the 18th century thought that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism ..
The political , social and economic ideas supported by the Liberals in the 19th century were :
( i ) Spreading of new ideas : After the coming of print culture , the ideas of scientists and philosophers now become more accessible to the common people . Ancient and medieval texts were compiled and published
( ii ) Books as a medium of progress : By the 18th century , books became a medium of spreading progress and enlightenment which could change society and the world . It was also believed that the books could liberate society from despotism and tyranny .
( iii ) Writings of scholars : The writings of thinkers like Jean Jacques Rousseau , Thomas Paine and Voltaire were also widely printed and could gain popularity . Thus , their ideas about science , rationality and reasoning found their way into popular literature .
( iv ) Scientific discoveries : Maps and more accurate scientific diagrams were widely printed when scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries . They could influence a much wider circle of scientifically minded readers .
( v ) Ideas of enlightened Thinkers : Print popularised the ideas of the enlightened thinkers like Martin Luther who attacked the authority of the church and the despotic power of the state .
( vi ) A new culture of dialogue and debate : The printing press was believed to be the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion.
Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions for the end of despotism in France through the French revolution .
Q.2 . Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books ? Choose one example from Europe and one from India .
Ans . Not everyone welcomed printed books and those who did , also had fear about them . Many were of the opinion that printed words and the wider circulation of books , would have a negative impact on the people’s minds .
They feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read , then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might get importance . There was also fear in the minds of scholars that the authority of valuable literature would be destroyed The new print medium was criticised by religious authorities and monarchs , as well as by writers and artists .
Example – Let us consider the implication of this in one sphere of life in Europe regarding religion . Martin Luther was a German monk , priest professor and a church reformer . He wrote ‘ Ninety five Theses ‘ in 1517 and openly criticised many of the practices and rituals of the Roman catholic church . A printed copy of this was pasted on a church door in Wittenberg . It challenged the church to debate his ideas . Luther’s writings were immediately copied in vast numbers and read widely
This led to a division within the church and led to the beginning of the Protestant reformation In India , the British Government favoured censorship of the press and passed a law to hinder the free circulation of newspapers and journals . Vernacular press act provided the government with the extensive rights to censor reports and editorials .
Q.3 . What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth century India ?
Ans . As the literacy rate improved in India , printed material especially for entertainment , began to reach even to the poor in 19th century . Publishers started producing small and cheap books . These books were sold at crossroads . Public libraries were set up by Christian missionaries and rich people . Those who could not read , could listen to stories and folklore . These could be read out to them by others .
Books could be hired on a nominal fee from some book owners . Many writers started writing about the issue of class distinctions . The writing of these writers were read by people all over India . Local protests movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tract , criticising ancient scriptures with a view to create a new and just future .
Q.4 . Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India .
Ans . Print not only stimulated the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India .
Following factors discussed below , show the growth of nationalism in India through the print culture .
( a ) New ideas and debates – There were many who criticised the existing practices and campaigned for reforms , while others countered the arguments of the reformers . These debates were carried out openly in public and in Print Print tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas , but they also shaped the nature of the debate . All this assisted the growth of nationalism .
( b ) Print and newspapers – Despite repressive measures nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India . They reported on colonial misrule , and encouraged the nationalist activities . When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907 , Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them in his ” Kesri ” .
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( c ) Connecting various communities – Print not only stimulated the publication of conflicting opinions among communities , but also connected communities and people living in different parts of India , Newspapers conveyed news from one place to another , creating a pan – India identity .
( d ) Various novels on national history . Many writers written by Indian novelist like ” Anandmath ‘ written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhya , created a sense of Pan- Indian belonging . Munshi Premchand’s novel ‘ Godan ‘ highlighted how Indian peasants were exploited by colonial bureaucrats .
( e ) Various images of Bharatmata- Painters like Raja Ravi Verma and Rabnindranath Tagore drew images of bharat mata which produced a sense of nationalism among Indians . The devotion to mother figure came to be seen as an evidence of one’s nationalism .
Q.1 . Imagine that you are Marco Polo . Write a letter from China to describe the world of print which you have seen there . ( Activity , Page no . 108 )
Ans . 600 AD
Shanghai , China
Dear Greg .
I am travelling in China right now . China has developed the earliest kind of printing technology . Books in China are printed by rubbing paper – also invented here against the inked surface of woodblocks . As both sides of the thin , porous sheet could not be printed , the traditional Chinese accordion book is folded and stitched at the side Merchants here use print in their everyday life , as they collect trade information . Reading has become a leisure activity : The new readership prefers fictional narratives , poetry , autobiographies , anthologies of literary masterpieces , and romantic plays . Rich women have also begun to read , and many women have published their poetry and plays .
This new reading culture is accompanied by a new technology . Western printing techniques and mechanical presses are imported here in the late nineteenth century as Western powers established their outposts in China . Shanghai has become the hub of the new print culture , catering to the Western – style schools . From hand printing , there is now a gradual shift to mechanical printing , It surely is an interesting place to live now . I am busy exploring the country presently and soon will be back
Yours Sincerely ,
Q. 2. Write briefly why some people feared that the development of print could lead to the growth of dissenting ideas . [ Discuss , Page no . 113 ]
Ans . Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas , and introduced a new world of debate and discussion . Even those who disagreed with established authorities could now print and circulate their ideas . Through the printed message , they could persuade people to think differently , and move them to action . This had significance in different spheres of life . Many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and the wider circulation of books , could have on people’s minds . It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read , then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread .
Q. 3. Look at Fig . 13. What impact do such advertisements have on the public mind ? Do you think everyone reacts to printed material in the same way ? [ Activity , Page no . 118 ]
Ans . The advertisements of these types try to lure people into believing into their ideas , products , discoveries , writings and belief . People felt connected with the product because of the advertisement .
No , not everyone reacts to the printed material in the same way . Some people find it useful and interesting while others may find this as unnecessary
Q.4 . Look at Figs . 19 , 20 and 21 carefully .
( i ) What comments are the artists making on the social changes taking place in society ?
( ii ) What changes in society were taking place to provoke this reaction ?
( iii ) Do you agree with the artist’s view ? [ Activity , Page no . 126 ]
Ans . ( i ) The artists are very carefully noticing the social change and are trying to describe it in their creations . The artist is trying to show the deteriorating family relations where a husband is totally dominated by his wife who is perched on his shoulder . He is cruel towards his mother and is shown dragging her like an animal by the noose .
( ii ) The declining family values and breakdown of the traditional family roles caused different reactions . The artists are anxious about the changes in the behaviour and activities of the society which is not showing positive sign of the future .
( iii ) The artists are correct to show the real conditions of the society but these are conditions related to a few of the chosen families . The instances does not depict the overall culture edition lifestyles and view of the society , through artists have successfully depicted the pill the progressing society .
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