Class 10 English First Flight Chapter -2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
|1. Textbook Questions|
|2. Intext Questions (Oral Comprehensive Check)|
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NCERT Solution for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter -2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
Class 10 English First Flight Chapter -2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
B. Thinking about the text
( PAGE 24 )
1. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration ? What did it signify the triumph of ?
Ans . A large number of international leaders attended the inauguration because they had come to witness the formation of the first ( ever democratic . non – racial government in South Africa , after almost three centuries of the white skinned rule . It signified the triumph of humanity and democracy .
2. What does Mandela mean , when he says he is simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him ?
Ans . Mandela says that he is simply the sum of all those African patriots ‘ who had gone before him because that day of independence had come through the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of his people , whose suffering and courage could never be counted or repaid . Today , they were not there to see what they had done and helped to achieve .
3. Would you agree that the depths of oppression create the heights of character ? How does Mandela illustrate this ? Can you add your example to this argument ?
Ans . Yes , we agree with the fact that the depths of oppression create the heights of character . From decades of oppression emerged men like Yusuf Dadoos , Bram Fischers , Robert Sobukwes , who were the great freedom fighters of South Africa . They had extraordinary courage , wisdom and generosity and because of those traits these people were able to bear the depths of oppression of the rulers . Strong character can only produce strong men who are physically and mentally strong .
Mahatma Gandhi , Sardar Patel , Jawaharlal Nehru , Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan , Bhagat Singh , etc. , were such people who bear strong character : They were able to bear the depths of oppression .
4. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience ?
Ans . For Mandela , as a boy , freedom meant to run freely in the nearby fields , to ride on the broad backs of the slow moving bulls , to swim in the clear stream that flowed through his village or to see stars and open field at night . As he grew young , freedom meant only to be free for himself , i.e. , roam around freely at night , to read the books he liked , and to go to the places of his choice . As a young man he wanted freedom of achieving his potential , of earning , of marrying , and having a family . But slowly with age and experience he realised that freedom means not only his own freedom but freedom for all his people . He found that their freedom was curtailed . He realised that freedom is indivisible – the bondage of anyone of his people , was bondage to him . Thus , his concept of freedom was widened with the changing of time .
5. How did Mandela’s ‘ hunger of freedom ‘ change his life ?
Ans : Mandela’s hunger for his own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people . The desire for the freedom of his people to live their lives with dignity and self – respect animated his life . It transformed a frightened young man into a bold one . It drove a law – abiding attorney to become a criminal . It turned a family loving husband into a man without a home . It changed a life – loving man into a monk . Mandela was no more virtuous or self – sacrificing , but he could not even enjoy poor and limited freedom . He felt bad when he knew that his people were not free . He felt slavery of his people as the slavery of his own .
C. Thinking about Language
I. There are nouns in the text ( formation , government ) which are formed from the corresponding verbs ( form , govern ) by suffixing – ion . There may be a change in the spelling of some verb – noun pairs : Such as rebel , rebellion : Constitute , constitution .
1. Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text
2. Read the paragraph below . Fill in the blanks with the noun and forms of the verb in brackets :
Martin Luther’s .. ( 1 ) .. ( contribute ) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the .. ( 2 ) … ( assist ) of Rosa Parks , a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger . In those day , American blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs . To break these laws would mean .. ( 3 ) .. ( subjugate ) and .. ( 4 ) .. ( humiliate ) by the police and the legal system . Beatings , .. ( 5 ) … ( imprison ) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system . Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non – violent .. ( 6 ) .. ( resist ) to racial injustice .
Ans . ( 1 ) contribution ( 2 ) assistance ( 3 ) subjugation ( 4 ) humiliation ( 5 ) imprisonment ( 6 ) resistance .
II . Using the Definite Article with Names
Here are some more examples of ” s ‘ used with proper nouns . Try to say what these sentences mean . ( You may consult a dictionary if you wish : look at the entry for ‘ the ‘ )
1. Mr. Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchans and the Shahrukh Khans to his parties .
Ans . Explanation : Many other men like Amitabh Bachchan and Sharukh Khan are invited .
2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times .
Ans . Explanation : Madhuri Dixit is similar to Madhubala .
3. History is not only the story of the Alexanders , the Napoleons and the Hitlers , but of the ordinary people .
Ans . Explanation : History not only includes the story of many such people like Alexander , Napoleon and Hitler but also of the ordinary people .
III. Idiomatic Expressions
Match the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase nearest to the meaning in Column B. ( Hint : First look for the sentence in the text in which the phrase in Column A occurs )
A. Oral comprehension check
( PAGE 18 )
1. Where did the ceremonies take place ? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone ?
Ans . The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria . Rashtrapati Bhawan and Red fort in India are made of sandstone.
2. Can you say how May 10 is an autumn day ‘ in South Africa ?
Ans . In South Africa , May 10 is ” an autumn day ” because South Africa is in Southern hemisphere and seasons come first over there and then in India .
3. At the beginning of his speech , Mandela mentions an extraordinary human disaster . What does he mean by this ? What is the ” glorious human achievement he speaks of at the end ?
Ans . Mandela mentioned ‘ an extraordinary human disaster by which he meant the sufferings and deprivations ; the people of Africa suffered due to racial discrimination which lasted very .
By ‘ the glorious human achievement ‘ he meant the freedom achieved by South Africa after a long struggle . After a long time , they got the opportunity to conduct the first Democratic elections in the country .
4. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for ?
Ans . Mandela thanks the international leaders for coming to take possession with the people of his country over a common victory for justice , peace , and human dignity .
5. What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa ?
Ans . He pledges to liberate his people from the continuing bondage of poverty , deprivation , suffering , gender and other discriminations . He promised never to let his country experience , the oppression again .
( PAGE 21 )
1. What do the military generals do How has their attitude changed and why ?
Ans . The military generals salute and pledge their loyalty in front of Mr. Mandela . A few years ago , they would have arrested Mr. Mandela . Their attitude had changed because the country had got freedom from the racial dominations .
2. Why were two national anthems sung ?
Ans . The two national anthems were sung in order to show the vision of whites and blacks . This showed that the blacks sung the old anthem of the republic in order to remind them of the old prestige of the country .
3. How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country ( i ) in the first decade ( ii ) in the final decade of the twentieth century ?
Ans . ( i ) In the first decade of the twentieth century , the white – skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark – skinned people of their own land . They created one of the most harshest and the most inhumane societies .
( ii ) In the last decade of the twentieth century , that system had been overturned and replaced by one , that recognised the rights and freedoms of all people , regardless of the colour of their skin .
4. What does courage mean to Mandela ?
Ans . According to Mandela , courage is not the absence of fear but the triumph over it . The brave is not he who don not feel afraid but he who conquers that fear . Mandela learned the meaning of courage from the comrades
5. What does he think is natural , to love or to hate ?
Ans . He thinks the feeling of love comes more naturally than that of hatred .
( PAGE 24 )
1. What twin obligations does Mandela mention ?
Ans . Twin obligations are obligations towards one’s family , one’s parents , with wife and children and obligations towards one’s people , community and country .
2. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy , and as a student ? How does he contrast these transitory freedoms with the basic and honourable freedom ?
Ans . As a boy , Mandela felt freedom to run in the fields near his mother’s hut , freedom to swim in the clear stream that flowed near his village , freedom to roast meal in the shade of stars and freedom to ride on the broad back of slow moving bulls .
As a student , he felt that freedom is what he got for himself to roam around at night , to read books of his own choice and to go to the places of his choice . According to Mandela , Transitory Freedom ‘ is what lasts for a small duration such as those mentioned during his childhood and his student life . For him transitory freedom was of being able to stay out at night , read what he liked etc. Mandela as a young man , realised the basic and honourable freedom for achieving his potentials , for earning to keep himself and for marrying and having a family , the freedom of not to be obstructed in a lawful life .
3. Does Mandela think that the oppressor is free ? Why ? Why not ?
Ans . According to Mandela , the oppressor is also not free because the man who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred . He is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow – mindedness . He is just like the oppressed . Both have been robbed of their humanity .
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