NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History
Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
1. Imagine that it is 1950 and you are a 60 years old Raika herder living in post – independence India . You are telling your granddaughter about the changes which have taken place in your lifestyle after independence . What would you say ?
Ans . After the independence , our life has changed a lot . Since now , there is not enough pasture for our animals to feed , we had to reduce the number of cattle in our herds .
We have to change our grazing ground also , as we are not allowed to go to Sindh and graze our camels on the banks of the river Indus because it is now a part of Pakistan . The political boundary between India and Pakistan prevents us to go there .
Then , we have found an alternative grazing ground in Haryana . In recent years , our cattle go there and can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut . The animals also fertilise the soil with manure from their excreta .
Your father did not like a herder’s life and decided to become a farmer . I gave him some money to buy a land and he bought the land . We built our present house in this land and your father is now cultivating foodgrains in the remaining parts of the land .
Now we became a farmer community .
I think you will have a much better life that what your father had . I hope you will be serious about your studies and do well in your life . Your father tries to give you all the facilities which he did not get . You must respect his sacrifice and try to achieve something in your life .
2. Imagine that you have been asked by a famous magazine to write an article about the life and customs of the Maasai in pre – colonial Africa . Write the article , giving it an interesting title .
Ans . Peculiarities of Maasai Culture
The word Maasai means ‘ My People ‘ ( ‘ Maa ‘ means ‘ My ‘ and ‘ Sai ‘ means ‘ People ‘ in their language ) . They are traditionally nomadic people . Their society is divided into two parts – Elders and Warriors .
The Elders belong to the higher age group and decide on the affairs of the community by meeting as a group and also settle disputes . The Warriors are the younger group who were responsible for the protection of the tribes . They also organise cattle raids when it is required .
Since cattle are their wealth , these raids assume importance , as in this way , they are able to assert their power over other pastoral groups . However , the Warriors are subject to the authority of the Elders .
3. Find out more about the life of some of the pastoral communities marked in figures A and B.
Ans . Figure A ( Indian Tribes )
Maldharis They are nomadic tribal herdsmen who live in the Gujarat state of India . The literal meaning of Maldhari is owner of animal stock ‘ . They are notable as the traditional dairymen of the region and once supplied milk and cheese to the palaces of Rajas .
Monpas They live in Arunachal Pradesh . They are also one of the 56 officially recognised ethnic groups in China . Their language belongs to the Tibeto – Burman family and is written in Tibetan script . There are six sub – groups of Monpas . They adopted Tibetan Buddhism .
Figure B ( African Tribes )
Nama Tribe They are an African ethnic group of South Africa , Namibia and Botswana . In general , the Nama practice a policy of communal land ownership . The Nama have a culture that is rich in the musical and literary abilities of its people . Traditional music , folk tales , proverbs and praise poetry have been handed down for generations and form the base for much of their culture . They are also known for handicrafts like leather work , jewellery , clay pots , etc.
Zulu Tribe The Zulu tribes are the largest South – African ethnic group , with an estimated 10-11 million people . Their language ‘ Zulu ‘ is a Bantu language . Under apartheid , they were classed as third class citizens and suffered from state – sanctioned discrimination . But now , they are enjoying equal rights alongwith all other citizens . Most Zulu people are Christian .
Note : The students can search about more Indian and African Tribal communities mentioned in the map .
1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another . What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement ?
Ans . Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living . They have to move from one place to another as their main occupation is cattle rearing for which they need availability of water and pastures for grazing their animals .
When the pastures get depleted , they move to another place with their animals , looking for pasture and water . When the water and pastures get depleted , they move again and keep repeating the cycle .
Advantage the Environment
( i ) The movement of the nomads allows the pasture to regrow and recover .
( ii ) It helps to protect the ecology of the environment .
( iii ) It prevents the overuse of pastures .
( iv ) The cattle dung is a good source of manure , that raises the fertility of the soil .
2. Discuss why the Colonial Government in India brought in the following laws . In each case , explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists .
( a ) Wasteland Rules ( b ) Forest Acts
( c ) Criminal Tribes Act ( d ) Grazing Tax
Ans . ( a ) Wasteland Rules According to these rules , all uncultivated land is considered as wasteland . To the colonial officials , all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive . Therefore , grazing lands were also considered as wastelands as they produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce . The Colonial Government wanted to bring the grazing lands under cultivation so that they could get revenue and agricultural goods from this land .
Effects of the Wasteland Rules According to Wasteland Rules , the uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to settle these lands . Therefore , expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and created problems and hardships for the pastoralists .
( b ) Forest Acts Through the Forest Acts , the forests were divided into two categories : Reserved Forests and Protected Forests .
Effects of the Forest Acts Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available . They could enter only by getting a permit for entry . If they overstayed the specified period of time , they were liable to fines . Their lives became difficult and full of hardships . Their traditional rights were severely restricted .
( c ) Criminal Tribes Act In 1871 , the Colonial Government passed the Criminal Tribes Act . By this act , many communities of craftsmen , traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes . They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth .
Effects of Criminal Tribes Act After this act was enforced , nomadic communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements . They were not allowed to move out without a permit . The village police kept a continuous watch on them . They could no longer move from one place to another .
( d ) Grazing Tax The Grazing Tax in India was introduced by the Colonial Government in the mid – 19th century . Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures . The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient .
Effects of the Grazing Tax To enter a grazing tract , pastoralists had to show the pass and pay the tax . Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures . The tax went up rapidly . So , the economic hardship of the pastoralists increased .
Note : In the examination , this question will not be asked completely . Only its one or two sub – parts will be asked .
3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands .
Ans . The Maasai tribes lost their grazing land because
( i ) European countries tried to possess territories in Africa and sliced up the region into different colonies . In 1885 , Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika .
( ii ) The grazing lands were taken over for white settlement and the Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanganyika . The Maasais lost about 60 % of their pre – colonial lands .
( iii ) Encouragement was given by the British Colonial Government in East Africa to peasant communities to expand cultivation and pasture lands were converted into cultivated fields .
( iv ) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania . Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves .
4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa . Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders .
Ans . Following are the similarities between Indian pastoralists and Maasai herders
( i ) Both India and East Africa were under the control . and dominance of the European colonial powers with similar intentions and objectives . In both places , the pastoral communities lost their pasture land because the colonial powers took control of these pastures and brought them under cultivation .
( ii ) Both in India and East Africa , forest laws were made and the pastoralists were not permitted to use the forests for grazing their animals or taking out forest produce . The mobility of the pastoralists was severely restricted whereby fodder was in short supply and feeding the cattle became a persistent problem . Many of them were thereby forced to give up their old mode of occupation .
( iii ) Both in India and Africa , Grazing Tax was imposed on the pastoralists . All these created a lot of hardship for the pastoral communities of India and Africa .
Two example of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders are
( i ) Both the pastoralists took other professions to survive , e.g. wage labourers .
( ii ) Both the pastoralist lost their cattle due to the Forest Acts .
On Page 104
1. Write a comment on the closure of the forests to grazing from the standpoint of
( a ) A forester
( b ) A pastoralist
Ans . ( a ) A forester As a forester’s duty is to ensure the conservation of forests , it is good that the forests have been closed for grazing . This will ensure proper growth of the vegetation and trees , so that the forest wealth will be maintained .
( b ) A pastoralist Earlier our animals were grazing in the forest areas , where vegetation was plentiful . Now , as the forests are restricted for grazing , our animals have to be taken far away to find grass and vegetation for food . This has caused a lot of inconvenience , as managing our flock has become more difficult .
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