NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History
Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
1. Imagine that it is 1950 and you are a 60 years old Raika herder living in post – independence India . You are telling your granddaughter about the changes which have taken place in your lifestyle after independence . What would you say ?
Ans . After the independence , our life has changed a lot . Since now , there is not enough pasture for our animals to feed , we had to reduce the number of cattle in our herds .
We have to change our grazing ground also , as we are not allowed to go to Sindh and graze our camels on the banks of the river Indus because it is now a part of Pakistan . The political boundary between India and Pakistan prevents us to go there .
Then , we have found an alternative grazing ground in Haryana . In recent years , our cattle go there and can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut . The animals also fertilise the soil with manure from their excreta .
Your father did not like a herder’s life and decided to become a farmer . I gave him some money to buy a land and he bought the land . We built our present house in this land and your father is now cultivating foodgrains in the remaining parts of the land .
Now we became a farmer community .
I think you will have a much better life that what your father had . I hope you will be serious about your studies and do well in your life . Your father tries to give you all the facilities which he did not get . You must respect his sacrifice and try to achieve something in your life .
2. Imagine that you have been asked by a famous magazine to write an article about the life and customs of the Maasai in pre – colonial Africa . Write the article , giving it an interesting title .
Ans . Peculiarities of Maasai Culture
The word Maasai means ‘ My People ‘ ( ‘ Maa ‘ means ‘ My ‘ and ‘ Sai ‘ means ‘ People ‘ in their language ) . They are traditionally nomadic people . Their society is divided into two parts – Elders and Warriors .
The Elders belong to the higher age group and decide on the affairs of the community by meeting as a group and also settle disputes . The Warriors are the younger group who were responsible for the protection of the tribes . They also organise cattle raids when it is required .
Since cattle are their wealth , these raids assume importance , as in this way , they are able to assert their power over other pastoral groups . However , the Warriors are subject to the authority of the Elders .
3. Find out more about the life of some of the pastoral communities marked in figures A and B.
Ans . Figure A ( Indian Tribes )
Maldharis They are nomadic tribal herdsmen who live in the Gujarat state of India . The literal meaning of Maldhari is owner of animal stock ‘ . They are notable as the traditional dairymen of the region and once supplied milk and cheese to the palaces of Rajas .
Monpas They live in Arunachal Pradesh . They are also one of the 56 officially recognised ethnic groups in China . Their language belongs to the Tibeto – Burman family and is written in Tibetan script . There are six sub – groups of Monpas . They adopted Tibetan Buddhism .
Figure B ( African Tribes )
Nama Tribe They are an African ethnic group of South Africa , Namibia and Botswana . In general , the Nama practice a policy of communal land ownership . The Nama have a culture that is rich in the musical and literary abilities of its people . Traditional music , folk tales , proverbs and praise poetry have been handed down for generations and form the base for much of their culture . They are also known for handicrafts like leather work , jewellery , clay pots , etc.
Zulu Tribe The Zulu tribes are the largest South – African ethnic group , with an estimated 10-11 million people . Their language ‘ Zulu ‘ is a Bantu language . Under apartheid , they were classed as third class citizens and suffered from state – sanctioned discrimination . But now , they are enjoying equal rights alongwith all other citizens . Most Zulu people are Christian .
Note : The students can search about more Indian and African Tribal communities mentioned in the map .
1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another . What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement ?
Ans . Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living . They have to move from one place to another as their main occupation is cattle rearing for which they need availability of water and pastures for grazing their animals .
When the pastures get depleted , they move to another place with their animals , looking for pasture and water . When the water and pastures get depleted , they move again and keep repeating the cycle .
Advantage the Environment
( i ) The movement of the nomads allows the pasture to regrow and recover .
( ii ) It helps to protect the ecology of the environment .
( iii ) It prevents the overuse of pastures .
( iv ) The cattle dung is a good source of manure , that raises the fertility of the soil .
2. Discuss why the Colonial Government in India brought in the following laws . In each case , explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists .
( a ) Wasteland Rules ( b ) Forest Acts
( c ) Criminal Tribes Act ( d ) Grazing Tax
Ans . ( a ) Wasteland Rules According to these rules , all uncultivated land is considered as wasteland . To the colonial officials , all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive . Therefore , grazing lands were also considered as wastelands as they produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce . The Colonial Government wanted to bring the grazing lands under cultivation so that they could get revenue and agricultural goods from this land .
Effects of the Wasteland Rules According to Wasteland Rules , the uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to settle these lands . Therefore , expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and created problems and hardships for the pastoralists .
( b ) Forest Acts Through the Forest Acts , the forests were divided into two categories : Reserved Forests and Protected Forests .
Effects of the Forest Acts Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available . They could enter only by getting a permit for entry . If they overstayed the specified period of time , they were liable to fines . Their lives became difficult and full of hardships . Their traditional rights were severely restricted .
( c ) Criminal Tribes Act In 1871 , the Colonial Government passed the Criminal Tribes Act . By this act , many communities of craftsmen , traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes . They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth .
Effects of Criminal Tribes Act After this act was enforced , nomadic communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements . They were not allowed to move out without a permit . The village police kept a continuous watch on them . They could no longer move from one place to another .
( d ) Grazing Tax The Grazing Tax in India was introduced by the Colonial Government in the mid – 19th century . Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures . The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient .
Effects of the Grazing Tax To enter a grazing tract , pastoralists had to show the pass and pay the tax . Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures . The tax went up rapidly . So , the economic hardship of the pastoralists increased .
Note : In the examination , this question will not be asked completely . Only its one or two sub – parts will be asked .
3. Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands .
Ans . The Maasai tribes lost their grazing land because
( i ) European countries tried to possess territories in Africa and sliced up the region into different colonies . In 1885 , Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika .
( ii ) The grazing lands were taken over for white settlement and the Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanganyika . The Maasais lost about 60 % of their pre – colonial lands .
( iii ) Encouragement was given by the British Colonial Government in East Africa to peasant communities to expand cultivation and pasture lands were converted into cultivated fields .
( iv ) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania . Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves .
4. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa . Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders .
Ans . Following are the similarities between Indian pastoralists and Maasai herders
( i ) Both India and East Africa were under the control . and dominance of the European colonial powers with similar intentions and objectives . In both places , the pastoral communities lost their pasture land because the colonial powers took control of these pastures and brought them under cultivation .
( ii ) Both in India and East Africa , forest laws were made and the pastoralists were not permitted to use the forests for grazing their animals or taking out forest produce . The mobility of the pastoralists was severely restricted whereby fodder was in short supply and feeding the cattle became a persistent problem . Many of them were thereby forced to give up their old mode of occupation .
( iii ) Both in India and Africa , Grazing Tax was imposed on the pastoralists . All these created a lot of hardship for the pastoral communities of India and Africa .
Two example of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders are
( i ) Both the pastoralists took other professions to survive , e.g. wage labourers .
( ii ) Both the pastoralist lost their cattle due to the Forest Acts .
On Page 104
1. Write a comment on the closure of the forests to grazing from the standpoint of
( a ) A forester
( b ) A pastoralist
Ans . ( a ) A forester As a forester’s duty is to ensure the conservation of forests , it is good that the forests have been closed for grazing . This will ensure proper growth of the vegetation and trees , so that the forest wealth will be maintained .
( b ) A pastoralist Earlier our animals were grazing in the forest areas , where vegetation was plentiful . Now , as the forests are restricted for grazing , our animals have to be taken far away to find grass and vegetation for food . This has caused a lot of inconvenience , as managing our flock has become more difficult .
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