NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism.

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science History so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science Forest Society and Colonialism below and prepare in your tests easily

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History

Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism

Exercise Questions

 

Activities

1. Have there been changes in forest areas where you live ? Find out what these changes are and why they have happened .

Ans . There have been a number of changes in forest areas around my locality .

These are as follows

( i ) Entry to forest areas is restricted and the Forest Department has posted guards to check any illegal entry .

( ii ) Although , the number of trees in the forest has increased , but reduction of rainfall in recent years has stunted the growth of trees .

( iii ) The Adivasi villagers living inside the forest areas are gradually leaving their traditional occupations and migrating to the towns for education and jobs .

( iv ) A number of wild animals like tigers and elephants are sometimes seen on the edges of the forest , but they do not venture out for fear of being killed by human beings . Earlier the tigers used to come into the nearby villages and take away animals and small children at night .

( v ) The smuggling of ivory and skin of tiger has been almost controlled .

Questions

1. Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people .

( a ) Shifting Cultivators

( b ) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities

( c ) Firms trading in timber / forest Produce

( d ) Plantation Owners

( e ) Kings / British officials engaged in Shikar ( hunting )

Ans . Effects of changes in forest management in colonial period are

( a ) Shifting Cultivators

European foresters regarded shifting cultivation as harmful for the forests . The government banned shifting cultivation .

Shifting cultivators were forcibly displaced many communities from their homes in the forests . Some had to change occupations , while some resisted through large and small rebellions .

( b ) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities

The forest laws deprived people of their customary rights and that meant severe hardship for the Nomadic and Pastoralist communities .

They could not cut wood for their houses , could not graze their cattle or collect fruits and roots . Hunting and fishing became illegal .

Many Pastoralist and Nomadic communities like the Korava , Karacha and Yerukula of the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods .

Some of the Nomadic communities began to be called ‘ Criminal Tribes ‘ and were forced to work instead in factories , mines and plantations under government supervision . They were also recruited to work in plantations . Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad .

( c ) Firms Trading in Timber / Forest Produce

By the early 19th century , oak forests in England were disappearing . This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy . By the 1820s , search parties were sent to explore the forest resources in India . Trees were felled on a massive scale and large quantities of timber were being exported from India . The Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates .

The British Government gave many large European trading firms the sole right to trade in the forest products of particular areas . The government gave contracts to contractors , who cut trees indiscriminately and made huge profits .

( d ) Plantation Owners

Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea , coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities .

The Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates . These areas were enclosed and cleared of forests and planted with tea or coffee . Communities like Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand and Gonds from Chhattisgarh were recruited to work on tea plantation in Assam . Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad . The plantation owners , under the protection and rights given by the British Government , made huge profits .

( e ) Kings / British Officials Engaged in Shikar or Hunting

Under colonial rule , the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct . The British saw large animals as signs of a wild , primitive and savage society . They believed that by killing dangerous animals , the British would civilise India .

The British gave rewards for the killing of tigers , wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators .

The Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot – 1157 tigers and 2000 leopards upto 1957. A British Administrator George Yule killed 400 tigers .

Over 80000 tigers , 150000 leopards and 200000 wolves were killed for reward between 1875 and 1925. Initially , certain areas of the forests were reserved for hunting .

Note : In the examination , this question will not be asked completely , only its one or two sub – parts will be asked .

2. What were the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and Java ?

Ans . Forest management of Bastar in India was in the hands of the British and in Java , it was in the hands of the Dutch .

The similarities between these two are as follows

( i ) The Dutch , like the British , wanted timber to build ships and to make sleepers for railway tracks .

( ii ) Both the British and the Dutch enacted forest laws to control the forests and put restrictions on the customary rights of the local people . They were prevented from entering the forests , they could not graze cattle or cut wood or take forest produce without permission .

( iii ) The British and the Dutch introduced scientific forestry . Both the governments banned shifting cultivation .

( iv ) Some villagers in Bastar were allowed to stay in the forests on the condition that their people would provide free labour for the Forest Department in cutting and transportation of trees and protecting the forests from fire .

Similarly in Java , the Dutch imposed rents on the cultivated land in the forests . Some villages were exempted if they collectively provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber . This system was known as the ‘ Blandongdiensten System ‘ .

( v ) When the exploitation by the British in Bastar and the Dutch in Java became too much , the forest communities in Bastar and Java revolted under Gunda Dhur and Surontiko Samin respectively . Both the revolts were crushed by the colonial powers .

3. Between 1880 and 1920 , forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectare , from 108.6 million hectare to 98.9 million hectare . Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline .

( a ) Railways

( b ) Ship Building

( c ) Agricultural Expansion

( d ) Commercial Farming of Trees

( e ) Tea / Coffee Plantations

( f ) Adivasis and Other Peasant Users

Ans . ( a ) Railways

The spread of railways from the 1850s created a new demand . Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops . To run locomotives , wood was needed as fuel and to lay railway lines , sleepers were essential to hold the tracks together . Each mile of railway track required between 1760 and 2000 sleepers .

From the 1860s , the railway network expanded rapidly . As the length of the railway tracks expanded , a very large number of trees were felled .

As early as the 1850s , in the Madras Presidency alone 35000 trees were cut annually for sleepers . Forests around the railway tracks started disappearing very fast .

( b ) Ship Building

By the early 19th century , Oak forests in England were disappearing . This created a problem of timber supply from the Royal Navy . English ships could not be built without a regular supply of strong and durable timber .

Imperial power could not be protected without ships . Therefore by the 1820s , search parties were sent to explore the forest resources of India .

Within a decade trees were being felled on a massive scale and vast quantities of timber were being exported , leading to disappearance of forests .

( c ) Agricultural Expansion

As population increased , the demand for food went up . Peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation by clearing forests . In the early 19th century , the colonial state thought that the forests were unproductive .

They were considered to be wilderness that had to be brought under cultivation so , that the land could yield agricultural products and revenue and enhance the income of the state .

Thus , between 1880 and 1920 , cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares by clearing the forests . The demand for commercial crops like jute , sugar , wheat , cotton and raw material for industries increased .

Therefore , the British encouraged expansion of cultivation by clearing forests , leading to decline in forest cover .

( d ) Commercial Farming of Trees

In commercial farming , natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down . In their place one type of trees were planted in straight rows . This is called a plantation .

To promote plantation farming or commercial farming , different varieties of trees were cut down leading to loss of many species and loss of forest cover when the trees were cut for commercial use .

( e ) Tea / Coffee Plantation

Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea , coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities . The Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates .

These areas were enclosed and forests were cleared and planted with tea or coffee . Plantations were large in area leading to loss of large forest areas .

( f ) Adivasis and other Peasant Users

As in most parts of the world , shifting cultivation was done by the Adivasis and other peasant communities , in India also it was practised .

In shifting cultivation , parts of the forest area are cut and burnt in rotation .

Seeds were sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains and the crop was harvested by October – November .

When fertility decreased , the process was repeated at another location . This led to a large loss of forests .

Note : In the examination , this question will not be asked completely , only its one or two sub – parts will be asked .

4. Why are the forests affected by wars ?

Ans . Forests are affected by wars because

( i ) Forest products are used for fulfilling various needs and requirements during war . In the case of India , during the First World War and the Second World War , the Forest Department was cutting trees freely to meet British war needs .

( ii ) During the Second World War in Java just before the Japanese occupied the region , the Dutch followed a Scorched Earth Policy , destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of giant teak logs , so that they did not fall into Japanese hands .

( iii ) The Japanese exploited the forests recklessly for their war industries , forcing villagers to cut down forests . Many villagers took this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forests . Thus , wars also led to destruction of forests .

Intext Questions

 

Activity On Page 81

1. Each mile of railway track required between 1760 and 2000 sleepers . If one average sized tree yields 3 to 5 sleepers for a 3 metre wide broad gauge track , calculate approximately how many trees would have to be cut to lay one mile of track .

Ans . Average number of sleepers required per mile

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Activity On Page 83

2. If you were in the Government of India in 1862 , responsible for supplying the railways with sleepers and fuel on such a large scale , what were the steps you would have taken ?

Ans . If I were in Government of India in 1862 and responsible for supplying the railway with sleepers and fuel , I would have taken the following steps

( i ) In areas where trees are cut for making sleepers , plant similar nature of trees to those that are cut , so that the forest cover is maintained .

( ii ) Try to increase coal mining and supply this to the railways as fuel instead of wood for running the steam engines .

( iii ) Limit the cutting of trees by the natives of the forest to only what they personally require and not allow them to trade in wood .

( iv ) Prevent poachers from entering the forests to cut wood illegally .

 

Benefits of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism contains extremely important points, and for each chapter, each concept has been simplified to make it easier to remember and increase your chances of achieving excellent exam results. Exam Preparation References Here are some tips on how these solutions can help you prepare for the exam.

  1. This helps students solve many of the problems in each chapter and encourages them to make their concepts more meaningful.
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Tips & Strategies for Class 9 Exam Preparation

  1. Plan your course and syllabus and make time for revision
  2. Please refer to the NCERT solution available on the cbsestudyguru website to clarify your concepts every time you prepare for the exam.
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  6. Practice an ample number of question papers to make your concepts stronger. 
  7. Take rest and a proper meal.  Don’t stress too much. 

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