NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions. It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science Climate so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science Climate below and prepare in your tests easily.
NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Geography
Chapter 4 – Climate
1. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below
( i ) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world ?
( a ) Silchar ( b ) Mawsynram
( c ) Cherrapunji ( d ) Guwahati
( ii ) The wind blowing in the Northern plains in summers is known as
( a ) Kaal Baisakhi ( b ) Loo
( c ) Trade Winds ( d ) None of these
( iii ) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in North – Western part of India ?
( a ) Cyclonic depression .
( b ) Retreating monsoon
( c ) Western disturbances
( d ) South – West monsoon
( iv ) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in
( a ) early May ( b ) early July
( c ) early June ( d ) early August
( v ) Which one of the following characterises the cold weather season in India ?
( a ) Warm days and warm nights
( b ) Warm days and cold nights
( c ) Cool days and cold nights
( d ) Cool days and warm nights
Ans . ( i ) ( b ) , ( ii ) ( b ) , ( iii ) ( c ) , ( iv ) ( c ) , ( v ) ( b )
2. Answer the following questions briefly .
( i ) What are the controls affecting the climate of India ?
Ans . The controls affecting the climate of India are latitude , altitude , pressure and wind system , distance from the sea , ocean currents and relief features .
( ii ) ” Why does India have a monsoon type of climate ?
Ans . India has monsoon type of climate . It is because of the occurence of the seasonal reversal of wind system and the strong influence of the monsoon winds over the sub – continent , which make Indian climate monsoon type .
In summer , the winds blow from sea to land and bring much needed monsoon rainfall . During winters , the reverse occurs i.e. winds blow from land to sea and do not cause much rain .
( iii ) Which part of India does experiences the highest diurnal range of temperature and why ?
Ans . The highest diurnal range of temperature is experienced by the North – Western part of India comprising the Indian desert . This is because of the fact that sand ( found in ample quantity in this region ) gains and loses heat very quickly and it is located away from the sea .
( iv ) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast ?
Ans . The South – West monsoon winds ( the Arabian sea branch ) are responsible for rainfall along the Malabar coast .
( v ) What are jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India ?
Ans . Jet stream are a narrow belt of high altitude ( above 12,000 m ) westerly winds in the troposphere . Their speed varies from about 110 . km / h in summer to about 184 km / h in winter . A number of separate jet streams have been identified . The most constant are the mid – latitude and the sub – tropical Jet stream .
The jet streams affect Indian climate in the following manner
• Sub – tropical westerly Jet stream These Jet streams are located over 27 ° -30 ° North latitudes . Over India , these Jet streams blow South of the Himalayas all through the year ( except in summer ) . During winters , the Western cyclonic disturbances are brought into India by these Jet stream .
• Sub tropical – easterly Jet stream It blows over the peninsular India ( at about 14 ° N latitude ) . It is believed to be responsible for the sudden outbreak of the South – West monsoon in India .
( vi ) Define monsoon . What do you understand by ‘ break ‘ in monsoon ?
Ans . The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘ Mausim ‘ which literally means season . ‘ Monsoon ‘ refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year .
Break in monsoon are related to the wet and dry spells during the monsoon rain fall . Monsoon in India does not bring continuous rainfall . The rains are interspersed ( scattered ) with rainless intervals . Such rainless intervals are called ‘ break ‘ in monsoon .
The breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough . It is seen that when the axis of the monsoon trough lies over the Northern plains , the rainfall is heavier there . When this trough shifts towards the Himalayas , the plains are dry but the mountains receive heavy rainfall .
( vii ) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond ?
Ans . It is true that the monsoon is considered as a unifying bond .
It is because of the following reasons
• The presence of the Himalayan range in the North and ocean in the South have created a unique climatic condition over the Indian sub – continent .
• The seasonal alternation of wind system ( i.e. monsoon ) and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons . Indian landscape , life style , agriculture , food habit , culture etc all revolve around these phenomena .
• By providing water to the agriculture and regulating the flow of water in river valleys ( connecting different states ) , monsoon binds the whole country together .
3. Why does the rainfall decrease from the East to the West in the Northern India ?
Ans . There is a gradual decrease of rainfall from the East to the West in North India . The progressive decline of humidity of the winds is responsible for this . As the moisture bearing winds of the Bay of Bengal branch of the South – West monsoon move further and further inland , their moisture content decreases . As a result , there is a gradual decrease of rainfall from East to West direction .
4. Give reasons as to why
( i ) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian sub – continent .
( ii ) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months .
( iii ) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall .
( iv ) The delta region of the Eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones .
( v ) Parts of Rajasthan , Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought – prone
Ans . ( i ) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian sub – continent . This can be understood by the following points
( a ) As there are different densities of land and water , so the rate of heating and cooling also varies . India is surrounded by water on three sides which gives special effect to the landmass . During summers , the Indian landmass becomes intensely heated than the surrounding seas . Thus , a low pressure region develops over the North – western parts of the country . The nearby sea is cooler , thereby having higher pressure . So , the winds blow from sea to land in the form of monsoon winds .
( b ) With the reversal in the direction of the surface winds , the monsoons withdraw from the Northern plains . This reversal occurs as the monsoon trough becomes weaker with the approach of winter months .
( c ) During winters , a high pressure area develops North of the Himalayas . And cold dry winds blow from this high pressure region to the low pressure areas that develops over the oceans to the South .
( d ) Thus , these differences in pressure conditions are responsible for a complete reversal of the direction of winds .
( ii ) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months . It is because of the fact that Indian sub – continent largely receives rainfall from the South – West monsoon winds . These winds are highly characterised by the seasonal reversal of winds . These winds blow over the main land when it has intense low pressure region and the surrounding water body has high pressure region .
This ideal temperature and pressure condition develops in May month . Thus , rainfall occurs between June to September months for over 100 to 120 days approximately . After this period , the monsoon withdraws from India and rest of the year becomes practically dry except winters which receive low rainfall .
( iii ) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall due to following reasons
The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall due to North – East trade winds . This is because in this region these winds blow from sea ( Bay of Bengal ) to land , thereby carrying moisture alongwith them .
( iv ) The delta region of the Eastern coast of India is frequently struck by cyclones . This is because the cyclonic depressions that originate over the Andaman sea are brought in by the sub – tropical easterly Jet stream blowing over the peninsular India during the monoon as well as during the October to November period . The depression moves along East to west direction thus , hitting the Eastern coasts .
( v ) Parts of Rajasthan , Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought – prone .
The reasons for this are as follows
• Parts of Rajasthan are drought prone as they do not receive much rain because of the presence of Aravalli Range . It is because this range lies parallel to the direction of the winds , which do not strike it and thus , do not cause any rain .
• Gujarat is a drought prone region which receives less rainfall . It is because there are no hills and mountain ranges to obstruct the rain – bearing winds .
• The leeward side of the Western Ghats receives less rainfall . It is because the rain bearing winds strike the windward side first ( slopes facing the winds ) and then proceed to the leeward side ( opposite side of the windward side ) . Due to this fact , very little or no rainfall occurs on the leeward side of the Western Ghats and it became drought prone region .
Note : This type of question will not be asked in the examination . Only two or three sub – parts will be asked .
5. Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples .
Ans . The regional variation of the climatic conditions of India is mainly due to two factors , viz , temperature and precipitation ( or rainfall ) . These two elements vary from place to place and season to season .
During summer the temperature of desert area ( e.g. parts of Rajasthan ) crosses 50 ° C mark ; on the other hand , hilly region ( e.g. Pahalgam ) has around 20 ° C temperature .
Similarly , the temperature of winter night at Drass ( Jammu and Kashmir ) is -45 ° C whereas in coastal area ( e.g. Thiruvananthapuram ) , it is about 22 ° C . The coastal region ( e.g. Kerala ) and island ( e.g. Andaman and Nicobar ) have uniform temperature throughout the year due to moderating effect of the sea . Whereas the interior parts of India have continental climate as these are far from the sea .
In India , there is variation in the form , type , amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall from region to region . For example the precipitation is in the form of snowfall in the Himalayas , whereas it is in the form of rainfall in the rest of the country .
In the same season , Western Ghats and North – East part of the country receive more than 200 cm rainfall ( Meghalaya – 400 cm ) , it is less than 10 cm in Ladakh and Western Rajasthan . Most part of the country receives rainfall from June to September whereas the Tamil Nadu coast receives rainfall during October and November . There is gradual decrea of rainfall generally from East to West .
6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons .
Ans . There are various phenomena to explain the mechanism of monsoon in India .
( i ) Differential heating and cooling of land and water At the end of May , due to high temperature , low- pressure area is found on the landmass and sea / ocean experiences comparatively higher temperature .
( ii ) Shift in the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone ( ITCZ ) In summer , ITCZ or the low pressure trough is shifted its position over the Ganga plain . It is also known as ‘ monsoon trough ‘ during monsoon season .
( iii ) Presence of high pressure area at 20 ° S over the Indian ocean ( East of Madagascar ) The intensity and position of this high pressure area affects the Indian monsoon .
( iv ) Intense heating of the Tibetan plateau In summer , the intense heating of the Tibetan plateau results in strong vertical air currents and formation of high pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level .
( v ) Westerly Jet stream and tropical easterly Jet stream The movement of westerly Jet streams to the North of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly Jet streams over the Indian peninsula during summer . This periodic change in pressure conditions is known as Southern Oscillation ( SO ) .
This change in the pressure conditions over the Southern ocean also affects the monsoon .
7 Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season .
Ans . The cold weather season begins from November in Northern India and stays till February . December and January are the coldest months in the Northern part of India . The characteristics of cold season are as follows
( i ) The weather is normally marked by clear sky , low temperatures , low humidity and feeble , variable winds .
( ii ) Days are warm and nights are cold . Frost is common in the North and higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall .
( iii ) During this season , the North – East trade winds blow from land to sea and hence , for most parts of the country , it is a dry season . Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as they blow there from sea to land .
( iv ) A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the Northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the West and the North – West . These low – pressure systems , originate over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia and move into India , along with westerly flow .
( v ) The peninsular region does not have a well defined cold season . There is hardly any noticeable change in temperature pattern during winter due to the moderating influence of the sea .
8. Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India .
Ans . Characteristics of Monsoon Rainfall
( i ) Monsoon winds are non – steady and pulsating ( rise and fall ) in nature .
( ii ) Its duration varies from 100-120 days ( early June – mid September ) .
( iii ) Around the time of its arrival , there is sudden increase and continuous rainfall for several days , called as ‘ Burst of monsoon ‘ .
( iv ) The retreat or withdrawal of the monsoon is a -gradual process .
( v ) The monsoon takes place in wet and dry spells . The intervening rainless intervals are known as ‘ Breaks ‘ in monsoon .
( vi ) Rainfall is unevenly distributed over the Indian mainland . Certain areas receive heavy rainfall while other areas receive scanty and low rainfall .
Effects of Monsoon Rainfall
( i ) The monsoons are known for their uncertainties and vagaries ( unexpected change ) .
( ii ) The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in intensity , frequency and duration .
( iii ) On one part , it causes heavy flood ; on the other part , it may be responsible for drought .
( iv ) It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat . Hence , it sometimes disturbs the farming schedule in the country .
9. ( i ) Name two rainiest stations .
( ii ) Name two driest stations .
( iii ) Name two stations with most equable climate .
( iv ) Name two stations with most extreme climate .
( v ) Name two stations most influenced by the Arabian branch of South – West monsoons .
( vi ) Name two stations most influenced by the Bay of Bengal branch of South – West monsoons .
( vii ) Name two stations influenced by both branches of the South – West monsoons .
( viii ) Name two stations influenced by retreating and North – East monsoons .
( ix ) Name two stations receiving winter showers from the Western disturbances .
( x ) Name the two hottest stations in the months of ( a ) February ( b ) April ( c ) May ( d ) June
Ans . ( i ) Shillong and Mumbai
( ii ) Leh and Jodhpur
( iii ) Thiruvananthapuram and Mumbai
( iv ) Leh and Jodhpur
( v ) Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram
( vi ) Shillong and Kolkata
( vii ) Delhi
( viii ) Thiruvananthapuram and Chennai
( ix ) Delhi and Leh
( x ) ( a ) February : Thiruvananthapuram and Chennai
( b ) April : Nagpur and Chennai
( c ) May : Nagpur and Delhi / Jodhpur
( d ) June : Jodhpur and Delhi
10. Re – arrange the ten stations in two different sequences .
( i ) According to their distance from the equator .
( ii ) According to their altitude above mean sea – level .
11. Now find out
( i ) Why are Thiruvananthapuram and Shillong rainier in June than in July ?
( ii ) Why is July rainier in Mumbai than in Thiruvananthapuram ?
( iii ) Why are South – West monsoons less rainy in Chennai ?
( iv ) Why is Shillong rainier than Kolkata ?
( v ) Why is Kolkata rainier in July than in June unlike Shillong which is rainier in June than in July ?
( vi ) Why does Delhi receive more rain than Jodhpur ?
Ans . ( i ) They are rainier in June as the monsoon arrival occurs in both places in June . And the initial impact of the monsoon is an intense period of heavy rain .
( ii ) July is rainier in Mumbai than in Thiruvananthapuram . It is because monsoon reaches Thiruvananthapuram by 1st of June and after giving initial showers the monsoon falls into a steady pattern of raining for at least a couple of hours most days .
By the time , monsoon reaches Mumbai ( by 10th of June ) , it gets its maximum strength and obstructs by the Western Ghats and gives heavy rainfall for about a month and also during July month .
( iii ) Chennai doesn’t receive much rain during the South – West monsoon . It is because the Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon passes parallel to Tamil Nadu coast causing very little or no rainfall . Chennai gets most of its rainfall from the North – East monsoon from October to December .
( iv ) Shillong is in a hilly area . The hills usually trap the monsoon winds . So that Shillong becomes rainier than Kolkata .
( v ) Shillong is rainier in June than Kolkata because the monsoon reaches Shillong earlier than Kolkata ( refer to the ‘ Advancing Monsoon ‘ map in your textbook ) and the initial impact is heavier than the later showers .
( vi ) Delhi receives more rain than Jodhpur . It is because Delhi lies more East than Jodhpur and receives rainfall from the Bay of Bengal branch . This branch keeps on reducing its moisture as proceeds from East to West . By the time , this branch reaches further West , it looses its moisture and gives very few rainfall in Jodhpur .
On the other hand , Jodhpur is on the edge of the Thar desert and when monsoon winds reach there , most of their moisture is exhausted . Thus , Delhi receives more rain than Jodhpur .
12. Now think why
( i ) Thiruvananthapuram has equable climate ?
( ii ) Chennai has more rains only after the fury of monsoon is over in most parts of the country ?
( iii ) Jodhpur has a hot desert type of climate ?
( iv ) Leh has moderate precipitation almost throughout the year ?
( v ) While in Delhi and Jodhpur most of the rain is confined to nearly three months , in Thiruvananthapuram and Shillong it is almost nine months of the year ?
( vi ) In spite of these facts , see carefully if there are strong evidences to conclude that the monsoons still provide a very strong framework lending overall climatic unity to the whole country .
Ans . ( i ) Thiruvananthapuram has equable climate because of two reasons
• It is situated on the sea coast . The moderating influence of the sea makes the climate equable .
• It is near to the equator . At the equator , all the seasons have similar temperatures and so this makes the climate equable .
( ii ) Chennai gets most of its rainfall later than most other parts of the country because it receives most of its rainfall from the North – East monsoon or retreating monsoon which gives rains mostly from October to December . It receives very less or no rainfall from South – West monsoon like rest of the country .
( iii ) Jodhpur has a hot desert type of climate because it is situated on the extreme North – Western part of India which is a desert and so , when the monsoon winds reach there , they exhaust their moisture .
( iv ) Leh is a cold desert located in the mountains and because of its topographical location , it receives . moderate precipitation almost throughout the year .
( v ) Rains in Delhi and Jodhpur are confined to monsoon period only i.e. three months . It is because , these regions are located in the interior part of the country , which receives rainfall mostly from South – West monsoon .
Thiruvananthapuram receives rainfall almost nine months of the year because it lies on the sea coast and receives rainfall from both the South – West and North- East monsoons . Besides it receives rainfall due to local disturbances which pick up moisture from the sea .
Shillong also gets rainfall almost nine months of the year because it is in a hilly area and receives rain from the monsoon as well as from local disturbances which are trapped by the hills .
( vi ) The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons . Monsoon rains are unevenly distributed and typically uncertain .
The Indian landscape , plant and animal life , agriculture , the people and their festivities , all revolve around the monsoon .
All the Indian people eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon . It binds the whole country by providing water which sets all agricultural activities in motion . That is why , the monsoon is considered a unifying bond .
On Page 27
1. Why the houses in Rajasthan have thick walls and flat roofs ?
Ans . The houses in Rajasthan have thick walls because in Rajasthan , the weather is very hot and there is less rainfall . So , the thick walls of the houses insulate the people against the heat in summer and extreme cold in winter due to the desert . The houses in Rajasthan have flat roof because flat roofs are easier to construct and as there is not much rainfall , water will collect on the rooftops .
2. Why is it that the houses in the Tarai region and in Goa and Mangalore have sloping roofs ?
Ans . The houses in the Tarai region and in Goa and Mangalore have sloping roofs because they get heavy rain during the monsoon . When there are sloping roofs , the rain water can easily flow off towards the ground or to a receptive unit where water is collected instead of collecting on the rooftop .
3. Why houses in Assam are built on stilts ?
Ans . Houses in Assam are built on stilts because the state receives abundant rainfall due to which there are chances of floods . In case of flood , the water might get inside the houses if the houses are built on ground level . So in order to avoid flooding of houses , houses are built on stilts and above the ground level .
4. Why most of the world’s deserts are located in the Western margins of continents in the subtropics ?
Ans . Most of the world’s deserts are located in the Western margins of continents in the subtropics because the prevailing winds in the tropics are tropical easterly winds . These winds become dry by the time they reach the Western margins of the continents and so they bring no rainfall . Thus , the region becomes devoid of moisture which causes dry conditions leading to formation of deserts .
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