NCERT Solutions FNCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 The Story Of Village Palampur
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics
Chapter 1 – The Story of Village Palampur
1. Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of the details are presented in the following format . Fill up the following based on information on Palampur .
( a ) Location ( b ) Total Area of the Village
( c ) Land Use ( in hectares )
( d ) Facilities
Ans . ( a ) Location Palampur is located 3 km from Raiganj which is a big village . The nearest town is Shahpur . It is well connected with neighbouring villages and towns . An all weather road connects the village to Raiganj and further to the nearest small town of Shahpur .
( b ) The total area of Palampur village is 246 hectares .
( c ) Land Use ( in hectares )
2. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry . Do you agree ?
Ans . Yes , it is true that modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry . e.g.
( i ) Insecticides , pesticides and chemical fertilisers , required for increasing the yield per hectare , all manufactured in industries .
( ii ) Farmers use farm machinery like tractors , threshers and harvesters , which are also manufactured in industries .
( iii ) Tubewell equipment and water pumps used for irrigation are also manufactured in industries .
3. How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur ?
Ans . The spread of electricity helped the farmers in the following ways
( i ) Irrigation is now done through electric – run tubewells , that reduces the farmers ‘ dependence on rainfall which also enables larger areas of land to be irrigated .
( ii ) Irrigation improvement allowed farmers to grow three different crops in a year . It helped to increase farm production in the village .
( iii ) It is also a cheap and pollution free source of irrigation .
4. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation . Why ?
Ans . Yes , it is very important to increase the area under irrigation because
• Irrigation facilities are available only to about 40 % of the cultivated land area in the country ; 60 % of the cultivated area is still dependent on rainfall for irrigation .
• Irrigation is basic input for growing crops .
• The modern HYV seeds need assured irrigation .
• The other modern inputs like chemical fertilisers and pesticides also become ineffective if irrigation is not available .
• Through irrigation crops can be grown in dry region .
• Arrival of monsoon is also uncertain , so we need irrigation facilities .
5. Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur .
Ans . Distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur is
• Families with no land ( mainly dalits ) – 150 families
• Families with less than two hectares- 240 families
• Families with two or more than two hectares – 60 families
6. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages ?
Ans . The wages for farm labourers in Palampur is less than minimum wages because there is a heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur and people agree to work for lower wages . The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is ₹ 300 per day , but wages of farm labourers in Palampur are less than minimum wages i.e. ₹ 160 .
7 What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land ? Use examples to explain .
Ans . The different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land are
( i ) Multiple cropping When more than one crop is grown on a piece of land during the year , it is known as multiple cropping . It is the most common way to increase production on a given piece of land . All farmers in Palampur grow at least two main crops and many are growing potato as the third crop for the past 15 to 20 years .
( ii ) Use of modern farming methods Modern farming methods also help to increase the yield per hectare . Farmers of Punjab , Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try modern farming methods in India . They have used farm machinery like tractors and threshers , which made ploughing and harvesting faster . They were rewarded with high yield of wheat , increasing from 1300 kg per hectare to 3200 kg per hectare with HYV seeds . The farmers have installed tubewells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds , chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming .
8. Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land .
Ans . A farmer having 1 hectare of land for farming can be described as a subsistence farmer because 1 hectare of land is too small even for the sustenance of a small family . Since land area is too small , the farmer will have to work hard to produce more . But due to lack of capital he will not be able to buy HYV seeds or chemical fertiliser . He will use ordinary seeds bullocks to plough , manual irrigation and will need help of his family members to produce more from that land .
9. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming ? How is it different from the small farmers ?
Ans . The medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming due to a good surplus crop from their large landholdings . They sell this surplus crop in the market and earn profits .
Then they deposit this amount in bank account for next season crop and lend some money to small farmers at a very high interest rates . So they are able to arrange for the capital needed .
In contrast , small farmers have to borrow money to arrange the capital . They borrow from large farmers , village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation . They do not have surplus crop as their land is too small . Whatever is produced , gets consumed by their family so they do not earn profits neither save money .
10. On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh ? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest ?
Ans . Savita , a small farmer , in order to cultivate wheat on her one hectare of land , decides to borrow money from Tejpal Singh , a large farmer .
The terms on which Savita gets loan from Tejpal Singh are
( i ) Savita has to agree to give an interest rate of 24 % for 4 months , which is a very high interest rate .
( ii ) Savita also has to promise to work on his field as farm labourer during the harvest season at ₹ 100 per day .
( iii ) The rate of interest charged by Tejpal Singh was much higher than that of banks .
If Savita had taken a loan from the bank , interest would have been much lower , she could have easily repaid the loan and her condition would have been far better .
11. Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years .
Ans . On talking to two old residents Ramlal and Dharam Singh , I came to know about the following methods
The Irrigation Method They used traditional irrigation methods in our area . They told me that earlier they were dependent on rainfall and later on , they started to use the Persian wheel to draw water from the wells . With development of technology , tubewells were used for better and more effective irrigation .
Farming Production Method In the farming methods , traditionally they ploughed the field with ploughs drawn by bullocks , which was a very difficult and time consuming process . They used ordinary seeds and cow dung as manure .
However , with changes in technology , the farmers started using HYV seeds , chemical fertilisers , insecticides , pesticides and modern machinery like tractors and threshers , which has led to an increase in yield per hectare and improved the lives of the farmers . Thus , there is a vast change in the irrigation and production methods during the last 30 years .
12. What can be done so that more non – farm production activities can be started in villages ?
Ans . To start more non – farm production activities , the following steps can be taken
( i ) Banks should provide loans at low interest rate , so that the poor villagers can start some business , which could help them earn a living .
( ii ) Government should be more active and initiate effective employment generating schemes .
( iii ) Government should provide training to the villagers in different skills .
( iv ) Government should provide facilities for transportation and selling of locally manufactured goods of the villagers in the cities .
( v ) Small scale industries should be started by entrepreneurs in rural areas to employ the villagers trained in various skills .
Let’s Discuss on page 3
1. The following table shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares . Plot this on a graph paper .
( i ) What does the graph show ? Discuss in class .
( ii ) Is it important to increase the area under irrigation ? Why ?
( i ) The above graph shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares . It shows that the land under cultivation in India was 129 million hectares in 1950-51 , which rose to 157 million hectares in 1990-91 . But it decreased from 157 to 156 in 2000-01 and remained constant at 156 million hectares till 2013-14 . Again it decreased in 2014-15 from 156 to 155 million hectares .
( ii ) It is important to increase the land area under irrigation so that the farmers can increase their production and earning . Besides , India’s population is increasing , which requires more food to feed its people .
On page 4
2. You have read about the crops grown in Palampur . Fill the following table based on the information of the crops grown in your region .
Ans . Information about crops grown in our region is given below
Let’s Discuss on page 5
3. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method ?
Ans . Multiple cropping To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping . It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land . It does not need modern farming methods .
Modern farming method It means the use of HYV seeds , tubewells for irrigation , chemical fertilisers and pesticides , as well as machinery like tractors and threshers to increase the production .
4. What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods ?
Ans . The working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods includes raw materials like HYV seeds , chemical fertilisers , pesticides etc and money to buy other items needed in farms .
5 Modern farming methods require the farmers to start with more cash than before . Why ?
Ans . Modern farming methods require the use of HYV seeds , which are costlier than traditional seeds , and need chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce more production . However , for buying all these inputs , a lot of money is essential , so a farmer needs to have more cash to start farming than before .
6. Identify the work being done on the field in the pictures ( i ) to ( vi ) and arrange them in a proper sequence .
Ans . The work being done on the field in each picture is given below
( i ) Cutting of crops
( ii ) Ploughing by bullocks
( iii ) Spraying of insecticides
( iv ) Sowing
( v ) Cultivation by traditional methods
( vi ) Cultivation by modern methods .
The proper sequence from sowing to harvesting is given below
Let’s Discuss on page 9
7. Why are farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali poor ?
Ans . The farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali were poor because
( i ) They are landless farm labourers who work on daily wages in Palampur .
( ii ) The minimum wage for farm labourer set by the government is ₹ 300 per day , but they get only ₹ 160 per day .
( iii ) There is a heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur , so they agree to work for lower wages .
( iv ) They remain out of work for most days of the year and have to take loan from the moneylenders to fulfil their basic needs . Due to this seasonal unemployment , they are unable to repay the loan and fall into a debt trap .
8. Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in North Bihar . Out of a total of 850 households in the two villages , there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi , Mumbai , Surat , Hyderabad or Nagpur . Such migration is common in most villages across India .
Why do people migrate ? Can you describe ( based on your imagination ) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place of destination ?
Ans . Mostly people migrate in search of employment or better job opportunities to the cities like Mumbai , Delhi etc , or to prosperous agricultural regions like Punjab and Haryana to work as a farm labourers .
This migration usually takes place when a person is unemployed or in seasonal unemployment , which may be due to lack of land , displacement , negative impact of natural disasters like drought , floods etc.
The migrants from Gosaipur and Majauli who went to cities will probably find work as casual labourers , industrial workers , street hawkers , rickshaw pullers , headload workers or as domestic aid in homes , hotels etc.
Those who went to rural areas of Punjab and Haryana will probably work as farm labourers , as agriculture is the main occupation of the rural people in these states .
Let’s Discuss on page 12
9. ( a ) What capital did Mishrilal need to set up his jaggery manufacturing unit ?
( b ) Who provides the labour in this case ?
( c ) Can you guess why Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit ?
( d ) Could you think of any reasons when he might face a loss ?
( e ) Why does Mishrilal sell his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village ?
Ans . ( a ) To set up his manufacturing unit , Mishrilal needed the following capital
( i ) Fixed capital in the form of a sugarcane crushing machine .
( ii ) Working capital in the form of money for buying sugarcane from other farmers for crushing and for paying the electricity bill of running the crushing machine .
( b ) The labour is provided by him and his family . Otherwise , he will employ landless labourers .
( c ) Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit because
( i ) Most of the land holdings in the village are very small in size and production of sugarcane is low as more area is under wheat . So , raw material is also in less amount .
( ii ) He has to pay for electricity to run the machine .
( iii ) As his industry is small scale , production is less .
( d ) Conditions under which he might face a loss can be any of the following
( i ) If his crushing machine breaks down , his production will reduce or totally stop .
( ii ) If drought or other calamity occurs , the production of sugarcane in nearby areas will reduce ; his jaggery production will come down , leading to a loss .
( iii ) If the demand for jaggery decreases , he will not be able to sell enough jaggery in the market .
( iv ) If any other costs like electricity , labour or transportation increases , then he may face losses .
( e ) Mirbrilal sells his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village because
( i ) Palampur is a small village with 450 families and there is not a large demand for jaggery .
( ii ) Shahpur is a town where people come from different surrounding villages to buy things and hence there is more demand for jaggery .
10. In what way is Kareem’s capital and labour different from Mishrilal’s ?
Ans . Both Kareem and Mishrilal have fixed capital in the form of machines , but Kareem has a larger fixed capital . Kareem has such kind of capital that can be used to educate and provide employment skills to many persons with minimum labour involvement .
While Mishrilal’s capital is used by only one person at a time and requires more physical labour . Kareem has also employed educated and qualified computer teachers , whereas Mishrilal’s labour is mainly unskilled labour .
11. Why didn’t someone start a computer centre earlier ? Discuss the possible reasons .
Ans . Reasons why someone didn’t start a computer centre earlier may be any of the following
( i ) As very few educated people were there in the village , there was not any demand for computer courses .
( ii ) The villagers were not aware of the employment potential of computer courses and hence , nobody thought that such a business could be successful .
( iii ) Teaching faculty for computer courses was not available in the village earlier .
Let’s Discuss on page 13
12. ( a ) What is Kishora’s fixed capital ?
( b ) What do you think would be his working capital ?
( c ) In how many production activities is Kishora involved ?
( d ) Would you say that Kishora has benefitted from better roads in Palampur ?
Ans . ( a ) Kishora’s fixed capital is the buffalo and wooden cart which he has purchased with the bank loan .
( b ) The money that he earns from selling the milk and transporting goods on his bullock cart excluding his living expenses will be his working capital .
( c ) Kishora is involved in the following production activities
( i ) Selling of buffalo’s milk .
( ii ) Transportation of various items .
( iii ) Bringing clay from the river Ganga for the potter .
( iv ) Transporting jaggery etc to Shahpur .
( d ) Kishora has certainly benefitted from better roads . in Palampur because of his involvement in transport business . Better roads enable him to easily transport goods from one place to another , run his business successfully and earn profits . This would have been more difficult in the absence of proper roads .
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