Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
- The mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television, newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs.
- They are referred to as ‘mass’ media because they reach mass audiences – audiences comprised of very large numbers of people.
- They are also sometimes referred to as mass communications.
THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN MASS MEDIA
- It began with the development of the printing press.
- The first attempts at printing books using modern technologies began in Europe.
- This technique was first developed byJohann Gutenberg in 1440.
- Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books.
- The first products of the press were restricted to an audience of literate elites.
- It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience.
- Benedict Anderson argued that this helped the growth of nationalism, the feeling that people who did not even know of each other’s existence feel like members of a family.
- It gave people who would never meet each other a sense of togetherness.
- Anderson thus suggested that we could think of the nation as an ‘imagined community’.
Though a few newspapers had been started by people
- Raja Rammohun Roy, his Sambad-Kaumudiin Bengali published in 1821,
- Mirat-Ul-Akbar in Persian published in 1822,
- FardoonjiMurzban was the pioneer of the Gujarati Press in Bombay.1822 that he started the Bombay Samacharas a daily.
- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started the ShomePrakashin Bengali in 1858.
- The Times of India was founded in Bombay in 1861.
- The Pioneer in Allahabad in 1865.
- The Madras Mail in 1868.
- The Statesman in Calcutta in 1875.
- The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore in 1876.
MASS MEDIA IN INDEPENDENT INDIA
- The media was expected to spread the spirit of self-reliance and national development among the people.
- It was seen as a means to inform the people of the various developmental efforts.
- It was also encouraged to fight against oppressive social practices like untouchability, child marriages, and ostracism of widows, as well as beliefs of witchcraft and faith healing.
- It was a rational, scientific ethos was to be promoted for the building of a modern industrial society.
- Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘ham’broadcasting clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920s.
- During the World War II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South-east Asia.
- At thetime of independence there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience.
- By 1950 there were 546,200 radio licences all over India.
- Apart from All India Radio (AIR) broadcasts news
- There was VividhBharati, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting Hindi film songs on listenersrequest.
- In 1957 AIR acquired the hugely popular channel VividhBharati, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements and grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR.
- The transistor revolution in the 1960s made the radio more accessible and reducing the unitprice substantially.
- In 2000 around 110 million households (two-thirds of all Indian households) were listening to radio broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects.
- Television programming was introduced early as 1959.
- Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) broadcasted directly to community viewers in the rural areas of six states between August 1975 and July 1976.
- Broadcast to 2,400 TV sets directly for 4 hours daily.
- Television stations were set up under Doordarshan in 4 cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar and Amritsar) by 1975.
- Every broadcasting centre had its own mix of programmes comprising news, children’s and women’s programmes, farmer’s programmes as well as entertainment programmes.
- The advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi
- Rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialization of television broadcasting.
- It was also the time when indigenous soap operas likeHum Log (1984-85) andBuniyaad(1986- 87)were aired.
- Some 156 episodes of Hum Logwere broadcast in Hindi for 17 months in 1984-85.
- The television program promoted such social themes as gender equality, small family size, and national integration.
- Hum Log achieved audience ratings of 65 to 90% in North India and between 20 and 45 % in South India.
- Epics Ramayana (1987-88) and Mahabharat(1988-90).
- The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted.
- After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
- The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media.
GLOBALISATION AND THE MEDIA
- National markets have given way to a fluid global market, while new technologies have led to the fusion of forms of mediathat were once distinct.
- Globalisation and the case of music- The growth of technology- from personal stereo systems to music television (such as the MTV) to the compact disc (CD) – have provided newer, more sophisticated ways for music to be distributed globally.
- The Internet allows music to be downloaded digitally, rather than purchased in the form of CDs or cassettes from local music stores.
CHANGES THAT GLOBALISATION HAS BROUGHT ABOUT ON THE PRINT MEDIA
AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA
Changes inPRINT MEDIA(primarily newspapers and magazines)
- New technologies have helped boost the production and circulation of newspapers.
- A large number of glossy magazines have also made their entry into the market.
Reason for Growth of Indian language newspaper revolution.
- There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. o The Hindi dailyHindustanin 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005.
- The reason was that, of Delhi’s population of one crore and forty-seven lakhs, 52 per cent had come from the Hindi belt of the two states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- The needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are differentfrom that of the cities and the Indian language newspapers cater to those needs.
- MalayalaManoramaand the Eenadulaunched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and whenever necessary, block editions.
- Dina Thanthi, – Tamil newspaper, has always used simplified and colloquial language.
- The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets.
- English newspapers, often called ‘national dailies’, circulate acrossregions,
- Vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in thestates and the rural hinterland.
- Many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in thecirculation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded.
Changes inELECTRONIC MEDIA(primarily television), and on the radio.
- In 1991 there was one state controlled TV channel Doordarshanin India.
- By 1998 there were almost 70 channels.
- While Doordarshan broadcasts over 20 channels there were some 40 private television networks broadcasting in 2000.
- In 2002, 134 million individuals watched satellite TV on an average every week. This number went up to 190 million in 2005.
- The number of homes with access to satellite TV has jumped from 40million in 2002 to 61 million in 2005.
- By 2000, 40 private cable and satellite channels were available including several that focused exclusively on regional-language broadcasting like Sun-TV, Eenadu-TV, UdayaTV, Raj-TV, and Asianet.
- The number of cable operators exploded from 100 in 1984, to 1200 in 1988, to 15,000 in 1992, and to about 60,000 in 1999.
- Most television channels are on throughout the day, 24X7.
- The format for news is lively and informal.
- News has been made far more immediate, democratic and intimate.
- Television has fostered public debate and is expanding its reach every passing year.
- In 2000, AIR’s programmes could be heard in two-third of all Indian households in 24 languages and 146 dialects, over some 120 million radio sets.
- The advent of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio.
- In order to attract audiences these privately run radio stations sought to provide entertainment to its listeners.
- As privately run FM channels are not permitted to broadcast any political news bulletins, many of these channelspecialise in ‘particular kinds’ of popular music to retain their audiences.