Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change
Globalisation: A complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural and political changes that have increased the interdependence, integration, and interaction among people and economic actors (companies) in disparate locations.
ARE GLOBAL INTERCONNECTIONS NEW TO WORLD AND TO INDIA?
The early years
- Silk route, which centuries ago connected India to the great civilisations, which existed in China, Persia, Egypt and Rome.
- People from different parts came here, sometimes as traders, sometimes as conquerors, sometimes as migrantsin search of new lands and settled down here.
Colonialism and the Global connection
• Globalisation today identifies large-scale movement of people or migration as a defining feature.
- Migration of European people who settled down in the Americas and Australia.
- Labourers were taken away in ships from India to work in distant parts of Asia, Africa and Americas.
Independent India and the world
- Many Indians travelled overseas for education and work.
- Migration was an ongoing process.
- Export and import of raw material, goods and technology was very much part of development since independence.
- Foreign firms did operate in India.
• Globalisation refers to the growing interdependence between different people, regions and countries in the world as social and economic relationships come to stretch world-wide.
DIMENSIONS OF GLOBALISATION
The Economic Policy of Liberalisation
- The term liberalisation refers to a range of policy decisions that the Indian state took since 1991 to open up the Indian economy to the world market.
- This marked a break with an earlier stated policy of the government to have a greater control over the economy.
- It meant the steady removal of the rules that regulated Indian trade and finance regulations.
- It also involved the taking of loans from international institutions
- Such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- These loans are given on certain conditions.
The transnational corporations (TNCs)
- TNCs are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country.
- Ex: Coca Cola, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Kodak, Mitsubishi
- Some Indian corporations are also becoming transnational.
The electronic economy
- Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse.
- This new ability to move ‘electronic money’
The Weightless Economy or Knowledge Economy
- Economy is one in whichproducts have their base in information, as in the case with computer software, media and entertainment products and internet based services.
- It involved not in the physical production or distribution of material goods, but in their design, development, technology, marketing, sale and servicing.
Globalisation of finance
- Globally integrated financial markets undertake billions of dollars worth transactions within seconds in the electronic circuits.
- There is a 24-hour trading in capital and security markets.
- Cities such as New York, Tokyo and London are the key centers for financial trading.
- Within India, Mumbai is known as the financial capital of the country.
- Technology and the world’s telecommunications infrastructure have led to revolutionary changes in global communication.
- Some homes and many offices now have multiple links to the outside world, o Including telephones (land lines and mobiles), fax machines, digital and cable television, electronic mail and the internet.
- ‘Compression’ of time and space.
- Cellular telephony has also grown enormously and cell phones are part of the self for most urban-based middle class youth.
- Mobile services were commercially launched in August 1995 in India.
GLOBALISATION AND LABOUR
- A new international division of labour has emerged
- Instead of mass production of goods at a centralized location (Fordism), we have moved to a system of flexible production at dispersed locations (post-Fordism).
- If labour is cheaper elsewhere production centers will move somewhere else.
- This entire process makes the labouring population very vulnerable and insecure.
GLOBALISATION AND EMPLOYMENT
• Globalisation and the IT revolution has opened up new career opportunities.
- Learning computer languages at computer institutes or
- jobs at call centers or
- Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) companies.
- working as sales persons in shopping malls etc.
GLOBALISATION AND POLITICAL CHANGES
Specific economic and political approach to the economic
- These changes are often termed as neo-liberal economic measures.
- Neo liberalism mainly refers to new policies of liberal economy that were introduced to speed up process of globalization in late eighties and early nineties.
- Neoliberalism is of the view that unregulated markets are the best way to proceed to increase economic growth as it will benefit everyone ultimately.
- It encourages privatization and deregulation to give wings to international trade and commerce.
Growth of international and regional mechanisms for political collaboration.
- The European Union (EU),
- Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN),
- South Asian Regional Conference (SARC)
- South Asian Federation of Trade Association (SAFTA) etc.
Rise of International Governmental Organisations. (IGOs) and International NonGovernmental Organisations (INGOs).
- An intergovernmental organisation (IGOs) is a body that is established by participating governments and given responsibility for regulating, or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope.
- Ex: The World Trade Organisation (WTO)
- INGOs differ from intergovernmental organisations o they are not affiliated with government institutions.
- They are independent organisations, o which make policy decisions and address international issues.
- The Red Cross
- Amnesty International,
- Medecins Sans Frontieres
GLOBALISATION AND CULTURE
- The last decade has seen major cultural changes leading to fears that our local cultures would be overtaken.
Homogenisation versus Glocalisation of culture
- All cultures will become similar, that is homogeneous.
- Glocalisation refers to the mixing of the global with the local.
- It is not entirely spontaneous.
- Today is that globalisation will lead to the creation of not just new local traditions but global ones too.
GENDER AND CULTURE
- In India we have been able to retain and develop a democratic tradition and culture that allows us to define culture in a more inclusive and democratic fashion.
CULTURE OF CONSUMPTION
- Cultural consumption is playing in the process of globalisation especially in shaping the growth of cities.
- Example: growth of shopping malls, multiplex cinema halls, amusement parks and ‘water world’ in every major city in India.
- It is a branch of management theory that seeks to increase productivity and competitiveness though the creation of a unique organizational culture involving all members of a firm.