NCERT Notes for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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NCERT Notes for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Frédéric Sorrieu vision of World

Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, in 1848 prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and Social Republics.

  1. The first print shows the people of Europe and America marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass it. The torch of Enlightenment was carried by a female figure in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
  2. On the earth in the foreground lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
  3. In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
  4. The procession was led by the United States and Switzerland, followed by France and Germany. Following the German people are the people of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.
  5. From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene. They have been used by the artist to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.

During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force which brought huge changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state.


The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation


French Revolution of 1789 was came with political and constitutional changes led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The first clear expression of nationalism.
• Steps taken by French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people:
→ Ideas of La patrie and Le citoyen
→ New French Flag (the tricolour was chosen to replace the former one.)
→ Estates General was elected and renamed National Assembly
→ New hymns composed and oaths taken, all in the name of the nation.
→ Centralized administration system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
→ Internal customs duties and dues were abolished
→ Uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
→ French became the common language

Napolean

  1. Ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
  2. Gained absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
  3. Civil Code of 1804 known as the Napoleonic Code.
  4. Civil code of 1804 away all privileges based on birth.
  5. Equality before the law was established
  6. Secured the right to property
  7. Simplified administrative divisions.
  8. Abolished feudal system.
  9. Freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  10. Guild restrictions were removed
  11. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  12. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
  13. Napoleon took away political freedom, increased taxes, imposed censorship and forced people to join French army.

The Making of Nationalism in Europe

  • No Nation states were in Europe because of not common identity or culture.
  • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
  • People residing in different areas spoke different languages.
  • Example: Hungary half of the population spoke Magyar other half spoke variety of dialects and in Galicia people spoke Polish.

The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

• Aristocracy

The Aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent politically and socially. 

→ Aristocracy The land owning class.

→ Aristocracy Spoke French connected by ties of marriages.

→ Aristocracy Numerically a small group.

• Peasantry

→ The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.

• Middle class

 Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century.

→ New Social class emerged with the growth of towns and emergence of commercial classes.

→ Middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.

→ Educated class where ideas of nationality gained popularity.

What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

• The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.

• The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.

• Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality for all before the law

→ The end of autocracy and clerical privileges

→ A constitution and representative government through parliament.

• In the economic sphere liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

• In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced the number of currencies to two, and promoted a network of railways to stimulate mobility.

A New Conservatism after 1815

  1. In 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed in monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and that the family should be preserved.
  2. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
  3. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria met in Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
  4. Treaty of Vienna (1815)

• The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.

• A series of states created on the French boundary for preventing French expansion in future.

• German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by napoleon was left untouched.

• Main intentions was to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon.

5. The major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.

The Revolutionaries

  1. In 1815, secret societies were formed in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
  2. A commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.
  3. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini

• Born in Genoa in 1807

• Giuseppe Mazzini became a member of the secret society of Carbonari

• Founded Young Italy in Marseellies.

  • Secondly, he founded  Young Europe in Berne,  whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
  • Believed in the unification of Italy into a republic.

The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

• In July 1830, Bourbon kings of France were overthrown by liberal revolutionaries and a constitutional monarchy was established.

• The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium broke away from the United kingdoms of the Netherlands.

•  In 1821 Greece which had been a part of the Ottomon Empire since the fifteenth century, struggled for independence.

→ Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

  1. A cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment, criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
  2. German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder tried to discovered culture among common people, through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
  3. Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  4. Russian language was imposed everywhere and in 1831 an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.

Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt

  • Europe faced economic hardships in the 1830s.
  • The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe. 
  • In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
  • Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
  • The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
  • In 1848, the Population of Paris came out on the roads and Louis Philippe was forced to flee and National Assembly proclaimed a Republic.
  • In 1845, weavers in Silesia led a revolt against contractors.

1848: The Revolution of the Liberals

  • In 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was underway.
  • Men and women of the liberal middle class demanded creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.

Frankfurt Parliament

  • A large number of political associations came together in Frankfurt to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
  • On 18 May 1848, members of political association’s elected 831 representatives marched to took their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul and drafted a Constitution for the German nation.
  • The Constitution drafted for German nation was headed by a monarchy, subject to a Parliament.
  • The Crown was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia but he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. 
  • In the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
  • The Middle Class dominated the Parliament and a large number of women participated in liberal movement.
  • Serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
  • The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.

The Making of Germany and Italy

Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?

Germany

  1. Nationalism in Europe moved away after 1848 from its association with democracy and revolution.
  2. Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation-states.
  3. The architect of this process was its chief minister, Otto Van Bismarck with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
  4. Three war over the seven years with Austria, Denmark and france ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
  5. In January 1871, the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor.
  6. An assembly was held to proclaim the new German Empire.
  7. The process of nation-building demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.
  8. The currency, banking, legal and judicial system in Germany were modernised.

Italy Unified

Italy

  • Italy was divided into seven states in the middle of the nineteenth century, and among all the seven states, of which only Sardinia Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely state.
  • All the regions were dominated by different kings.
  • In the 1830’s Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called Young Italy.
  • Initially a unification programme for a unitary Italian republic was initiated by Giuseppe Mazzini, but it failed.
  • Chief Miniser Cavour led the movement, with the help of Giuseppe Garibaldi.
  • In 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austrian forces. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

The Strange Case of Britain

  • Great Britain was the model of the nation and prior to the eighteenth century there was no British nation.
  • The nation became powerful as it steadily grew in wealth, importance and power.
  • In 1688, England established as a nation state.
  • English parliament seized power from the monarchy.
  • The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
  • In 1801, Ireland was forcibly taken by the British after the failed revolution.
  • A new ‘British Nation’ was founded through the propagation of a dominant English culture.
  • The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted.

Visualising the Nation

  • In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries artists represented a country as a person and Nations were portrayed as female figure (Allegory).
  • During the French Revolution, female figures portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
  • Liberty is represented as a red cap, or the broken chain, Justice a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
  • The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life, rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
  • In France the allegory was christened as Marianne, in Germany – Germania became the allegory.

Nationalism and Imperialism

  1. Nationalism no longer retained after the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
  2. After 1871, the most tensioned area was called the Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
  3. Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation was under the control of the Ottomon Empire.
  4. Ottoman Empire made the Balkans region explosive and all through the nineteenth century they strengthened themselves through modernisation and internal reforms.
  5. Due to various conflicts the Balkan became an area of intense conflict.
  6. The idea of Romantic nationalism made this region very explosive.
  7. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of each other.
  8. European powers were also looking for the extend their control over the area.
  9. During this period, intense rivalry built among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might.
  10. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally resulted in the First World War.
  11. In 1914, Europe was disastered because of Nationalism, aligned with imperialism.
  12. Anti-imperial movements were developed but they all struggled to form independent nation-states.
  13. The idea of ‘nation-states’ was accepted as natural and universal.

1. What is Unification of Germany? Explain.

Unification of Germany
● In 1848 , middle – class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation – state under an elected parliament .
● In Prussia , nation – building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military and were supported by the landowners called junkers .
● Prussia took over the leadership of the movement .
● Otto von Bismarck , chief minister of Prussia , was the architect in the process of nation – building .
● Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against the combined forces of Austria , Denmark and France and the process of unification of Germany was completed .
● On 18th January 1871 , the new German Empire , headed by the German Emperor Kaiser William I , was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles .
● The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe .
● The new German Empire focused on modernizing the currency , banking , legal and judicial systems .

2. What is Unification of Germany Class 10?

Unification of Germany
● In 1848 , middle – class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation – state under an elected parliament .
● In Prussia , nation – building acts were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military and were supported by the landowners called junkers .
● Prussia took over the leadership of the movement .
● Otto von Bismarck , chief minister of Prussia , was the architect in the process of nation – building .
● Prussia emerged victorious after fighting three wars over seven years against the combined forces of Austria , Denmark and France and the process of unification of Germany was completed .
● On 18th January 1871 , the new German Empire , headed by the German Emperor Kaiser William I , was declared in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles .
● The unification of Germany established Prussian dominance in Europe .
● The new German Empire focused on modernizing the currency , banking , legal and judicial systems .

3. Who was Guiseppe Mazzini ?

Guiseppe Mazzini : He was an Italian revolutionary , who was born in Genoa in 1807. He was sent into exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria .
He founded two secret societies , namely Young Italy and Young Europe . He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities .
Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies , more such secret societies were set up in Germany , France , Switzerland and Poland . Austrian Chancellor Duke Matternich once described him as the most dangerous enemy of our social order . “

4. Who was Guiseppe Mazzini class 10 ?

Guiseppe Mazzini : He was an Italian revolutionary , who was born in Genoa in 1807. He was sent into exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria .
He founded two secret societies , namely Young Italy and Young Europe . He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities .
Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies , more such secret societies were set up in Germany , France , Switzerland and Poland . Austrian Chancellor Duke Matternich once described him as the most dangerous enemy of our social order . “

5. What was the role of women in the nationalism struggle in Europe?

Women played very significant roles in nationalist struggles all over the world . They actively participated in movements , faced the tortures of police , stood by their male counterparts , spread the idea of liberal nationalism and were also members of various revolutionary organisations .
A good example is the French revolution , in which men and women participated equally . Even the concept of liberty is personified as a woman . In spite of this , they were given little or no political rights or right to vote till the end of 19th century .

6. When was Germany unified class 10?

Germany was unified on 18th January 1871, The new German Empire focused on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.

7. Who was Otto Von Bismarck?

He was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification . Once the empire was established , he actively and skilfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs , succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades .

8. Who was Otto von Bismarck explain his role in the unification of Germany Class 10?

He was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification . Once the empire was established , he actively and skilfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs , succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades .

9. What is unification of italy class 10?

Italy was divided into seven states
● Only Sardinia – Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house .
●  North Italy was under Austrian Habsburgs .
●  The centre part was under the Pope
●  The southern regions were under the Bourbon kings of Spain .
●  During the 1830s , Giuseppe Mazzini formed a coherent programme for uniting the Italian Republic and formed a secret society called Young Italy .
●  The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 prompted King Victor Emmanuel II from Sardinia Piedmont to unify the Italian states ,
Chief Minister of Sardinia – Piedmont , Count Cavour , led the movement for the unification of Italy .
●  In the year 1859. Sardinia – Piedmont with an alliance with France defeated the Austrian forces .
●  In 1860 , Sardinia – Piedmont’s forces marched into southern Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers .
●  In 1861 Victor Emmanuel was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy .
● Britain has a different history of how it consolidated as a nation – state without uprisings and revolutions . The British Isles was inhabited by ethnic English , Welsh , Scot or Irish . The English nation grew more in power and wealth , and it began to exert influence over the other nations of the islands .
● The concept of nation states , with England as the centre , came in 1688 after the Parliament snatched power from the monarchy . In 1707 , the Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
● To ensure the growth of British identity , Scotland’s cultural and political institutions were suppressed . The British imposed control over Ireland as well ● Ireland was deeply divided into two groups , Catholics and Protestants . The English favoured the Protestants and helped them establish their dominance over a largely Catholic Ireland .
● In 1801 , Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom after a failed Irish revolt . The symbols of new Britain were the English language , the British flag ( Union Jack ) and the British national anthem ( God Save Our Nobel King ) .

10. Who were the leaders of Italian unification?

Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo di Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi were the leaders of Italian unification .
 

11. What were the symbols of Britain class 10?

The symbols of new Britain were the English language , the British flag (Union Jack ) and the British national anthem ( God Save Our Nobel King ) .

12. Who was Count camillo de cavour class 10 ?

The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

13. What is the importance of language and popular tradition in creating a national identity?

Language , traditions and culture plays an important role in creating the idea of the nation . Art and poetry , stories and music helps express and shape nationalist feelings .
They all create a sense of a shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation .
 

14. What is the importance of language and popular tradition in creating a national identity class 10?

Language , traditions and culture plays an important role in creating the idea of the nation . Art and poetry , stories and music helps express and shape nationalist feelings .
They all create a sense of a shared collective heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation .

15. What is romanticism class 10?

A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions .
The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism .

16. What is Nationalism in History class 10?

Nationalism is a political and socio-economic philosophy that promotes the interests of a nation as a whole. The concept of nationalism emerged in Europe during the nineteenth century. It marked the downfall of feudalism and the beginning of Renaissance while literally means ‘Rebirth’.

17. Explain liberalisation in europe class 10?

During the mid – 18th century , Europe was divided into several small kingdoms and principalities . The concept of nation states did not exist at all . People from diverse ethnic groups lived in Eastern and Central Europe . The prominent empires in Europe were the autocratic Ottoman Empire that ruled over Eastern and Central Europe , and Greece and the Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria – Hungary .

18. Explain the rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries in europe class 10?

Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries
● The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before the law . Liberalism was used to end aristocracy and clerical privileges . After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815 , the European government adopted the idea of conservatism .
Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition , established institutions and customs , and preferred gradual development to quick change .
● After 1815 , several liberals began working in secret societies all over Europe to propagate their views and train revolutionaries . Revolutionaries were seen as a threat to the restored monarchies , and hence were repressed .
Giuseppe Mazzini , a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa He was the part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne .
● In 1831 , Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria . Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy . These societies were joined by like – minded young men from Poland , France , Italy and the German states .

19. Explain the rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries in Europe?

Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries
● The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before the law . Liberalism was used to end aristocracy and clerical privileges . After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815 , the European government adopted the idea of conservatism .
Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition , established institutions and customs , and preferred gradual development to quick change .
● After 1815 , several liberals began working in secret societies all over Europe to propagate their views and train revolutionaries . Revolutionaries were seen as a threat to the restored monarchies , and hence were repressed .
Giuseppe Mazzini , a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa He was the part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne .
● In 1831 , Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria . Mazzini believed in the unification of the small kingdoms and principalities in Italy . These societies were joined by like – minded young men from Poland , France , Italy and the German states .

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