Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
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NCERT Notes for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World
The Making of a Global World
Globalisation is an economic system associated with the free movement of goods, technology, ideas and people across the globe.
The Pre Modern World
The making of the global world has a long history – of trade, of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much else.
From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution.
As early as 3000 BCE an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia.
- Silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
- There are several silk routes have been identified by historians, overland and by sea, connecting vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa.
- Famous Chinese silk cargoes used to travel through these routes.
- In exchange of textile and species from India, precious metals – gold and silver – flowed from Europe to Asia.
Food Travels: Spaghetti and Potato
- Food offers many examples of long-distance cultural exchange.
- New crops were introduced by traders and travellers.
- Ready foodstuff such as Noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
- Our ancestors were not familiar with Common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus discovered Americas.
Conquest, Disease and Trade
- The Indian Ocean, for centuries before, had known a bustling trade, with goods, people, knowledge, customs, etc; crisscrossing its waters.
- The entry of Europeans helped in redirecting these flows towards Europe.
- America’s vast lands and abundant crops minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
- Precious metals from mines of Peru and Mexico enhanced European trade with Asia.
- The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.
- Europeans’ most powerful weapon was not a conventional military weapon.
- It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person.
- Smallpox in particular proved to be a deadly killer.
- Until well into the eighteenth century, China and India were among the world’s richest countries.
- Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe.
- From the fifteenth century, China is said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation.
- Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.
Section II: The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)
In the nineteenth century, economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted in complex ways to transform societies and reshape external relations.
Three flows or movements were identified by economists.
- The first is the flow of trade referred largely to trade in goods (e.g., cloth or wheat).
- The second is the flow of labour – the migration of people in search of employment.
- The third is the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.
A World Economy Takes Shape
In the nineteenth-century self-sufficiency in food meant lower living standards and social conflict in Britain.
In the late eighteenth century, growth in the population increased the demand for food grains in Britain.
• The imported food into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
• Industrial growth took place in Britain which led to higher incomes meaning more food imports.
• It was transported by railway and by ships.
• Food is only an example. Products such as cotton, rubber, coal also had same fate.
Role of Technology
• The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions that transformed nineteenth-century world.
• After the introduction of new technology, namely, refrigerated ships animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point and then transported to Europe as frozen meat.
Late nineteenth-century Colonialism
• European conquests Asia and Africa as colonies.
• Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers.
• The US became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.
Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague
• Rinderpest is a fast spreading cattle plague which hit Africa in the late 1880s.
• It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia and destroyed 90 percent of the livestock.
• The colonial governments now strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market.
Indentured Labour Migration from India
• Indentured Labour was a bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer.
• In the nineteenth century, thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world.
• Recruitment was done by agents by providing false information about the work and location.
• On arrival at the plantations, labourers found living and working conditions harsh.
• It was abolished in 1921.
Indian Entrepreneurs Abroad
• Indian entrepreneurs, some bankers like Nattukottai and Chettiars financed export of agriculture to Central and South-East Asia.
→ They even followed the Europeans to Africa.
• Industrial Revolution in England changed the balance of trade between England and India.
• Indian handicraft and agriculture were destroyed and Britain enjoyed a trade surplus with India.
→ Their exports increased and imports decreased.
Section III: The Inter-war Economy
• The First World war was the first modern industrial war.
• During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods.
• The war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.
• After the war was over, the production reduced and unemployment increased.
Rise of Mass Production and Consumption
• In the US, war recovery was quicker.
• ‘Assembly line’ method introduced by Henry Ford soon spread to the US and were also widely copied in Europe in the 1920s.
• Mass production lowered the costs and prices of engineered goods.
• There was a housing and consumer boom in the 1920s, which ultimately led to the Great Depression of 1929.
• Markets crashed in 1929 and led to the failure of banks and the crisis affected other countries.
→ By 1933, over 4000 banks closed and between 1929-32 about 110,000 companies collapsed.
India and the Great Depression
• India was also affected by the Great Depression.
• Indian exports and imports declined extensively, prices fell.
• Bengal jute growers suffered the most.
• Large scale migration took place from villages to towns and cities.
Section IV: Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era
• The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War and once again, it led to destruction.
• After the USA and the USSR emerged as superpowers.
Post-war Settlement and the Bretton Woods Institutions
• To ensure a stable economy a framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
• It established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
• The International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations.
• The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
• The IMF and the World Bank commenced financial operations in 1947.
• Bretton Woods System was based on a fixed exchange rate.
• National currencies were pegged to the American dollar at a fixed rate.
• Decision-making in these institutions is controlled by the Western industrial powers largely by the US.
Decolonisation and Independence
• Many countries in Asia and Africa became independent nations, supported by UNO and NAM.
• Group of 77 or G-77 was organised by developing countries to demand a new international economic order (NIEO) which would give these countries real control over their national resources, raw materials, manufactured goods in their markets.
• MNCs or multinational companies were established in the 1950s and 1960s and operated in several countries.