Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Important Question Structural Change Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Important Question Structural Change Term 2 2022

Sociology Chapter 1 Important Question Structural Change Term 2 2022

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Important Question Structural Change Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Important Question Structural Change Term 2 2022

 

Objective Questions

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which rulers benefitted by taking away the tribute or economic surplus from the people of the subjugated area?

(a) Capitalists       (b) Socialists

(c) Pre-capitalists (d) Colonialists

Ans. (c) Pre-capitalists benefitted by taking away the tribute or economic surplus from the people of the subjugated area. They simply took the tribute that was skimmed off the economic surplus that was produced traditionally in the subjugated areas.

2. Our parliamentary; legal and educational systems are based on which model?

(a) American model

(b) British model

(c) Indigenous model

(d) French model

Ans. (b) Our Parliamentary; legal and educational system are based on British model because the foundation of the parliamentary, legal and educational system in India were laid down by the British colonisers

3. The British Forest Policy in Assam was due to the introduction ofin Bengal.

(a) Railways            (c) Urbanisation

(c) Global Markets (d) Capitalism

Ans. (a) British Forest Policy in Assam, which was the part of Bengal Province, was an active intervention rather than free market policy. The demand for railway sleepers made the forests of Assam an attractive source of revenue and profit. Thus, the Forest Policy in Assam was due to introduction of railways in Bengal.

4. Forest policy of the colonial period was felt adversely by the tribal communities of

(a) North East India (b) South India

(c) West India           (d) None of these

Ans. (a) Forest policy of the colonial period was left adversely by the tribal communities of North East India.

5. An economic system in which the means of production areand organised to accumulate within a market system is known as Capitalism.

(a) privately-owned, profits

(b) communally-owned, profits

(c) distributed, losses

(d) privately-owned, land

Ans. (a) Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately-owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system. Capitalism from the very beginning was marked by its dynamism, its potential to grow, expand, innovate use technology and labour to ensure greatest profit.

6. Colonialism introduced the forest acts that changed the fives ofand

(a) industrialists, rulers (b) tribals, pastoralists

(c) merchants, weavers (d) farmers, students

Ans. (b) Colonialism introduced the Forest Acts that changed the lives of tribals and pastoralists. In Assam the British reserved large forests for themselves. This policy of the government affected life of many tribal communities and pastoralists dwelling in forests.

7. Which phenomenon led to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity?

(a) Globalisation (b) Capitalism

(c) Imperialism    (d) Industrialisation

Ans. (d) Industrialisation refers to the emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity. In an industrial society, the large majority of people are engaged in secondary or tertiary activities such as factories, offices or shops rather than agriculture.

8. Which among the following cities experienced a high rate of urbanisation in the post – independence period?

(a) Kolkata (b) Mumbai

(c) Chennai (d) All of these

Ans. (d) Large metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai have experienced a high rate of urbanisation in the post- independence period.

9. Which of the following is not a direct consequence of competition with Manchester cloth?

(a) Decline in traditional export of cotton and silk

(b) Growth of coastal cities of Bombay and Madras

(c) Increase in population involved in agriculture

(d) Decline in cities of Surat and Masulipatnam

Ans. (c) Increase in population involved in agriculture is not a direct consequence of competition with Manchester cloth. Therefore option (c) is the correct answer.

10. Name the English merchant who in 1690 arranged to lease three villages Kolikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti.

(a) Job Chamock (b) Fort William

(c) T Raleigh       (d) None of these

Ans. (a) Job Chamock was the English merchant who in 1690 arranged to lease three villages Kolikata, Gobindapur and Sutanuti.

11. In Fort William was established by the Hooghly river for defensive purposes, and a large open area was cleared around the fort for military engagements.

(a) 1960 (b) 1900

(c) 1690 (d) 1698

Ans. (d) In 1698 Fort William was established by the Hooghly river for defensive purposes, and a large open area was cleared around the fort for military engagements.

12. Which one of the following statements is incorrect about the National Planning Committee?

(a) The committee was constituted in 1938.

(b) There were 29 sub-committees divided into eight groups.

(c) It was constituted under the Chairmanship of KT Shah.

(d) Its major areas focused on agriculture, industry, finance, social, services and education.

Ans. (c) It was constituted under the Chairmanship of KT Shah is the incorrect option about the National Planning committee. It was constituted under the Chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

13. The Planning Commission was set up in

(a) 1940 (b) 1945

(c) 1950 (d) 1952

Ans. (c) The Planning Commission was set up in 1950.

14. ________ means the establishment of rule by one country over another. In the modem period, Western colonialism has had the greatest impact.

(a) Domination (b) Colonialism

(c) Urbanisation (d) Regionalism

Ans. (b) Colonialism means the establishment of rule by one country over another. Colonial powers use various means to strengthen themselves and establish their dominance over the colonised.

15. Tea-planters of Assam to here migrant labour recourse to fraud and coercion; and they persuaded the government to aid and abet them in this unholy task by passing penal laws.

Which of the following governments is being talked about in the given lines?

(a) Indian government

(b) British government

(c) French government

(d) State government of Assam

Ans. (b) British Government is being talked in the given lines.

 

Assertion-Reasoning MCQs

Directions (Q. Nos. 1-4) Each of these questions contains two statements, Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Each of these questions also has four alternative choices, any one of which is the correct answer. You have to select one of the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below.

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

1. Assertion (A) : Industrial towns like Bhilai came up in the midst of villages, by uprooting some villages, or by partially acquiring lands in others.

Reason (R) : There are villages in which a sizable number of people have sought employment in far-off cities.

Ans. (b) In Independence period, India has witnessed lot of urbanisation and villages which have been subjected to different kinds of urban influences. Industrial towns like Bhilai came up in the midst of villages, by uprooting some villages, or by partially acquiring lands in others. Another kind of influence is that there are villages in which a sizable number of people have sought employment in far-off cities. Thus, Both A and R are true, hut R is not the correct explanation of A.

2. Assertion (A) : Cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured by the British rulers.

Reason (R) : Primary commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported from coastal cities.

Ans. (a) Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai are coastal cities. Coastal cities were favoured by the British rulers because from here primary commodities and raw materials could be easily exported. At the same time, cheap manufactured goods could be imported in these cities. Hence, both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

3. Assertion (A) : Coming of immigrant workers lead to a lesser number of houses and markets inside a village.

Reason (R) : Influx of immigrant workers leads to problems of ordering relationships between the native residents and the immigrants.

Ans. (d) Due to coming of migrant workers that, demand for houses and the market inside the village increases but at times it lead to hatred between immigrants and native population. Thus, A is true and R is false.

4. Assertion (A) : The colonial government often used fair and transparent means to hire labourers.

Reason (R) : The recruitment of labourers was carried on for years mostly by contractors under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863.

Ans. (d) The colonial government often used exploitative and even inhumane means to hire labourers in the tea plantations in Assam. Migrants were made to come to Assam to work as laboures in tea plantations under the Transport of Native labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863 Thus, A is false, but R is true.

 

Case Based MCQs

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Tea industry began in India in 1851. Most of the tea gardens were situated in Assam. In 1903, the industry employed 4,79,000 permanent and 93,000 temporary employees. Since Assam was sparsely populated and the tea plantations were often located on uninhabited hillsides, bulk of the sorely needed labour had to be imported from other provinces. But to bring thousands of people every year from their far-off homes into strange lands, possessing an unhealthy climate and infected with strange fevers, required the provision of financial and other incentives, which the tea-planters of Assam were unwilling to offer. Instead, they had recourse to fraud and coercion; and they persuaded the government to aid and abet them in this unholy task by passing penal laws. The recruitment of labourers for tea gardens of Assam was earned on for years mostly by contractors under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863 of Bengal as amended in 1865, 1870 and 1873.

(i) The government helped the planters by providing for__________ in case of non-fulfilment of the contract by the labourers.

(a) penal sanction

(b) reward

(c) appreciation

(d) incentive

Ans. (a) The government helped the planters by providing for penal sanction i.e. punishment for the commission of a specific crime such as fines or imprisonment, in case of non-fulfilment of the contract by the labourers.

(ii) How were labourers for tea plantations recruited?

(a) Locals were given incentives

(b) They were imported from other provinces

(c) Job posts were put

(d) Britishers worked on the tea plantations

Ans. (b) The labourers were recruited from far off places. The recruitment of labourers for tea gardens was carried out under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act of 1863 of Bengal.

(iii) In which of the following states most of the tea gardens are situated?

(a) Tamil Nadu

(b) Kerala

(c) Assam

(d) West Bengal

Ans. (c) Most of the tea gardens are situated in Assam.

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Parbatpuri had always been an important offloading and loading point. The doughty British managers and their men always came down from the estate surrounding Parbatpuri when a steamer docked there. In spite of the inaccessibility of the gardens, they had lived lives of luxury. Huge, sprawling bungalows, set on sturdy wooden stilts to protect the inmates from wild animals, were surrounded by velvety lawns and jewel bright flower beds. They had trained a large number of malis, bawarchis and bearers to serve them to perfection. Their wide verandahed houses gleamed and glistened under the ministrations of this army of liveried servants. Of course, everything from scouring powder to self-raising flour, from safety pins to silverware, from delicate Nottingham lace tablecloths to bath salts, had come up the river on the steamers. Indeed, even the large cast-iron bathtubs that were invitingly placed in huge bathrooms, tubs which were filled every morning by busy bistiwallahs carrying buckets up from the bungalow’s well, had been brought up via steamer.

(i) Which of the following lived the life of luxury?

(a) Residents of Parbatpuri

(b) British managers

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above

Ans. (b) British managers lived the life of luxury.

(ii) To serve them, the managers trained_______________ .

(a) bawarchis (b) bearers

(c) malis         (d) All of these

Ans. (d) To serve Britishers they trained Bawarchis, bearers, malis. So, option (d) is the correct answer.

(iii) What was the main mode of transportation in Parbatpuri?

(a) Railways    (b) Roadways

(c) Waterways (d) None of these

Ans. (c) Waterways were the most important mode of transportation since Parbatpuri had always been a major offloading and loading point.

3. On the basis of the bar graph, answer the following questions

 

(i) India’s urban population has been________________ since 1951 to 2011.

(a) increasing                   (b) stagnant

(c) constantly decreasing (d) showing no fixed trend

Ans. (a) India’s urban population has been increasing since 1951 to 2011. In 1951, 62.44 million people were living in 2,843 towns. In 2011, 377.10 million people were living in 7,935 towns. This shows a steady increase in terms of absolute numbers and the percent share of the urban population.

(ii) In absolute terms, what is the difference in urban Indian population between 1951 and 2011?

(a) Less than 100 million inhabitants.

(b) Between 250-350 million inhabitants.

(c) More than 400 million inhabitants.

(d) More than 500 million inhabitants.

Ans., (b) In absolute terms the difference in urban Indian population between 1951 and 2011 is between 250-350 million inhabitants. It can lie seen from graph lived in urban areas.

(iii) Urban areas have seen a greater growth in population than rural areas, although the rate of growth in urban areas remains nearly constant. Which of the following can be considered as reason for this trend?

(a) Dramatic drop in the rate of growth in rural areas

(b) Decrease in agricultural production

(c) Increase in textile exports

(d) All of the above

Ans. (a) The absolute increase in population is more in urban areas than in rural areas. This is due to a sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas, while the growth rale in urban areas remains almost the same.

Subjective Questions

Short Answer (SA) Type Questions

1. How did the advent of colonialism in India produce a major upheaval in the economy?      (Delhi 2017, 2019)

Ans. The advent of colonialism in India produced a major upheaval in the economy in following ways

(i) The advent of colonialism in India produced disniptions in production, trade and agriculture. For example, cheap manufactured textiles from England completely destroyed the handloom industry and made the weavers jobless.

(ii) Before being colonised by the British, India was a major supplier of manufactured goods to the world market, but after colonialism, India became a source of raw materials and agriculture and a consumer of manufactured goods.

(iii) But with the colonialism, the expansion of market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances.

2. How is colonialism different from earlier forms of conquests?

Ans. Colonialism is different from earlier forms of conquest or domination in the following ways

(i) The pre-capitalist conquerors benefitted from their domination by taking away the tribute or part of economic surplus from the people of subjugated areas.

(ii) Colonialism means the establishment of rule by one country over other. It is the ideology by which a country seeks to conquer and colonise another. The colony becomes a subordinate part of the coloniser’s country and is extremely exploited in different ways for the colonising (imperial) country’s gain.

(iii) Colonialism affects the Indian society as it started a new wave of exploitation of country’s resources.

(iv) Colonialism introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere. These changes took place in two ways i.e. deliberate and intended.

3. How has colonialism impacted our lives? You can either focus on one aspect like culture or politics or tract them together.       (NCERT)

Ans. Colonialism means the establishment of rule and control by one country’ over another. Britishers established their colonial rule over India and impacted the social structure and culture of India.

Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism. The colonialism affected our lives culturally, politically and more or less combining the two. Due to mobility and exposure to modem Western thoughts people started thinking about freedom, liberty and human rights which provided basis for Indian freedom movement. Colonialism also had social influences particularly on the emerging middle class i.e. on their lifestyle, eating habits, language and clothing. On the other hand, in terms of political impact of colonialism on Indian society it becomes visible through national movement, political system, parliamentary and legal system, education system etc. Thus, by and large the whole political structure changed due to the colonial impact.

4. Discuss the role of the colonial government and its legislations to regulate work.   (NCERT)

Ans. Britishers took recourse to every’ action that could fulfil their capitalist and colonial interest in India.

They exploited the forest resources of Assam. Many labourers were forced to work in tea plantations in Assam in harsh and unhealthy climate. The lai tourers were mainly imported from outside Assam and they were forced to work against their will. It was mainly indenture lalxnir system in tea industry in Assam. For this, the government came out with the Transport of Native Labourers Act, 1863 which was amended in the year 1865, 1870 and 1873. It facilitated the exploitation of labourers by the hands of tea planters in Assam. The labourers worked in harsh climatic conditions and financial incentives that not paid to them.

5. There are vital differences between empire building of pre-capitalist times and that of capitalist times. Give reasons.      (Delhi 2019)

Ans.

Empire Building of Pre-Capitalist Times

Empire Building of Capitalist Times (British Colonialism)

Outright pillage, continuous flow of tribute benefitted the pre-capitalist conquerors and did not interfere with the economic base.

Directly interfered to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism.

They simply took the tribute that was skimmed

off the economic surplus that was produced

traditionally in the subjugated areas.

Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism. For instance, it changed the very laws of the land.

 

It meddled with the manufacturing sector and altering the way production and distribution of goods took place.

6. Nation-state become the dominant political form during the colonial period. Explain.     (Delhi 2017)

Ans. Nation-state was closely associated with the rise of nationalism and rise of democratic idea, for example, sovereignty. It implies that people of colonised areas have an equal right to be sovereign. Nation-state pertains to a specific type of slate, characteristic of the modem world. A government has the sovereign power within a defined territorial area and the people are citizens of a single nation.

Thus, nation-state emerged as the dominant political form due to the British colonialism which was based on a capitalist system.

7. The impact of English language has been many sided and paradoxical in India. Give reasons. (Delhi 2019)

Ans. The impact of English language has been many sided and paradoxical in Indian society. The reasons are as follows

(i) It has been a major contributor in growth of nationalism since it gave a common base for

lingually diverse people to communicate.

(ii) Its knowledge has given Indians an edge over others in the job market in the era of globalisation.

(iii) Sometimes, it is linked to social prestige and status which makes its impact derogatory’ because people who know the language are preferred upon people who don’t. It leads to prejudices and partiality. Thus, English continues to be a mark of privilege.

8. How has English Language impacted our society? (Delhi 2019)

Ans. English Language has impacted our society’ in the following ways:

• English is not only widely used in India but we now have an impressive body of literary writings by Indians in English.

• This knowledge of English has given Indians an edge in the global market.

• English continues to be a mark of privilege.

• Not knowing English is a disadvantage in the job market.

• English opens doors of opportunities for the deprived that were formerly closed.

• Our education system is very dependent on English since it is mostly based on the British model.

• English provides a doorway to various opportunities in India.

9. The practice of colonialism and the principle of nationalism are contradictory. Why?

Ans. The practice of colonialism and the basic principles of nationalism are opposite to each other. Nationalism assumes that a particular group of people have a right to lie free and exercise sovereign power. On the other hand, colonialism is the control of one country’ by another. The contradictory’ nature of nationalism and colonialism can be described as follow’s

• The nationalism gives rise to freedom and democratic rights, while colonialism tries to suppress the liberty of colonised people.

• British colonial masters strengthened their capitalistic tendencies and colonial interests without caring for the welfare of colonised people. While colonialism changes the economic system of colonised people to extract maximum profit and gain.

• Nationalism promotes the economic development and industrialisation of one’s own country, while colonialism tries to de-industrialise the colonies in order to promote its own colonial interests.

• Nationalism advocates the sovereignty’ of its own people, while colonialism denies it.

10. How did de-industrialisation take place in the colonial India.      (Delhi 2019)

Ans. De-industrialisation is the process of social and economic change caused due to reduction in industrial capacity’ to industrialisation.

The nature of industrialisation was not same in colonial India as compared to Britain. The traditional exports of cotton and silk manufacturers from India declined in the face of Manchester competition. Small scale manufacturers and native industries were all closed because of the competition from the West. Many village artisans abandoned their hereditary’ craft and moved to agriculture.

11. What role did cities play in the economic system of empires?

Ans. Cities played a central role in the economic system of the empire in the following ways:

• Coastal cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured as from here primary’ goods could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported.

• Colonial cities were the primary link between the economic centre or core centres in Britain and periphery or margins in colonised India.

• Cities were concrete expression of global capitalism. For example, Bombay during British India was planned and re-developed so that by 1900 over three-quarters of India’s raw cotton were shipped through the city.

• Cities were also important as a trading post, for defensive purposes and for military’ engagements.

Thus, cities strengthened the colonial and capitalistic economic system.

12. Which cities were developed by the British in India and Why?      (Delhi 2019)

Ans. Coastal cities were developed by British in India. Cities had a key role in the economic systems of empires.

Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured by Britishers. From here primary’ commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported. Colonial cities were the prime link between the economic centre and core in Britain and periphery or margins in colonised India. In British India for example, Bombay was planned and re-developed as three-quarters of India’s raw cotton were shipped through the city. Calcutta exported jute to Dundee while Madras sent coffee, sugar, indigo dyes and cotton to Britain.

13. Discuss briefly that tea plantation industry in India was governed by the colonial interest.      (Delhi 2019)

Ans. Tea industry began in India in 1851. Most of the tea gardens were situated in Assam. Since Assam was sparsely populated and the tea plantations were often located on uninhabited hillsides bulk of the sorely needed labour had to be imported from other provinces. But to bring thousands of people every year from their far-off homes into unknown and unhealthy lands required the provision of financial and other incentives, while the tea planters of Assam were unwilling to offer. Thus, they had recourse to fraud and coercion. They persuaded the government to aid and abet them in this unholy task by passing penal laws.

The recruitment of labourers for tea gardens of Assam was carried on for years mostly by contractors under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863 of Bengal as amended in 1865, 1870 and 1873. The government penalised the labourers for violating the contract.

14. Discuss the role of the colonial state to help British tea planters.         (NCERT)

Ans. The colonial government favoured the British tea planters in order to fulfil its colonial interests. In tea industry in Assam, cruel measures were taken against the labourers to ensure that the planters benefit extremely. The government provided for a penal action (punishment such as fines or imprisonment) against the labourers who did not fulfil the contract conditions.

The labour system favoured contract labour and the labourers were imported in bulk from outside Assam. The contractors recruited the labourers under the provision of the Transport of Native Labourers Act, 1863 with fraud and coercion. The laws were inhumane and exploitative in nature. Thus, the colonial government helped tea planters to exploit the Indian labourers.

15. What was the vision of the Indian nationalists to promote industrialisation in independent India? Explain.

Ans. Indian nationalists responded to the negative impact of the British colonialism in India. They witnessed the process of de-industrialisation and economic exploitation of Indian economy. Indian artisans and weavers became jobless.

The Indian leaders, therefore saw rapid industrialisation as a path to realise growth and social equality in India. They developed heavy and machine-making industries and also expanded the activities of public sector in industrialisation and development.

Besides, a large cooperative sector was also considered important for the economy. Giant steel plants, dams and power stations in various parts of country; e.g. Bhakra Nangal Dam were constructed.

The Swadeshi Movement launched by the nationalists of India strengthened the national economy and modern ideas inspired the people to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment.

Long Answer (LA) Type Questions

1. Explain the structural changes seen in the period of colonialism.

Or

Colonialism introduced a wide range of change in every sphere be it legal or cultural or architectural. Justify the statement with examples.           (Delhi 2015)

Ans. British colonialism brought about wide range of changes in the society. The contradiction between the modem and liberal ideas of the West and their absence in colonised India brought many social changes. Almost every aspect of human life was affected in India.

Some of the areas in which the influence of colonialism can be seen are as follows:

• Law System Our legal and police system is based on the British model. Beside, Britishers brought laws such as Forest Acts and Transport of Native Labourers Act which affected the lives of pastoralists, labourers and people in general.

• Architecture It was also influenced by the Britishers. They developed towns in India which had spacious bungalows, elegant apartment houses, planned streets and trees on both the houses of the street.

• Culture It is a way of life and British colonialism has deeply affected the Indian cultural life. English language is widely used in India and it is a doorway to various opportunities. Roadside eateries and canteens also have bread omlette and cutlets in their menu. We are also habitual to drive on the left side of the road like British.

• Education Our education system is mostly based on the British model. India also has a great number of literary writings in English.

• Political System Our parliamentary’ system functions more or less similar to that of British. Our Constitution also has influence of British system.

2. Explain three different ways in which the Indian economy changed after the advent of colonialism.      (All India 2008)

Ans. British colonialism in India was inseparably connected with capitalism. Maximising the profit and gain became the main motive of the Britishers. They tried every mean to change Indian economy, so as to serve their own colonial interests.

Some of the ways in which the Indian economy changed after the advent of colonialism are as follows

De-industrialisation – British industrialisation led to de-industrialisation of Indian industries in some sectors of Indian economy. Traditional exports of cotton and silk products manufactured from India witnessed decline severely. Besides, huge import of cheap European manufactured goods destroyed the village industries.

Decline of Urban Centres – Many urban centres declined in India due to coming of the Britishers. The cities like Surat and Masulipatnam were declined. Towns like Thanjavur, Dhaka and Murshidabad lost their courts and as a result, they also lost their artisans and court nobility.

Emergence of New Cities – The Britishers favoured the coastal cities of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in order to fulfil their colonial interests. They made these cities as centres to export the primary goods and import the manufactured goods. These cities became the centre of trade, commerce and capitalism.

3. In what ways colonialism has brought about a social, economic and political influence on Indian society to promote urbanisation?

Ans. British colonialism brought changes in almost all the spheres of Indian society. It also promoted urbanisation in India through social, economic and political influence in following ways:

• Economic Colonial cities developed by Britishers, especially the coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai facilitated the process of urbanisation in India. These cities became the centre of trade and commercial activities. There was also change in the cropping pattern and production and distribution of goods. Due to installation of mechanised industries, a few towns became much more heavily populated.

• Social Colonialism led to introduction of English language in India. English continues to be a mark of privilege and a means to better opportunities and jobs. It also changed the whole spectrum in day-to-day life particularly in the urban society.

There was also large scale migration of government employees and professionals like doctors and lawyers to various parts of the country’. It carried with it new ideas and ways of life.

• Political Our political system, legal system and police system are based on British model. These new systems gave new shape to traditional policy’ and laws. They also created new professionals mainly in towns and cities to enforce new laws and political ideas.

4. If capitalism became the dominant economic system in the colonial period, nation-states became the dominant political form. Explain how this process took place.

Ans. Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system. The emergence of capitalism was a complicated process. It was an interplay of European exploration, growth in industrialisation, trade and science and technology.

With due course of time, capitalism became the dominant economic system. It was characterised by dynamism, growth, expansion, innovation and use of labour and technology.

Gradually, in Western countries it was found that if capitalism became the dominant economic system, then nation-state became the dominant political form. During the period before the First World War, people hardly had passports and these were not used in international travel. In the modem world, we see the nation-states.

Nation-state is a particular type of state in which a government has supreme or sovereign power within a defined territorial area.

In this type of state, the people are citizens of a single nation. Therefore, nationalism is also closely related to nation-states. Nationalism advocates the right to freedom and sovereignty of a set of people living in a particular area. Thus, capitalism, nationalism and nation-states developed over the period of time.

5. What is industrialisation? How did British industrialisation lead to de-industrialisation and urbanisation in India?

Ans. Industrialisation – It refers to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity. British industrialisation brought about radical changes in the Indian economy.

There were changes not only in the field of economy but also in other aspects of Indian society.

De-industrialisation and urbanisation are the two important changes that were also the products of British industrialisation in India. They are discussed as follows

De-industrialisation

• Some sectors of Indian economy underwent de-industrialisation due to industrial policies of the Britishers in India. Indian silk and cotton fabrics could not compete with the Manchester products. Therefore, there was a heavy blow to the domestic as well as international market of Indian cotton and silk textiles. Thus, these industries were adversely affected.

• Similarly, the village industries were more or less destroyed, as their products could not compete with the cheap imports of the machine made goods from Europe.

Urbanisation

• British industrial policy’ in India led to the decline of many towns and cities but at the same time, it also facilitated urbanisation in some parts of India. Since, the main purpose of Britishers were to earn maximum gain and benefit, they developed the coastal cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata to facilitate different types of exports and imports.

• Besides, they also developed Fort William for the defence purpose. They also developed towns and cities which had spacious bungalows, apartment houses and well planned streets and recreational facilities.

6. Industrialisation and urbanisation arc linked processes. Discuss.        (NCERT)

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Urbanisation and industrialisation is a linked process. Justify.

Ans. Industrialisation: It refers to the emergence of machine based production on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity.

Urbanisation: It is the process in which the villages or towns are transformed into towns or cities, where more people are engaged in industries and services rather than in primary activities.

The two processes of industrialisation are inter-related to each other. Both strengthen and reinforce each other in following ways

• With the increase in modernisation and industrialisation, urbanisation increases. More and more people leave primary activities and engage in secondary or tertiary activities.

• The improvement in technology leads to the improvement in production process. As a result, small industries are changed into big industries.

• With more industrial labour, the purchasing power of people increases and they invest their money in education, entertainment, sports, clubs, etc. Many civic facilities are made available to the residents in the towns and cities.

• Migration from rural area to urban area increases the industrial activity and urbanisation process. In this process, the facilities of transport and communication increase and they further increase the process of urbanisation. Hence, industrialisation and urbanisation are linked to each other.

7. Sociologist MSA Rao describes three different situations of urban impact in India. Describe each of the three situations.

Ans. In Independence period, India has witnessed lot of urbanisation and villages which have been subjected to different kinds of urban influences. Urbanisation is a process in which more and more people opt for urban life and live in cities. In this phenomenon, the villages or small towns are gradually transformed into bigger towns or cities.

Sociologist MSA Rao describes three situations under which a village experiences the urban impact in India. These three situations are as follows

(i) In this situation, lot of people migrate from villages to far off cities or overseas towns. They send money to their native villages. Besides, they invest money on land and industry and donate for educational institutions. They build fashionable houses at their villages and have invested on land and industry.

(ii) Some villages are situated near the industrial town (e.g. Bhilai). Demand for houses and the market inside the village increases but at times it lead to hatred between immigrants and native population.

(iii) Growth of metropolitan cities do have influence over the rural areas or villages. Some villages are completely absorbed in the process of expansion of these cities. On the other hand, some villages lose their uninhabited land for urban development.

8. Colonialism in India introduced a wide array of change in every sphere. Explain.

Ans. Colonialism in India introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere be it legal, cultural or architectural it was done to facilitate. Smooth functioning of its rule. Some of the changes that took place were deliberate while some were unintended.

We saw how Western education was introduced to create Indians who would manage British colonialism. Instead it led to the growth of a nationalist and anti-colonial unconsciousness. This magnitude and depth of the structural changes that colonialism unleashed can be better grasped if they understood basic features of capitalism.

Capitalism is an economic system in which means of production are privately owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system.

Capitalism in the West emerged out of complex process of European exploration of the rest of the world, its plunder of wealth and resources and an unprecedented growth of science and technology, its harnessing to industries and agriculture. Capitalism was marked by its dynamism its potential to grow, expand, innovate using technology and labour in a way that best assured greatest profit.

Western colonialism was totally connected to the growth of Western capitalism. This had a lasting impact on the way capitalism developed in a colonised country like India.

Case Based Questions

1. Cities had a key role in the economic system of empires. Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured. From here primary commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported. Colonial cities were the prime link between the economic centre or core in Britain and periphery or margins in colonised India. Cities in this sense were the concrete expression of global capitalism. In British India for example Bombay was planned and re-developed so that by 1900 over three-quarters of India’s raw cotton were shipped through the city. Calcutta exported jute to Dundee while Madras sent coffee, sugar, indigo dyes and cotton to Britain.

Urbanisation in the colonial period saw the decline of some earlier urban centres and the emergence of new colonial cities. Kolkata was one of the first of such cities.

(i) Why were coastal cities favoured by the colonial rulers?

Ans. Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured as they had a key role in the economic system of empires. Raw commodities like cotton and sugar could easily be exported from these cities. On the other hand, manufactured goods could also be cheaply imported from these centres, in 1900, India’s raw cotton was shipped through Bombay, jute was shipped through Calcutta, and coffee, sugar, indigo dyes and cotton through Madras.

(ii) What were the effects on cities due to British colonialism?

Ans. Cities were affected due to colonialism in the following ways:

• Due to colonialism, the population in cities increased.

• Compared to rural places, more facilities like better transport and accommodation were available in cities. Use of technology was more visible in cities.

• More opportunities of employment were found in cities.

• There was decreasing land for even’ person in cities as compared to villages.

• There was constant and increased immigration of rural people to cities for more opportunities of employment.

(iii) When did the process of urbanisation emerge in India?

Ans. The process of urbanisation emerged in India when the density of population started to increase in urban areas. Cities started to develop due to progress in industries. Wherever industries are established, people move to that place, from rural areas, in search of employment and start to live there. Gradually, that area takes the form of a city. With this process, the population of villages started to move towards cities. Means of communication and transport brought about many changes in urban society, like changes in institutions like family, religion and caste, etc. This led to a change in urbanisation. That is why we believe that urbanisation is related to the growth of cities.

2. In contrast British colonialism which was based on a capitalist system directly interfered to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism. Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism. For instance, it changed the very laws of the land. It changed not just land ownership laws but decided even what crops ought to be grown and what ought not to be. It meddled with the manufacturing sector. It altered the way of production and distribution of goods took place. It entered into the forests. It cleared trees and started tea plantations. It brought in Forest Acts that changed the lives of pastoralists. They were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.

(i) How is colonialism different from earlier forms of conquest or domination?

Ans. Colonialism is different from earlier forms of conquest or domination in the following ways:

• The pre-capitalist conquerors benefitted from their domination by exacting a continuous flow of tribute. But on the whole they did not interfere with the economic base. On the other hand, British colonialism was based on a capitalist system. They directly worked in a way to ensure profit and benefit to Britishers.

• Pre-colonialists only wanted to plunder and take away riches. On the other hand, every policy of the British capitalists was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of their empire.

• Colonialism, unlike the other forms, introduced changes in many spheres -be it economic, legal, cultural or architectural.

(ii) How did the Forest Acts change the lives of pastoralists?

Ans. Forest acts changed the lives of the pastoralists in the following ways

• They were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their catch.

• The forest policy changed from laissez faire to active in ten nation.

• They changed land ownership laws and even regulated what crops ought to be grown.

(iii) State the problems faced by labourers on Tea Plantations.

Ans. The problems faced by labourers are as follows

• The colonial government often used unfair means to hire and forcibly keep labourers.

• The recruitment of labourers was carried on for years mostly by contractors under the provisions of the Transport of Native Labourers Act (No. Ill) of 1863. The colonial administrators were clear that harsh measures were taken against the labourers to make sure they benefitted the planters.

3. For Indian nationalists the issue of economic exploitation under colonial ride was a central issue. Images of precolonial fabled riches of India contrasted with the poverty of British India. The Swadeshi movement strengthened the loyalty to the national economy. Modern ideas made people realise that poverty was preventable. Indian nationalists saw rapid industrialisation of the economy as the path towards both growth and social equity. Development of heavy and machine-making industries, expansion of the public sector and holding of a large cooperative sector were considered very important. A modem and prosperous India, as visualised by Jawaharlal Nehru, was to be built on an edifice of giant steel plants or gigantic dams and power stations.

(i) Mention the major changes that have taken place in the process of industrialisation of the country after independence.

Ans. The major changes that have taken place in the process of industrialisation are as follows

• Before 1947, only two steel producing units were present in India, but they increased very quickly after independence.

• The government made five-year plans whose main objective was the industrial development of the country. After 1947, this process assumed a great speed.

• India made very good progress in the field of the iron industry, tractors, cars, scooters, motorcycles, electronics, fertilisers, chemicals, heavy industries, etc.

(ii) What is meant by “modern ideas”?

Ans. Modem ideas means a set of thinking that has the following features

• The spread of technology’ is very wide.

• People mostly depend upon industries in this process.

• A high literacy rate is present.

• Developed means of transport and communication exists.

(iii) What are the consequences of Industrialisation post-independence?

Ans. After 1947, the increase in industrialisation has greatly affected the life of Indian people and its description is given below

• The process of industrialisation has greatly affected both rural and urban communities. Rural areas still have community feeling, as compared to urban areas.

• The urban population has greatly increased due to industrialisation.

• As the population increased due to industrialisation, the power of social and caste organisations has declined.

• Cities have also developed due to progress in industries.

• Means of transport and communication in India were developed.

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