Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism
Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism
Q.1 . Locate the following States on a blank outline political map of India :
Manipur , Sikkim , Chhattisgarh and Goa .
Q.2 . Identify and shade three federal countries ( other than India ) on a blank outline political map of the world .
Q.3 . Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium .
Ans . In India , just like in Belgium , the central government has to share its powers with the State governments . However , unlike Belgium , India does not have a communist government in addition to the central and the state government . India has rural local government popularly known as Panchayati Raj .
Q. 4. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain with an example .
Ans . In a federal form of government , the central government shares its powers with the various constituent units of the country . Both types of governments are separately answerable to the people . For example , in India , power is divided between the Central Government and the various State governments . In a unitary form of government , all the power is exercised only by one government . In this , the Central government can pass orders to the provincial or the regional government . Under the unitary system , either there is only one level of government or sub – units are subordinate to the central government . For example , in Sri Lanka , the national government has all the powers .
Q. 5. State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional amendment in 1992 .
Ans . A major step towards decentralisation was taken . in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third – tier of democracy more powerful and effective .
Q. 6. Fill in the blanks :
Since the United States is a _______ type of federation , all the a constituent the States have equal powers and ________ States are vis – à – vis the federal government . But India is a ________ type of federation and some States have more power than others . In India , the _______ government has more powers .
Ans . The United States is a coming together type of federation , all the constituent States have equal powers and States are strong vis – à – vis the federal government . India , on the other hand , is a holding together type of federation and some of the states have more power than others . In India , the Central government has more powers .
Q. 7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India . Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions .
Sangeeta : The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity .
Arman : the Language – based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language .
Harish : This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages .
Ans . I fully agree with Sangeeta’s reaction to this . If the policy of accommodation was not followed and states were not created on linguistic basis , then there would have been a further partition of India The formation of linguistic states has actually made the country more united and has also made the administration much easier , for example , imposition of Hindi as the national language would have led the South to break away from North and south in Tamil Nadu would have become an independent nation . So parliament enacted the Official Language Act of 1963 which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi , even after 1965 .
Q. 8. The distinguishing feature of a federal government is :
( i ) National government gives some powers to the provincial governments .
( ii ) Power is distributed among the legislative , executive and the judiciary .
( iii ) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government .
( iv ) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government .
Ans . ( d ) Governmental power is divided between the different levels of government .
Detailed Answer : The levels are the Central Government , the State Government and the Panchayati Raj .
Q.9 . A few subjects in various Lists of the Indian Constitution are given here . Group them under the Union , State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below .
A.Defence ; B. Police ; C. Agriculture ; D. Education ; E. Banking ; F. Forests ; G. Communications ; H. Trade ; I. Marriages
Detailed Answer :
Union list includes the subjects of national importance .
State list contains the subjects of state and local importance .
The concurrent list includes the subjects of common interests to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments .
Q. 10. Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each . Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
Ans . ( d ) Local Governments – Residuary powers
Detailed Answer :
Matters which are not included in any of the three lists are known as residuary subjects and the right to make laws on these subjects is called residuary power . The central government ( the Parliament ) has been given rights to legislate on these subjects .
Q. 11. Match List I with List – II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists :
( a )
( b )
( c )
( d )
( c )
Q. 12. Consider the following two statements .
A. In a federation , the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated .
B. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects .
C. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces .
D. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies .
Which of the statements given above are correct ?
( a ) A , B and C
( b ) A , C and D
( c ) A and B only
( d ) B and C only
Ans . ( c ) A and B only
Detailed Answer : All levels of governance will govern the same citizens , but their jurisdiction will be different . This means that each level of government will have a specific power to form laws , legislate and execute these laws . Both of the governments will have clearly marked jurisdiction .
Q. 1. I am confused . What do well call the India government ? Is it Union , Federal or Central ?
Ans . Since India is made up of states by ‘ holding together , so , without any confusion , we should call it a federal state and the government at the centre is called the central government .
Q. 2. Though only 25 of the world’s 192 countries have a federal political system , their citizen makes up 40 per cent of the world’s population . Most of the large countries of the world are federations . Can you notice an exception to this rule in this map ?
Ans . Yes , China , which is the most populous country in the world does not practice the federal system of sharing of power . Instead , it enjoys a unitary political system .
Q. 3. If federalism works only in big countries , why did Belgium adopt it ? [ NCERT Page 15 ]
Ans . Because even though it is a small country , it has a diverse population made up of multilingual groups . These linguistic groups have their own intersect which might lead to social conflict . So , to avoid any possible social conflict and political instability , Belgium adopted the federal system of power sharing .
Q.4 . Some Nepalese citizens were discussing the proposals on the adoption of federalism in their new Constitution . This is what some of them said : [ NCERT Page 16 ]
Khag Raj : I don’t like federalism . It would lead to reservation of seats for different caste groups as in India .
Sarita : Ours is not a very big country . We don’t need federalism .
Babu Lal : I am hopeful that Teria areas will get more autonomy if they get their own state government .
Ram Ganesh : I like federalism because it will mean that the powers that were earlier enjoyed by the king will now be exercised by our elected representatives .
If you were participating in this conversation what would be your response to each of these ? Which of these reflect a wrong understanding of what federalism is ? What makes India a federal country ?
Ans . ( i ) Response to Khag Raj : No , you are not true . What different caste groups are being given are their rights , which they have been kept deprived of for years . Federalism truly serves the purpose when it believes in mutual trust . This is the spirit of democracy .
( ii ) Response to Sarita : No Sarita , Nepal is also a diverse country consisting of a group of people having different interests . Take the example of Belgium . Though it was a small country , there was social conflict . This could only be resolved by making a federation . So , we also need a federal system that takes care of its people equally .
( iii ) Response to Babu Lal : Yes , I agree , but do not think only about the Terai area . There are other areas as well which need more autonomy . So , the only way is to form a federal system so that each region gets its own share and can live together with mutual trust and contribute to the development of the nation equally .
( iv ) Response to Ram Ganesh : Yes , I agree . When power is concentrated in one hand , harms the will of the common people . In a democracy , people rule themselves through the institution of self – governance . The decentralization of power will ensure due respect to diverse groups and views that exist in society , and everyone will have a voice in the shaping of public policy .
( ii ) Of these , Khag Raj and Sarita have a wrong understanding of what federalism is .
( iii ) In India , there are three levels of government – The central , state and local governments . These have their own jurisdictions . There is a Constitution which declares their powers and duties . There is an apex court under an independent judiciary , which can resolve disputes between them . All the state governments have their own sources of income . Income is also shared with the central government . All these features make India a federal country .
Q. 5. Isn’t that strange ? Did our Constitution makers not known about federalism ? Or did they wish to avoid talking about it ?
Ans . It is not strange . Our Constitution makers . were aware of the concept of federalism . But , intentionally , they did not talk about it . This was because our democracy was passing through a nascent stage where they had to take steps to consolidate different free princely states . If they had heen been given more autonomy , we might have faced many divisions in our country . They supposed that with a maturity of democracy , proper changes will be brought in the Constitution to make the nation federal So . So they left this issue to the people and future leaders to decide about .
Q. 6. If agriculture and commerce are state subjects , why do we have ministers of agriculture and commerce in the Union cabinet ? [ Page 17 ]
Ans . This is because the states have to deal with each other in commercial and agricultural commodities . There come chances when a state will act arbitrarily . In that condition , problems will arise regarding price control , tax , etc. Also , the country has to deal with other nations in these subjects . So , a separate ministry of agriculture and commerce is necessary for the Union Cabinet .
Q. 7. Pokhran , the place where India conducted its nuclear tests , lies in Rajasthan . Suppose the Government of Rajasthan was opposed to the Central Government’s nuclear policy , could it prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests ? [ Page 18 ]
Ans . No , the Government of Rajasthan cannot prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests . Because the formation of nuclear policy is under Union list as it is a matter of national importance . Our constitution has clearly demarcated the power between the state government and central government .
Q. 8. Suppose the Government of Sikkim plans to introduce new textbooks in its schools . But the Union Government does not like the style and content of the new textbooks . In that case , does the state government need to take permission from the Union Government before these textbooks can be launched ?
Ans . No , in this case , the Government of Sikkim need not have to take permission from the Union Government , because education is a subject of the concurrent list on which both the state and Union governments can make laws . And , in case of any conflict of law , only the Union law prevails .
Q. 9. Question . Suppose the Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh , Chhattisgarh and Orissa have different policies on how their state police should respond to the Naxalites . Can the Prime Minister of India intervene and pass an order that all the Chief Ministers will have to obey ?
Ans . No , the police is a state subject on which only the states can make laws .
Q. 10 . Has your village or town remained under the same state since independence ? If not , what was the name of the earlier state ?
Ans . Yes
Q. 11 . Can you identify three state names in 1947 that has changed later ?
Ans . Madhya Pradesh was called Central Province
Punjab was a part of North – West Province
Rajasthan was a part of Rajputana .
Q. 12 . Identify any three states which have been carved out of a bigger state .
Ans . 1. Jharkhand from Bihar .
2. Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh .
3. Uttarakhand fro Uttar Pradesh
Q. 13 . Why Hindi ? Why not Bangla or Telugu ? [ Page 21 ]
Ans . The Government of India , in its Constitution , declares Hindi and English as official languages . But , being a federal government , it cannot impose its will on the people who speak a language other than Hindi . The Union Government continues to promote Hindi as the official language because 40 % of its population speaks Hindi . This is the flexibility shown by the Union that states have their own official languages . We respect the language and culture of each other . So , people are free to speak in the language of their choices . Each state has its official language .
Q. 14. Here are two cartoons showing the relationship between the Centre and the State . Should the state go to the Centre with a begging bowl ? How can the leader of a coalition keep the partners of government satisfied ? [ Page 00 ]
Ans . ( i ) No , the state should not go to the Centre with a begging bowl .
( ii ) The leader of the coalition government can keep the partners happy by sharing the power with them and also chalking the programme with their consent .
Q. 15. What do these newspaper clipping have to say about the efforts of decentralization in India ? [ Page 25 ]
Ans . In these newspaper clippings , the news is related to Panchayats . Panchayats in India are meant for the decentralization of power . These are meant for the self – governance at the grassroots level .
• The clippings show a huge number of women elected to Panchayats i.e. , increased participation of women in politics .
• Secondly , justice has been made easily accessible and cheap .
• These also reflect that Panchayats get direct funding from the central
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