NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism

Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism

1. Exercise Questions
2. Intext Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism, in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class ten Social Science Federalism so you can be looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class ten Social Science Federalism below and prepare in your tests easily.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism

Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 2 Federalism

Exercise Questions

Q.1 . Locate the following States on a blank outline political map of India :

Manipur , Sikkim , Chhattisgarh and Goa .

Ans .

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Q.2 . Identify and shade three federal countries ( other than India ) on a blank outline political map of the world .

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Q.3 . Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium .

Ans . In India , just like in Belgium , the central government has to share its powers with the State governments . However , unlike Belgium , India does not have a communist government in addition to the central and the state government . India has rural local government popularly known as Panchayati Raj .

Q. 4. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain with an example .

Ans . In a federal form of government , the central government shares its powers with the various constituent units of the country . Both types of governments are separately answerable to the people . For example , in India , power is divided between the Central Government and the various State governments . In a unitary form of government , all the power is exercised only by one government . In this , the Central government can pass orders to the provincial or the regional government . Under the unitary system , either there is only one level of government or sub – units are subordinate to the central government . For example , in Sri Lanka , the national government has all the powers .

Q. 5. State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional amendment in 1992 .

Ans . A major step towards decentralisation was taken . in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third – tier of democracy more powerful and effective .

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Q. 6. Fill in the blanks :

Since the United States is a ­­­­­­_______ type of federation , all the a constituent the States have equal powers and ________ States are vis – à – vis the federal government . But India is a ________ type of federation and some States have more power than others . In India , the _______ government has more powers .

Ans . The United States is a coming together type of federation , all the constituent States have equal powers and States are strong vis – à – vis the federal government . India , on the other hand , is a holding together type of federation and some of the states have more power than others . In India , the Central government has more powers .

Q. 7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India . Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions .

Sangeeta : The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity .

Arman : the Language – based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language .

Harish : This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages .

Ans . I fully agree with Sangeeta’s reaction to this . If the policy of accommodation was not followed and states were not created on linguistic basis , then there would have been a further partition of India The formation of linguistic states has actually made the country more united and has also made the administration much easier , for example , imposition of Hindi as the national language would have led the South to break away from North and south in Tamil Nadu would have become an independent nation . So parliament enacted the Official Language Act of 1963 which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi , even after 1965 .

Q. 8. The distinguishing feature of a federal government is :

( i ) National government gives some powers to the provincial governments .

( ii ) Power is distributed among the legislative , executive and the judiciary .

( iii ) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government .

( iv ) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government .

Ans . ( d ) Governmental power is divided between the different levels of government .

Detailed Answer : The levels are the Central Government , the State Government and the Panchayati Raj .

Q.9 . A few subjects in various Lists of the Indian Constitution are given here . Group them under the Union , State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below .

A.Defence ; B. Police ; C. Agriculture ; D. Education ; E. Banking ; F. Forests ; G. Communications ; H. Trade ; I. Marriages

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Ans .

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Detailed Answer :

Union list includes the subjects of national importance .

State list contains the subjects of state and local importance .

The concurrent list includes the subjects of common interests to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments .

Q. 10. Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each . Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?

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Ans . ( d ) Local Governments – Residuary powers

Detailed Answer :

Matters which are not included in any of the three lists are known as residuary subjects and the right to make laws on these subjects is called residuary power . The central government ( the Parliament ) has been given rights to legislate on these subjects .

Q. 11. Match List I with List – II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists :

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( a )





( b )





( c )





( d )





Ans .






( c )





Q. 12. Consider the following two statements .

A. In a federation , the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated .

B. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects .

C. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces .

D. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies .

Which of the statements given above are correct ?

( a ) A , B and C

( b ) A , C and D

( c ) A and B only

( d ) B and C only

Ans . ( c ) A and B only

Detailed Answer : All levels of governance will govern the same citizens , but their jurisdiction will be different . This means that each level of government will have a specific power to form laws , legislate and execute these laws . Both of the governments will have clearly marked jurisdiction .

Intext Questions

Q. 1. I am confused . What do well call the India government ? Is it Union , Federal or Central ?

Ans . Since India is made up of states by ‘ holding together , so , without any confusion , we should call it a federal state and the government at the centre is called the central government .

Q. 2. Though only 25 of the world’s 192 countries have a federal political system , their citizen makes up 40 per cent of the world’s population . Most of the large countries of the world are federations . Can you notice an exception to this rule in this map ?

Ans . Yes , China , which is the most populous country in the world does not practice the federal system of sharing of power . Instead , it enjoys a unitary political system .

Q. 3. If federalism works only in big countries , why did Belgium adopt it ? [ NCERT Page 15 ]

Ans . Because even though it is a small country , it has a diverse population made up of multilingual groups . These linguistic groups have their own intersect which might lead to social conflict . So , to avoid any possible social conflict and political instability , Belgium adopted the federal system of power sharing .

Q.4 . Some Nepalese citizens were discussing the proposals on the adoption of federalism in their new Constitution . This is what some of them said : [ NCERT Page 16 ]

Khag Raj : I don’t like federalism . It would lead to reservation of seats for different caste groups as in India .

Sarita : Ours is not a very big country . We don’t need federalism .

Babu Lal : I am hopeful that Teria areas will get more autonomy if they get their own state government .

Ram Ganesh : I like federalism because it will mean that the powers that were earlier enjoyed by the king will now be exercised by our elected representatives .

If you were participating in this conversation what would be your response to each of these ? Which of these reflect a wrong understanding of what federalism is ? What makes India a federal country ?

Ans . ( i ) Response to Khag Raj : No , you are not true . What different caste groups are being given are their rights , which they have been kept deprived of for years . Federalism truly serves the purpose when it believes in mutual trust . This is the spirit of democracy .

( ii ) Response to Sarita : No Sarita , Nepal is also a diverse country consisting of a group of people having different interests . Take the example of Belgium . Though it was a small country , there was social conflict . This could only be resolved by making a federation . So , we also need a federal system that takes care of its people equally .

( iii ) Response to Babu Lal : Yes , I agree , but do not think only about the Terai area . There are other areas as well which need more autonomy . So , the only way is to form a federal system so that each region gets its own share and can live together with mutual trust and contribute to the development of the nation equally .

( iv ) Response to Ram Ganesh : Yes , I agree . When power is concentrated in one hand , harms the will of the common people . In a democracy , people rule themselves through the institution of self – governance . The decentralization of power will ensure due respect to diverse groups and views that exist in society , and everyone will have a voice in the shaping of public policy .

( ii ) Of these , Khag Raj and Sarita have a wrong understanding of what federalism is .

( iii ) In India , there are three levels of government – The central , state and local governments . These have their own jurisdictions . There is a Constitution which declares their powers and duties . There is an apex court under an independent judiciary , which can resolve disputes between them . All the state governments have their own sources of income . Income is also shared with the central government . All these features make India a federal country .

Q. 5. Isn’t that strange ? Did our Constitution makers not known about federalism ? Or did they wish to avoid talking about it ?

Ans . It is not strange . Our Constitution makers . were aware of the concept of federalism . But , intentionally , they did not talk about it . This was because our democracy was passing through a nascent stage where they had to take steps to consolidate different free princely states . If they had heen been given more autonomy , we might have faced many divisions in our country . They supposed that with a maturity of democracy , proper changes will be brought in the Constitution to make the nation federal So . So they left this issue to the people and future leaders to decide about .

Q. 6. If agriculture and commerce are state subjects , why do we have ministers of agriculture and commerce in the Union cabinet ? [ Page 17 ]

Ans . This is because the states have to deal with each other in commercial and agricultural commodities . There come chances when a state will act arbitrarily . In that condition , problems will arise regarding price control , tax , etc. Also , the country has to deal with other nations in these subjects . So , a separate ministry of agriculture and commerce is necessary for the Union Cabinet .

Q. 7. Pokhran , the place where India conducted its nuclear tests , lies in Rajasthan . Suppose the Government of Rajasthan was opposed to the Central Government’s nuclear policy , could it prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests ? [ Page 18 ]

Ans . No , the Government of Rajasthan cannot prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests . Because the formation of nuclear policy is under Union list as it is a matter of national importance . Our constitution has clearly demarcated the power between the state government and central government .

Q. 8. Suppose the Government of Sikkim plans to introduce new textbooks in its schools . But the Union Government does not like the style and content of the new textbooks . In that case , does the state government need to take permission from the Union Government before these textbooks can be launched ?

Ans . No , in this case , the Government of Sikkim need not have to take permission from the Union Government , because education is a subject of the concurrent list on which both the state and Union governments can make laws . And , in case of any conflict of law , only the Union law prevails .

Q. 9. Question . Suppose the Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh , Chhattisgarh and Orissa have different policies on how their state police should respond to the Naxalites . Can the Prime Minister of India intervene and pass an order that all the Chief Ministers will have to obey ?

Ans . No , the police is a state subject on which only the states can make laws .

Q. 10 . Has your village or town remained under the same state since independence ? If not , what was the name of the earlier state ?

Ans . Yes

Q. 11 . Can you identify three state names in 1947 that has changed later ?

Ans . Madhya Pradesh was called Central Province

Punjab was a part of North – West Province

Rajasthan was a part of Rajputana .

Q. 12 . Identify any three states which have been carved out of a bigger state .

Ans . 1. Jharkhand from Bihar .

2. Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh .

3. Uttarakhand fro Uttar Pradesh

Q. 13 . Why Hindi ? Why not Bangla or Telugu ? [ Page 21 ]

Ans . The Government of India , in its Constitution , declares Hindi and English as official languages . But , being a federal government , it cannot impose its will on the people who speak a language other than Hindi . The Union Government continues to promote Hindi as the official language because 40 % of its population speaks Hindi . This is the flexibility shown by the Union that states have their own official languages . We respect the language and culture of each other . So , people are free to speak in the language of their choices . Each state has its official language .

Q. 14. Here are two cartoons showing the relationship between the Centre and the State . Should the state go to the Centre with a begging bowl ? How can the leader of a coalition keep the partners of government satisfied ? [ Page 00 ]

Ans . ( i ) No , the state should not go to the Centre with a begging bowl .

( ii ) The leader of the coalition government can keep the partners happy by sharing the power with them and also chalking the programme with their consent .

Q. 15. What do these newspaper clipping have to say about the efforts of decentralization in India ? [ Page 25 ]

Ans . In these newspaper clippings , the news is related to Panchayats . Panchayats in India are meant for the decentralization of power . These are meant for the self – governance at the grassroots level .

• The clippings show a huge number of women elected to Panchayats i.e. , increased participation of women in politics .

• Secondly , justice has been made easily accessible and cheap .

• These also reflect that Panchayats get direct funding from the central

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