Class 10 History Chapter 4 Important Questions The Age of Industrialisation

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Important Questions The Age of Industrialisation

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Important Questions The Age of Industrialisation, (History) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Important Questions The Age of Industrialisation

 

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

 

Stand Alone MCQs (1 Mark Each)

1.

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(A) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)

(B) (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(C) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(C)

(D) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

2. TableDescription automatically generated

(A) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)

(B) (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(C) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(c)

(D) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

3. Arrange the following tn the correct sequence:

(i) James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny

(ii) James Watt patented the Steam Engine.

(iii) Richard Arkwright created the First Cotton Mill.

(iv) Matthew Boulton manufactured the new model of Steam Engine.

Options:

(A) (iv) – (i) – (iii) – (ii)

(B) (i) – (iii) – (ii) – (iv)

(C) (ii) – (iv) – (i) – (iii)

(D) (iii) – (ii) – (iv) – (i)

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny in 1764.

(ii) Richard Arkwright created the First Cotton Mill in 1771.

(iii) James Watt patented the Steam Engine in 1781 produced by Newcomen.

(iv) Matthew Boulton manufactured the new model of Steam Engine in 1781.

4. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:

(i) J. N. Tata set up the First Iron and Steel Plant in Jamshedpur.

(ii) Dwarkanath Tagore set up six joint stock companies in Bengal.

(iii) Seth Hukumchand set up the first Jute Mill in Calcutta.

(iv) Music Publisher E. T. Paull produced a Music Book.

Options:

(A) (iv) – (i) – (ii) – (iii)

(B) (i) – (iv) – (iii) – (ii)

(C) (ii) – (iv) – (i) – (iii)

(D) (iii) – (ii) – (iv) – (i)

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) Dwarkanath Tagore set up six joint stock companies in Bengal in 1830s and 1840s.

(ii) Music Publisher E, T. Paull produced a Music Book in 1900.

(iii) J. N. Tata set up the First Iron and steel Plant in Jamshedpur in 1912.

(iv) Seth Hukumchand set up the First jute Mill in Calcutta in 1917.

5. Which of the following was a European Managing Agency?

(A) Tata Iron and Steel Company

(B) Elgin Mill

(C) Andrew Yule

(D) Birla Industries

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

6. From which of the following trade did the Early Entrepreneur make a fortune?

(A) Textile trade

(B) China trade

(C) Trade in tea

(D) Share market

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Britishers in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians earned through this trade for developing Industrial Enterprises in India.

7. Whom did the British Government appoint to supervise weavers, collect supplies and to examine the quality of cloth?

(A) Jobber

(B) Sepoy

(D) Gomastha

(C) Policeman

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The East India Company tried to eliminate the existing cloth traders and brokers and establish more control over the weaver.

8. The person who got people from village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in cities and provided them money in times of need was known as:

(A) Stapler

(B) Fuller

(D) Jobber

(C) Gomastha

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

9, Why were workers in England hostile to machines and new technology?

(A) They did not know how to use these machines.

(B) They feared that they would lose their jobs and livelihood.

(C)The workers were too’ poor to buy new machines.

(D)They were scared of machines.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

10. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

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‘Dawn of the Century’ produced by E.T. Paull is what?

(A) A Music card

(B) A Music album

(C) A Music book

(D) A Music record

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Dawn of the Century, was a Music book published by E.T. Paull Music Co. of New York, England in 1900.

11. Look at the picture of the famous Indian Entrepreneur and answer the question that follows:

A picture containing textDescription automatically generated

This is a picture of whom?

(A) Dwarkanath Tagore (B) Dinshaw Petit

(C) Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy (D) Seth Hukumchand

Ans, Option (A) is correct.

12. Study the below given information and identify the correct option in reference to it from among the given options:

The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations. If you had a relative or a friend in a factory, you were more likely to get a job quickly. But not everyone had social connections. Many job seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters. Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the casual wards maintained by the Poor Law Authorities.

(A) Abundance of labour

(B) Life of the workers

(C) Job seekers

(D) Employment of workers

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

13. Study the below given information and identify the correct option in reference to it from among the given options:

By the late nineteenth century, Manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments. And those who hung the calendars had to see the advertisements, day after day, through the year. In these calendars, once again, we see the figures of Gods being used to sell new products.

Like the images of gods, figures of important personages, of Emperors and Nawabs, adorned advertisement and calendars. The message very often seemed to say: if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by Kings or produced under Royal command, its quality could not be questioned.

(A) Use of calendars

(B) Use of advertisements

(C) Use of images

(D) Market for goods

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

14. ‘Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) By the beginning of nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products.

(B) Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could nol read.

(C) They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments.

(D) And those who hung the calendars had to see the Advertisements, day after day, through the year.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: By the late nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products.

15. Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) In most Industrial regions workers came from the districts around.

(B) Peasants and Artisans who found no work in the village went to the Industrial Centres in search of work.

(C) Over 70 percent workers in the Bombay Cotton Industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri.

(D) While, the Mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Over 50 percent workers in the Bombay Cotton Industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri.

 

Assertion and Reason Based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

Directions : In the following questions, A statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R), Mark the correct choice as:

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but R is false.

(D) A is false and R is true.

1. Assertion (A): European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products.

Reason (R): They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the Colonial Government and they invested in mining, indigo and jute.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

2. Assertion (A): The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton and metals.

Reason (R): By 1873, Britain was exporting Iron and Steel worth about £77 million, double the value of its Cotton Export.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s. After that, the Iron and Steel Industry led the way in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s as the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly,

3. Assertion (A); The new emerging industries in England could not replace the Traditional Industries.

Reason (R): Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Most of the output was not from the industrialised factories but from domestic units which employed more than 80 percent workforce.

4. Assertion (A): There was a lot of opposition to the introduction of Spinning Jenny in the Cotton Industry.

Reason (R): Invention of machines threatened the employment of many Women.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

5. Assertion (A): The Ports of Bombay and Calcutta declined.

Reason (R): As European companies gradually gained power over Indian trade, local merchants start facing loss and exports from surat and Hooghly ports fell.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The Old ports of Surat and Hooghly declined.

6. Assertion (A): Certain groups of weavers prospered even when being in competition with mill industries.

Reason (R); Handicrafts people adopt new technology that decline production and pushing up costs excessively,

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Special handicrafts materials like silk saris were bought by the well-to-do and their demand never decreased.

 

Case-based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

I. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the Countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an International Market. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production within towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore, difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the Countryside.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. Merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the:

(A) Countryside

(B) Cities

(C) Ports

(D) Foreign Countries

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Because the association of traders and manufactures confined the entry of new people, Hence, it was difficult to setup their business for new merchants in towns.

2. The Merchants persuaded Peasants and Artisans to produce for:

(A) Local market

(B) State market

(C) International market

(D) National marke

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Merchants set monopoly to produce specific goods, so they persuaded artisans to produce for International Market.

3. With the expansion of World trade, the demand for goods began_____.

(A) slowing

(B) growing

(C) falling down

(D) increased

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

4. Associations of ______ trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

(A) Manufacturers

(B) Customers

(C) Producers

(D) Retailers

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

II. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

Consider the case of the Steam Engine. James Watt improved the Steam Engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new engine in 1781. His Industrialist friend Matthew Boulton manufactured the new model. But for years he could find no buyers. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were no more than 321 steam engines all over England. Of these, 80 were in cotton industries, nine in wool industries and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works, Steam engines were not used in any of the other industries till much later in the century. So, even the most powerful new technology that enhanced the productivity of labour manifold was slow to be accepted by industrialists.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. Who invented or produced the First Steam Engine?

(A) James Watt

(B) Isaac Newton

(C) Newcomen

(D) Albert Einstein

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

2. Who manufactured the new model of Steam Engine?

(A)Matthew Boulton

(B) Newcomen

(C) James Watt

(D) Isaac Newton

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. How many Steam Engines were there at the beginning of the nineteenth century all over the England?

(A) 521

(B) 221

(C) 421

(D) 321

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: At the beginning of the Nineteenth country, there were no more 321 Steam Engines all over England.

4. Out of 321 Steam Engines, how many were used in Cotton Industries?

(A) 90

(B) 80

(C) 70

(D) 60

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

III. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardised goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. In mid nineteenth century Britain, for Instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced along with 45 kinds of axes. These required human skill and not Mechanical Technology.

In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the Aristocrats and the Bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand. Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed. Machine made goods were for export to the Colonies.

In countries with labour shortage, industrialists were keen on using mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimised. This was the case in nineteenth-century America. Britain, however, had no problem hiring human hands.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. _________ were Standardised products, which were produced for a mass market.

(A) Cotton

(B) Uniforms

(C) Wool

(D) Tools

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

2. __________ Varieties of hammers and ___________ Kinds of aves were produced in Uritain in mid-nineteenth century.

(A) 500, 45

(B) 500, 55

(C) 300, 145

(D) 400, 45

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. In Victorian Britain, the Aristocrats and bourgeoisie belonged to the_____ .

(A) Priest classes

(B) Lower classes

(C) Upper classes

(D) Middle classes

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

4. ____ products symbolised refinement and class.

(A) Machine made

(B) Hand made

(C) Man made

(D) None of the above

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Handmade Products were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed.

IV. Read the source Given below and answer the questions that follows:

The European companies gradually gained power – first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hooghly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from these ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt. In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of trade that passed through Surat had been 16 million. By the 1740s, it had slumped to’ 3million.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

Who secured concessions from Local Courts?

(A) The American companies

(B) The European companies

(C) The Asian companies

(D) The African companies

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: The European companies gradually gained power — first securing a vanity of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.

2. Hooghly and ______ were the old Ports.

(A) Surat

(B) Punjab

(C) Central Asia

(D) Persia

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. ________ slowly went bankrupt.

(A) Exporters

(B) Dealers

(C) Bankers

(D) Customers

Ans, Option (C) is correct.

4. The gross value of trade that passed through Surat had been________.

(A) % 18 million

(B) %17 million

(C)% 19 million

(D) = 16 million

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

 

SUBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each)

1. Define the term ‘Carding’.

Ans. Carding is the process by which fibres are disentangled and cleaned for subsequent processing.

2 Name the two Industrialists of Bombay who built Huge Industrial L mpires Dunny Nineteenth Century

Ans. Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata.

3. Why did the Merchants from towns in Europe began to move to Countryside in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries?

Ans. Merchants began to move to the Countryside In 17th & 18 th century because:

(i) Merchants could not expand production within towns.

(ii) The trade guilds restricted the entry of new people into the trade in towns.

4. From which trade did the early entrepreneurs make a tortune?

Ans. China Trade.

S Wheat esas Sprrrveniene Jerny?

Ans. A machine which speeded up the spinning process and reduced the labour demands.

6. Which Indian port lost its importance during Colonial Rule?

Ans. Surat.

7. Which Indian Ports had trade links with South east Asian countries?

Ans. Masulipatnam, Hooghly and Surat.

8. What does Industrial Revolution refer to?

Ans. Mass production by factories.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks Each)

1. Why did the Elite of Britain prefer Hand-made goods in the mid-nineteenth century? Explain.

Ans. During this period, the upper classes – the Aristocrats and the Bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand because:

  • They symbolised refinement and class
  • They were betler finished
  • These were individually produced and carefully designed

2. Why did Merchants moved to the Countryside Lurupe during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries? Explain.

Ans. Merchants moved to the countryside Europe because:

  • Expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies.
  • Powerful urban craft and trade guilds did not allow expansion of production in towns.
  • Producers regulated production, competition, prices.
  • Rulers also granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
  • It was therefore difficult for new Merchants to set up business in towns. So, they turned to the countryside.

3. Name the Sea routes that connected India with Asian countries.

Ans.

  1. A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports.
  2. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and read sea ports.
  3. Masulipatnam on the coromandel Coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with the South east Asian ports.

4. “In the Eighteenth century Europe, the Peasants and Artisans in the Country side readily agreed to work for the Merchants,” Explain any three reasons.

OR

In the 17% century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing Peasants and artisans within the villages, Explain.

Ans.

(i) Cottagers and Villagers were looking for new alternatives of income.

(ii) Tiny plots of land with the villagers could not provide work for all members of the family.

(iii) Advances offered by the merchants made the villagers readily agree to produce goods for them.

(iv) By working for the merchants, they could’ continue to remain in the villages and do cultivation also,

(v) It was possible to have full use of family labour force.

5. Why did the Export of Indian textile decline at the beginning of the nineteenth century? Explain any three reasons.

Ans. The Export of Indian textile declined at the beginning of the nineteenth century because:

(i) Indian Weavers could not compete with cheap machine-made British goods. As raw cotton began to be exported to Britain, the prices in the domestic market shot up.

(ii) Manchester-made goods started flooding Indian market.

(iii) High import duties on Indian Cotton Textile was imposed in England.

(iv) Exports of British goods to India increased. The Manchester goods flooded Indian Markets.

(v) The machine-made goods were cheaper and weavers could not compete with them.

(vi) By 1850 the exports of woven cloth drastically declined.

6. Describe any three major problems faced by Indian Cotton Weavers in Nineteenth century.

OR

Explain new problem faced by the weavers in 1850s.

OR

Explain any three problems faced by Indian weavers in 1850s.

OR

What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the 19” century? Describe.

OR

State any three problems faced by cotton weavers of India.

Ans. Major problems faced by the Indian cotton weavers were:

(i) Their export market collapsed.

(ii) The local market shrunk.

(iii) Increase in price of raw cotton.

(iv) Shortage of cotton.

(v) Difficulty of weavers to compete with the imported machine that made cheaper cotton products.

(vi) Factories in India also be producing on large scale cheaper machine made goods with which our weavers could not compete.

7. Describe the role of ‘Jobbers’ in the beginning of twentieth century in India.

OR

Who was a Jobber? Mention any two functions of a Jobber.

Ans. Role of Jobbers:

  • Industrialists usually employed jobbers to get new recruits.
  • They became persons with some authority and power.
  • They were old and trusted workers.
  • They got people from their villages.
  • They ensured them jobs.
  • They helped them to settle in the city.
  • They also provided them money in times of crisis.

8. How was foreign trade from India conducted before the age of Machine Industries? Explain.

Ans.

(i)

  • Before the age of Machine Industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles.
  • Coarser cotton was produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India.
  • Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, Eastern Persia and Central Asia.

{ii) Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.

(iii)

  • A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports.
  • Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatnam on the Coromandel Coast and Hooghly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian Ports.

9. Describe any three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of Industries in the 18th century India.

Ans. Three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of industries in 18″ century India are:

(i) India abounds in coal and iron ore deposits: India had huge reserves of coal and iron ore deposits making it possible to set up the industries.

(ii) Number of perennial rivers: This made easy for foreign companies to reach India.

(ii) Abundant raw materials: Abundant availability of raw materials allowed large scale production.

(iv) Vast network of Roads and Railways: Transport facilities helped in reaching to different parts of the country.

(v) Big market.

(vi) Demand in several Arabian and Asian countries,

10, Explain any three causes which led to the decline of Indian cotton textiles in the early nineteenth century.

Ans.

(i) The British Cotton manufacture began to expand.

(ii) British manufacturers pressurised the government to restrict cotton imports.

(iii) Manufacturers began to search the Overseas Markets for selling their cloth.

(iv) Indian textiles faced stiff competition in other international markets.

(v) There was a decline in the share of the textile.

(vi) Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain.

11. ‘Industrialisation gave birth to Imperialism’ Justify the statement with three arguments.

OR

How did the Industrial Revolution give rise to Imperialism? Explain.

Ans.

(i) Imperialism was the ill-begotten child of Industrialisation.

(ii) Industrialisation chiefly needed two things. One of them being the constant supply of raw materials and the other is that the finished goods be sold at the same speed.

(iii) The industrialised countries had introduced heavy import duties as protective tariffs to check the import from other countries.

(iv) Faced with the problem of finding new markets for their products, the producer nations chose such countries where industrialisation had not yet reached.

(v) Hence, a race for bringing those areas under their effective occupation or effective influence started among the various industrialised nations.

(vi) As a consequence, Britain, France, Germany and Japan, etc., set up their colonies in Asia, Africa and South America, etc.

 

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks Each)

1. “Industrialization has changed the form of Urbanization in the modern period.” Analyse the statement with special reference of London.

Ans. Industrialization had changed the form of urbanization:

(i) The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted a large number of migrants to the Textile Mills.

(ii) Many migrants came from rural areas.

(iii) London became a Colossal City.

(iv) London expanded and became a powerful magnet for the migrants.

(v) It became a city of clerks, shopkeepers, skilled artisans and semi-skilled workers.

(vi) Apart from the London dockyards, five majors’ type of industries employed a larger number of people from distinctive areas.

2. Describe the life of Workers during the nineteenth century in England.

Ans. Life of Workers:

(i) The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of Workers.

(il) As the news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities,

(iii) The actual possibility of getting job depends on existing network of friendship & kinship.

(v) Many jobseekers had to wait weeks spending nights under bridges or in night shelters,

(vi) Any other relevant point to be described.

3. Why were the British Industrialists not keen to introduce Modern Machinery in the nineteenth century? Explain any five reasons.

Ans.

(i) In many industries, the demand for laboy, was seasonal,

(ii) Range of products could be produced only with handlooms.

(iii) For certain products, only human skill was required.

(iv) Upper Class Society preferred things produced by hands,

(v) Handmade products symbolised refinement of class,

4. What was ‘Proto-industrialisation’? Explain the importance of Proto industrialisation.

OR

What is meant by Proto industrialisation? Explain any four economic effects of the Proto-industrial system.

OR

What is meant by Proto industrialisation? How did it affect the rural Peasants and Artisans?

Ans.

  • Proto industrialisation refers to the system of industries that existed in Europe before the arrival of modern machine run factories.
  • Large scale industrial production took place for an international market.
  • It was based in the countryside, not in factories.

Effects:

(i) Open fields were disappearing, and commons were being enclosed so common people had no! alternative sources of income.

(ii) Many had small plots of land which could not provide work for all family members.

(iii) Merchants offered them advances for which they agreed.

(iv) They got a source of income which supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation.

5. “Series of changes affected the pattern of Industrialization in India by the early twentieth century.” Analyse the statement.

Ans.

Series of changes affected the pattern of Industrialisation in India by the early twentieth century,

(i) As the Swadeshi Movement gathered momentum, Nationalists mobilized people to boycott foreign cloth.

(ii) Industrial groups organized themselves to protect their collective interest.

(iii) Pressurizing the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions.

(iv) The export of Indian yarn to China declined.

(v) Industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production.

(vi) Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900-1912.

6. Describe the impact of the First World War on Indian industries.

OR

How did the First World War proved to be a boon to the Indian industries? Explain.

OR

Explain the peculiarities of Indian industrial growth during the First World War.

OR

How did industrial production in India increase during the First World War? Explain any five points.

OR

“The First World War created favourable conditions for the development of industries in India.” Explain.

OR

‘The First World War turned out to be a boon in disguise for the Indian Industries.’ Justify the statement with suitable arguments.

Ans.

The First World War created a dramatically new situation for the Indian Industries.

(i) With the British mills being busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined.

(ii) Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.

(iii) As the war prolonged, Indian industries were called upon to supply war needs like, jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, etc.

(iv) New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts.

(v) Many new workers were employed, and everyone worked for longer hours.

(vi) Over the war years, industrial production boomed.

(vii) Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market.

(viii) Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Local industries consolidated their position capturing the home market.

7. Explain with examples the importance of Advertisement in the Marketing of the goods.

Ans.

(i) Advertisements play a very vital role in the marketing of any product. One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements.

(ii) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.

(iii) They try to shape the minds of the people and create new needs.

(iv) Today, we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in the newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls and television screens,

(v) From the very beginning of the industrial age; advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products and in shaping a new consumer culture.

8. Analyse any four positive effects of Industrialisation on workers.

Ans. Positive effects of Industrialisation:

  1. Building activities intensified in the cities, opening up greater opportunities for employment.
  2. Roads were widened.
  3. New Railway Stations came up and Railway Lines were extended, tunnels dug up.
  4. Drainage and sewers were laid, rivers embanked.

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