Class 10 History Chapter 2 Important Questions Nationalism In India

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Important Questions Nationalism In India

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Important Questions Nationalism In India

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Important Questions Nationalism In India, (History) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Important Questions Nationalism In India

 

Objective type questions

 

Stand Alone MCQs (1 Mark Each)

1. Which of the following was the reason for calling off The Non-Cooperation Movement’ by Gandhiji?

(A) Pressure from the British Government

(B) Second Round Table Conference

(C) Gandhiji’s arrest

(D) Chauri-Chaura incident

Ans. Option (D) Is correct.

Explanation: At Chauri Chaura In Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration turned into a violent clash with the Police where 3 Civilians and 22 policemen died, that’s why Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Q2 Who among the following wrote the ‘Vande Mataram’?

(A) Rabindranath Tagore

(B) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

(C) Abanindranath Tagore

(D) Dwarkanath Tagore

Ans. Option (B) Is correct.

3. In which of the following Indian National Congress Session, the idea of Non-Cooperation Movement Was accepted?

(A) Lahore Session

(B) Nagpur Session

(C) Calcutta Session

(D) Madras Session

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders for the need to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

4. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

A picture containing text, person, posing, groupDescription automatically generated

Which of the following events was related to this image of Gandhi?

(A) Non-Cooperation Movement

(B) Kheda Satyagraha

(C) Dandi March

(D) None of these

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

5. Identify the appropriate reason for the formation of the Swaraj party from the options given below:

(A) Wanted Members of Congress to return to Council Politics.

(B) Wanted Members of Congress to ask for Purna Swaraj for Indians.

(C) Wanted Members of Congress to ask Dominion Status for India.

(D) Wanted Members of Congress to oppose Simon Commission.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

6. With the growth of Nationalism, who created the image of Bharat Mata?

(A) Abanindranath Tagore

(B) Rabindranath Tagore

(C) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

(D) Mahatma Gandhi

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

7. In the 19th Century India, the idea of Nationalism was revived through which of the following?

(A) History and fictions

(B) Figure or images

(C) Folklore or songs

(D) Popular prints

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

8. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

A picture containing text, personDescription automatically generated

Which of the following personalities is shown in the given image?

(A) Vallabhbhai Patel

(B) C. R. Das

(C) Motilal Nehru

(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

19, Study the picture and follows:

A picture containing text, personDescription automatically generated

Which of the following things is being held by Jawaharlal Nehru in this image?

(A) Bhagwad Gita

(B) Image of Bharat Mata

(C) Discovery of India

(D) Hind Swaraj

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

10. Which of the following agreement gave seats to the Depressed Classes in Provincial and Central Legislative Council?

(A) Poona Pact

(B) Lucknow Pact

(C) Gandhi – Irwin Pact

(D) None of these

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar demanded a separate Electorate this clashed with Mahatma Gandhi. So, the result was Poona Pact.

11.

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(A) (i)-(a), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(c)

(B) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(C) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(c)

(D) (i)-(b), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(c)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

12.

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(A) (i)-(c), (Hi)-(d), (lii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(B) (i)-(b), (ii)-(c ), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(a)

(C) (i)-(d), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(), (iv)-(c)

(D) (i)-(c), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(d)

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

13.

Table, ExcelDescription automatically generated

(A) (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(B) (i)-(b), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(a)

(C) (i)-(d), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(C)

(D) (i)-(c), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(d)

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation:

  1. Abanindranath Tagore designed the image of Bharat Mata.
  2. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote our National Song.
  3. Rabindranath Tagore wrote our National Anthem Jana Gana Mana.
  4. Natesa Sastri wrote the folklore of Southern India.

14. Certain events are given below. Choose the appropriate chronological order:

(i) Coming of Simon Commission to India

(ii) Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC

(iii) Government of India Act, 1919

(iv) Champaran Satyagraha

Options:

(A) (iii) – (ii) – (iv) – (i)

(B) (i) – (ii) – (iv) – (iii)

(C) (ii) – (iii) – (i) – (iv)

(D) (iv) – (iii) – (i) – (ii)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation:

  1. Champaran Satyagraha in 1917,
  2. Government of India Act, 1919.
  3. Coming of Simon Commission of India in 1928.
  4. Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC in 1929.

15. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:

  1. Formation of the Muslim League.
  2. The First World War.
  3. The first meeting of the Indian National Congress in Bombay.
  4. Through the war prices increased in double. (RAI

Options:

(A) (i) – (iv) – (iii) – (i)

(B) (i) – (iii) – (iv) – (ii)

(C) (iv) – (ii) – (i) = (iii)

(D) (iii) – (i) – (ii) – (iv)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation:

  1. The first meeting of the Indian National Congress in Bombay took place in 1885.
  2. Formation of the Muslim League in 1906.
  3. The First World War in 1914,
  4. Through the war prices increased in double in 1918.

16. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:

(i) Rowlatt Act passed.

(ii) The Partition of Bengal officially came into existence.

(iii) Satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad.

(iv) Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District (Gujarat).

Options:

(A) (iv) – (ii) – (i) – (iii)

(B) (ii) – (iii) – (iv) – (i)

(C) (ii) – (iv) – (iii) – (i)

(D) (i) – (iii) – (ii) – (iv)

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) The Partition of Bengal officially came into existence in 1905,

(ii) Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District (Gujarat) in 1917,

(iii) Saeueana Movement in Ahmedabad

(iv) Rowlatt Act passed in 1919,

17, Analyze the information given below, consider the following given options and identify the most appropriate one in reference to the given information:

Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was, in a way, an ultimatum. If the demands were not fulfilled by 11 March, the letter stated, the Congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British, On 6 April, 1930 he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

(A) Non-Cooperation Movement

(B) Salt March

(C) Khilafat Movement

(D) Rowlatt Act

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

18. Analyze the information given below, consider the following given options and identify the most appropriate one in reference to the given information:

As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolor (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

(A) Designing of icons

(B) Designing of tricolour flag

(C) Designing of national symbols

(D) Designing of images

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

19, Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) Mahatma Gandhi found sugar a powerful symbol that could unite a nation.

(B) On 31st January 1930 he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.

(C) Some of these were of general interest, others were specific demands of different classes, from Industrialists to Peasants.

(D) The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi found salt a powerful symbol that could unite a nation as salt is used in our day-to-day life by all Indian Classes.

20. Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) Against this background the new Tory Government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.

(B) Set up in response to Nationalist Movement, the Commission was to look into the functioning of the Constitutional System in India and suggest changes.

(C) The problem was that the Commission did not have a single Indian Member.

(D) They were all Americans.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: All members were Britishers.

21. Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) In 1928, Vallabhbhai Patel led the Peasant Movement in Bardoli, a taluka in Gujarat.

(B) It was against enhancement of land revenue, known as the Civil Disobedience Movement.

(C) This Movement was a success under the able leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel.

(D) The struggle was widely publicized and generated immense sympathy in many parts of India.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: It was against enhancement of Land Revenue, known as Bardoli Satyagraha.

 

Assertion and Reason Based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

Directions: Fo the following, questions, A statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but R is false.

(D) A is false and R is true.

1. Assertion (A): It was declared: that 26″ January, 1930 would be celebrated as the lndependence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for Complete Independence.

Reason (R): Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more Concrete issues of everyday life.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

2. Assertion (A): Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.

Reason (R): His object, as he declared later, was to produce a moral effect; to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. Assertion (A): Foreign goods were boycotted, Iyguior shops pocketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.

Reason (R): Students and Teachers began trickling, back to Government Schools and Lawyers joined back work in Government Courts.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Boycott Movement was also launched to collapse the British rule in India and promoting a culture to make in-house products.

4. Assertion (A): Mahatma Gandhi decided to take up the Khilafat issue.

Reason (R): After many leaders were arrested violent clashes broke out at many places in India and women and children were beaten up.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi always wanted to bring the Hindu-Muslims together and launch a broad nationwide resistance movement against the Britishers.

5. Assertion (A): Between 1921-1922, production of tea and coffee grew up.

Reason (R): As the Non-Cooperation moved into economic sphere, foreign goods and clothes were boycotted and burnt.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: As the Boycott Movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms grew up.

6. Assertion (A): Folklores gave a picture of traditional culture, it helps in discovering a national identity and restoring a sense of pride in one’s past.

Reason (R): Nationalism spreads when people discover some unity that binds them together

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Folklores played an important role in developing a feeling of nationalism.

7. Assertion (A): Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch civil disobedience movement by violating salt law.

Reason (R): An image or figure helps people to identify with the nation.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch Civil Disobedience Movement by violating Salt Law because salt is an essential item of food and consumed by people of all classes.

 

Case-based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

I. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows.

The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left Government- controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers ‘Gave up their legal practices. The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power-something that usually, only Brahmans had access to.

The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from @ 102 crore to @ 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian Textile Mills and handlooms went up.

But this Movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. How then could they boycott mill cloth for too Jong? Similarly, the boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in Government Courts.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. What was the purpose of Justice Party to contest Elections to the Council in Madras? Select the appropriate option:

(A) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the ways to gain some income that usually only Brahmans had access to.

(B) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the ways to gain some power that usually, only Brahmans had access to.

(C) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the way to gain more popularity that usually only Brahmans had access to.

(D) It wanted to contest elections to the Council as it was one of the ways to take revenge from Brahmans.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

2. How was the effect of “Non-Cooperation on the economic tron’ dramatic?

(A) Merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.

(B) The merchants imported goods from other countries.

(C) The neighbouring countries were offering same goods at cheaper prices.

(D) Public was not interested in buying foreign goods.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. The import of Foreign cloth between 1921 and 1922 saw changes because:

(A) its value dropped from % 100 crore to ₹ 97 crore.

(B) its value dropped from % 201 crore to ₹ 150 crore.

(C) its value dropped from % 102 crore to ₹ 57 crore.

(D) its value dropped from % 102 crore to ₹ 75 crore.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922.

4. Thousands of ____________ left, government controlled schools and colleges and ___________ gave up their legal practices.

(A) teachers, judges.

(B) headmasters, clerks.

(C) students, advocates.

(D) students, lawyers

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

II. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:

The identity of the nation, as you know is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s, he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore Painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. Means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through:

(A) Reinterpretation of Astronomy

(B) Reinterpretation of Philosophy

(C) Reinterpretation of Mythology

(D) Reinterpretation of History

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: Historical events led the feeling of Nationalism.

2. Bharat Mata was first created by:

(A) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

(B) Natesa Sastri

(C) Rabindranath Tagore

(D) Abanindranath Tagore

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. As Bharat Mata is to India, ____________ is lo Italy and ______________ is to Germany.

(A) Statue of Liberty, Mother Mary

(B) Marianne, Germania

(C) Germania, Marianne

(D) Statue of Liberty, Germania

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: The identity of a nation, is most often symbolised in a female in motherly Figures like Bharat Mata, Marianne and Germania.

4. What quality is emphasized by Bharat mata?

(A) Anxious

(B) Sacred

(C) Mortal

(D) All of the above

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

III. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of UttarPradesh – were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand. And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising, their communities and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So, when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate. The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords. As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. Patidars and Jats are rich Peasants of which State?

(A) Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh

(B) Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh

(C) Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan

(D) Punjab and Haryana

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Rich Peasants of Gujarat are called Patidars and in Uttar Pradesh they are called Jats.

2. Who led the Peasant’s Movement in Awadh?

(A) Baba Ramnath

(B) Baba Ramchandra

(C) Baba Ramdev

(D) Baba Ram Mohan

Option (B) is correct.

3. For plantation workers in Assam, which Act did not permit them to leave the tea gardens without permission?

(A) Inland Emigration Act of 1947

(B) InIand Emigration Act of 1839

(C) Inland Emigration Act of 1859

(D) Inland Emigration Act of 1887

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

4. Congress was unwilling to support ________ campaigns in most places.

(A) high rent

(B) no rent

(C) low rent

(D) equal rent

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

 

Subjective type questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark Each)

1. Why was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 troublesome for Plantation Workers?

Ans. Under this Act, Plantation Workers were not permitted to leave tea-gardens without permission.

2. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922?

Ans. Gandhiji felt that the Movement was turning violent in many places.

3. Why did Indians oppose the ‘Simon Commission?

Ans. Because there was no Indian Member in the Commission.

4. Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath’.

Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

5. Who organised Dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930?

Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

6. Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932?

Ans. Poona Pact.

7. Name the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaray.

Ans. The writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’ is Mahatma Gandhi.

8. What is meant by Satyagraha?

Ans. Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

9, ‘Trace the reason because of which Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919.

Ans. To protest against the Rowlatt Act.

10. What kind of Movement was launched by the tribal Peasants of Gude [ills in Andhra Pradesh?

Ans. Militant Guerrilla Movement

11. Why did Gandhiji take up the Khilafat issue?

Ans. To bring the Hindus and Muslims on a common platform.

 

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks Each)

1, Why did Gandhiji start non-Cooperation Movement? Explain.

Ans.

  • Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement with the aim of self-governance and obtaining full independence.
  • The Indian National Congress withdrew its support for British reforms against the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
  • Indian Muslims who had participated in the Khilafat Movement to restore the status of the Caliph/Khalifa (the spiritual leader of Muslims) gave their support to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

2. Describe the role of Alluri Sitarama Raju in Andhra Pradesh during 1920s.

Ans. Role of Alluri Sitarama Raju in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh:

  • Alluri Sitarama Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers like making astrological predictions, healing people and surviving bullet shots.
  • The Rebels proclaimed him as an Incarnation of God.
  • Raju was inspired by Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • He persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
  • But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence.
  • He used Guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.

3. Describe the incident of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Ans.

  • The Rowlatt Act was effective from 10″ March, 1919. In Punjab, the protest movement was vast and strong.
  • On 10″ April, two renowned leaders of the Congress, Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested and were taken to an unknown place.
  • A public meeting was held on 13 April at Jallianwala Bagh in a small park enclosed by buildings on all sides to protest against the arrest.
  • General Dyer with his British troops entered the park, closed the entrance of the park and commanded his army to fire on the gathered people without any warning.
  • The firing lasted for ten minutes and sixteen hundred rounds were fired killing about hundreds of people and more than two thousand people were left wounded and unattended.

4. Describe the implications of First World War on the economic and political situation of India.

OR

Explain the effects of First World War on India.

OR

How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situation in India? Explain with examples.

OR

Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.

OR

Examine the effects of the First World War on the National Movement of India.

OR

Explain how the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

Ans.

  • The war created a new economic and political situation.
  • It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans.
  • To fulfil the loan demands taxes were increased, custom duties were raised. Not only this, a new tax in the form of income tax was also introduced,
  • Prices increased, doubling between 1913 and 1918. This hit the common people.
  • Villagers were asked to supply soldiers and through force recruitment in rural areas.
  • During 1918-19, crops failed in many parts of India which created shortage of food.
  • Spread of influenza epidemic and death of 12 to 13 million people.

5. Analyse any three reasons for slow down of Non-Cooperation Movement in-cities,

Ans. Reasons for slowing down of non-CooperationMovement:

(i) The Indians could not boycott for a long time because, Khadi cloth was more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.

(ii) The Boycott of British institutions posed a problem as allernative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of British ones.

(iii) Students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts in the absence of alternate Indian Institutions.

6. Explain any three effects of the “Non-Cooperation Movement’ on the economic front.

Ans. Effects of the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’:

(i) Foreign goods were boycotted.

(ii) Liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge.

(iii) Import of Foreign cloth halved.

(iv) In many places Merchants and Traders refused to trade in Foreign goods or finance foreign trade.

7. Discuss the various stages of the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi.

Ans.

Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:

  1. 1″ Stage-Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
  2. 2™ Stage—Boycott of Civil Services, Army, Police, Courts and Legislative, Councils, Schools and Foreign Goods.
  3. 3™ Stage-Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

8. How could Non-Cooperation become Movement? Give your opinion.

Ans.

Non-Cooperation became a Movement as:

  1. It was the view of Gandhiji that the British Rule was set in India with the cooperation of Indians.
  2. If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
  3. Gandhiji proposed that the Movement should unfold in stages.
  4. In case the Government used repression, a full Civil Disobedience Campaign would be launched.
  5. Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the Movement.
  6. It should begin with surrender of titles that government awarded and a boycott of civil services, police, courts and legislative councils,schools and foreign goods.

9. British rule in India would have collapsed if Indians had not cooperated.” how did this statement help in starting, a Mass Movement tn tna against the British Rule?

Ans.

  1. Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and if Indians had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have collapsed within a year.
  2. He proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
  3. It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.
  4. A boycott of Civil Services, Army, Police, Courts and Legislative Assemblies, Schools and Foreign Goods would show their non-cooperation to the British Empire.
  5. Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used repression, a full Civil Disobedience campaign would be launched.

10. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the ‘non-cooperation Movement in february 1922? Explain any three reasons.

Or

What were the causes of the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement? Explain.

Or

Why did mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the non-cooperation movement in February 1922? Explain the reasons.

Ans. Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922:

  1. Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places.
  2. A clash took place at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh.
  3. A group of volunteers picketing a liquor shop were beaten up by a Police Officer.
  4. In protest a group of Peasants went to the Police Station, bolted the door and set fire to the Police Station killing 22 Policemen.
  5. The incident shocked Gandhiji and he immediately withdrew the Movement.

11. “The Plantation Workers in Assam had their own understanding of mahatma gandhi and the nation of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.

Ans. “The Plantation Workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj” as:

  1. For Plantation Workers in Assam, Freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
  2. Swaraj meant retaining a link to the village from which they had come.
  3. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea gardens without permission.
  4. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
  5. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own village.

12. Describe any three major problems faced by the Peasants of Awadh in the days of non-Cooperation movement.

Ans. Problems faced by the Peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement were:

  1. Talukdars and Landlords posed high rent on land and variety of cesses.
  2. Various taxes were also implemented on them.
  3. Peasants had to do begar and work at Landlord’s farm without any payment.
  4. They had no security of tenure and were evicted regularly.
  5. They had no right over leased land. (Any three)

13. Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside.

Ans, Non-Cooperation Movement spread in the countryside:

  1. In Awadh, Peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here the Movement was against Talukdars and Landlords who demanded from Peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses.
  2. Peasants had to do begar and work at Landlords’ farms without any payments. As tenants, they had no security of tenure and were regularly evicted so that they have no right over the leased land.
  3. The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of Begar and social boycott of oppressive Landlords. In the meantime, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh.
  4. The Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up in the villages. The Peasant Movement, however, developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with.
  5. As the Movement spread, the Houses of Talukdars and Merchants were attacked Bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over

14. Describe the role of poor peasantry in the civil Disobedience movement.

Ans.

  1. The Peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) because the poor peasantry was not just interested in the lowering of the revenue but also remission of rent as many had rented Land and had been unable to pay the rent during the Year of depression and decreasing cash incomes.
  2. When the movement was called off in 1931, without the revenue rates being revised, the Farmers were highly disappointed.
  3. In some parts of the country, they Launched ‘no rent’ campaign which was not supported by the congress because this might upset the rich peasant and the landlords.
  4. Many of them refused to participate when the movement was re-launched in 1932. These poor peasants joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.

15. Evaluate the role of Business Classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.

Ans. Role of Business classes in ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  1. The Business class reached against policies that restricted business activities.
  2. They wanted protection against Imports of Foreign goods and a Rupee-Sterling Foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. In order to organise business interest, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  4. They gave financial assistance for the Movement.
  5. They refused to Buy and Sell Imported goods.

16.” The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples.

OR

How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement? State any three points of difference.

Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the following ways:

Non-Cooperation Movement:

  1. The people were asked not to co-operate with the government.
  2. Foreign goods were boycotted.
  3. Liquor shops were picketed.
  4. Foreign clothes were burnt in heap.
  5. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in Foreign goods or Finance Foreign Traders.
  6. Students left the Government – owned schools and colleges.
  7. Lawyers gave up legal practices.

Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. People were asked to break Colonial Laws.
  2. The Countrymen broke the Salt Law.
  3. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
  4. Village officials resigned from their jobs.
  5. Forest people violated Forest Rules and Laws.

17. Simon Commission was greeted with Ue slopan ‘Go back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments.

Ans. Simon Commission:

(i) The new government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.

(ii) It was set up in response to the Nationalist Movement.

(iii) The Commission was to look into the functioning of the Constitutional System in India and suggest changes.

(iv) The problem was that the Commission didn’t have a single Indian Member.

(v) When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’.

(vi) All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

18. Explain in brief the ‘Dandi March’.

OR

Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.

Ans.

(i) Mahatma Gandhi started his famous ‘Salt March’ or ‘Dandi March’ on 11″ March, 1930 accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.

(ii) The March was to cover 240 miles from Gandhi’s Ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati Coastal town of Dandi.

(iii) On 6′” April, 1930, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

(iv) This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.

19. What were Mahatma Gandhi’s views on women’s participation in the National Movements?

Ans.

  1. According to Gandhiji, the Woman is the companion of man and gifted with equal rights of freedom and liberty.
  2. The Woman is more fit than a man to take exploration and bolder action in non-violence.
  3. The Woman is the better half of humanity, not the weaker sex.

Q 20. Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’.

Ans. The main features of ‘Poona Pact’ were:

  1. The Poona Pact (September 1932) gave Depressed Classes (later to be known as Scheduled Caste) reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
  2. They were to be voted in by the general electorate,
  3. (ili) The Act came into force due to Gandhiji’s fast unto death.
  4. Dr. B. R, Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s stand.

21. How did Women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans. Participation of Women in the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. Women in large number participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. During Salt March thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
  3. They participated in Protest Marches and manufactured salt.
  4. They picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
  5. Many went to jail.
  6. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

22. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of Industrial Workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.

Ans. The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle because:

  1. The industrialists came closer to the Congress, but the workers stayed aloof.
  2. Congress felt this would alienate industrialists.
  3. It would divide its Anti-Imperial forces.
  4. Civil Disobedience Movement would be weakened.

23. Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular symbols, etc., in shaping Nationalism during the freedom struggle.

Ans. Role of folklore:

(i) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of Nationalism.

(ii) The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.

(iii) In the 1870s Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ’Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.

(iv) The idea of Nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.

24. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ in 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘Swaraj Flag’.

OR

Which flag did Gandhiji design in 1921? Mention its special features.

Ans.

  1. In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swargj flag.
  2. It was a tricolour (red, green and white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
  3. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during Marches became a symbol of defiance.

25. What type of flag was designed during the “Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.

Ans. During the “Swadeshi Movement” in Bengal the ‘ flag designed was a Tricolour Flag.

The two features of the flag were:

  1. The colour of the flag was Red, Green and Yellow.
  2. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces in British India.
  3. It had a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks Each)

1. Explain the meaning and notion of ‘Swaraj’ as perceived by the Plantation Workers. How did they respond to the call of the Non-cooperation Movement?

Ans.

(i) For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

(ii) (a) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.

(b) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.

(c) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

(d) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a Railway and Steamer strike, they were caught by the Police and brutally beaten up.

2. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the ‘Non- Cooperation Movement’? How did this Movement unite the country? Explain.

Ans.

  • Mahatma Gandhi declared that British Rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and if Indians had refused to cooperate, the British rule in India would have collapsed within a year.
  • He proposed that the Non-Cooperation Movement should unfold in stages.

(i) It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.

(ii) A boycott of Civil Services, Army, Police, Courts and Legislative Assemblies.

(iii) Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used repression, a full Civil Disobedience campaign would be launched.

Unification of the Country:

(i) In many places, Merchants and Traders refused to trade in Foreign goods or invest in foreign trade, Foreign cloths were boycotted.

(ii) Thousands of students left the Government- controlled Schools and Colleges, Headmasters and Teachers resigned, and Lawyers gave up their legal practices.

(iii) The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.

3. How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples.

OR

What was the impact of the First World War on the economic condilions in India?

Ans.

(i) It created new economic and political problems.

  • The war had led to huge expenditure which was financed by heavy war loans and an increase in taxes.
  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.

(ii) The prices had doubled between 1913 and 1918 and the common people faced great hardships.

(iii) Crops had failed between 1918-19 and 1920-21 leading to famine and disease. There were epidemics killing between 12-13 million people Census-1921.

(iv) People’s hope that the end of the war would bring an end to their misery and near to their goals and this led to their support to the National Movement.

4. How did Non-Cooperation Movement start with participation of middle-class people in the cities?

OR

How did the ‘Non-Cooperalion Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its impact on the economic front.

OR

How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities. Explain.

Ans.

  • The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was started by the Congress Party in January 1921.
  • Initially, this movement started with middle class participation in the cities.
  • Thousands of Students, Teachers and Lawyers gave up their institulions and profession and joined the movement.
  • This movement began in different cities across the country.
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement dramatically affected the economy of British India.

The economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement were as follows –

  1. As Foreign goods and Foreign clothes were boycotted, the Import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore rupees.
  2. In many places, Merchants and Traders refused to trade in Foreign goods or Invest in foreign Trade.
  3. As people discarded imported clothes and started to use Indian clothes, production of Indian textile mills and Handlooms went up.

5. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919)? How was it opposed or organised? Explain.

Ans. Gandhiji decided to launch a nation-wide Satyagraha:

(i) This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.

(ii) Indian members opposed the Act.

(iii) It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities.

(iv) It allowed detention of Political Prisoners without trial for two years.

It opposed in the following ways:

(i) Rallies were organised in various cities.

(ii) Workers went on strike.

(iii) Shops were closed.

(iv) Communication, Railway, Telegraphs lines were disrupted.

(Any three)2+3=5

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2018]

6. How did Colonial Government repress the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans. Colonial Government repressed the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’:

  1. The Colonial Government took brutal steps to repress the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. The government began arresting the congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in many places.
  3. Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930).
  4. Angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar facing armoured cars and police firing, many were killed.
  5. Gandhiji was himself arrested.
  6. A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression.
  7. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked women and children were beaten.
  8. About 100,000 people were arrested.

7. Describe the Incident and impact of the Jallianwala Bagh.

OR

Explain the reason and effects of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

OR

Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people.

OR

Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the aftermath. Which basic human rights did the British violate?

Ans.

Incident and Impact of the Jallianwala Bagh:

  • On 13″ April, large crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh.
  • Some of them had come to protest against the government’s new repressive measures and others had come to attend Baisakhi fair.
  • General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds to create a feeling of terror.

Impact:

(i) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in North Indian towns.

(ii) There were strikes, clashes with Police.

(iii) Attacks on government buildings.

(iv) The Government responded with brutal repression to terrorise people.

(v) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.

(vi) People were flogged, and villages were bombed.

(vii) The British violated the freedom of speech and expression.

8 Describe the development which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans. The following developments took place which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement:

(i) Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha Movements in various places.

(ii) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

(iii) Then in 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat.

(iv) In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise a Satyagraha Movement amongst Cotton Mill Workers.

(v) In 1919, he decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act.

(vi) Rallies were organised in various places.

(vii) At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

9. Define the term ‘Civil Disobedience Movement. Describe the participation of rich and poor peasant communities in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.

Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement means to disobey the rule of the British Government.

Participation of rich and poor peasant communities:

  1. Inthe countryside, rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of UP were active in movement.
  2. Rich peasants participated in the movement as a struggle against high revenue demand.
  3. Rich peasants organized their community to support Civil Disobedience Movement.
  4. The poor peasants participated as they wanted their unpaid rent to be remitted.

10. Who had organized the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930? Describe his achievements.

Ans. Depressed Classes Association was organized by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in 1930.

Achievements:

  1. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar raised the demand of separate electorate for Dalits.
  2. British Government conceded Ambedkar’s demand of separate electorates for Dalits.
  3. The depressed classes got reservation of seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
  4. Ambedkar accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and as a result Poona Pact was signed.
  5. Any other relevant point.

11. Why was the ‘Salt March’ considered an effective symbol of resistance against Colonialism? Explain.

Ans. Salt March:

  1. Salt was consumed by all the sections of the society.
  2. It was the most essential item of food.
  3. The tax on salt and the Government Monopoly over production.
  4. Gandhiji found salt as a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
  5. On 31″ January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
  6. The idea was to make the demands wide ranging, so that all classes within Indian Society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a United Campaign.
  7. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the Salt Tax.

12. Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans. Congress was reluctant in the participation of Women because:

(i) Congress was keen only on the symbolic presence of Women within the Organization.

(ii) Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.

Participation of women in Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. During Gandhiji’s Salt March, thousands of women came out of their homes to participate inProtest Marches.
  2. Manufactured salt and picketed liquor shops.
  3. Boycotted foreign goods.
  4. Many went to jail.
  5. Women from High Caste families and from rich peasant households participated.
  6. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see Service to Nation as a sacred duty of women.

13. The Civil Disobedience Movement saw the participation of different social classes and groups. Give reasons for the participation of the following: (a) Rich Peasants (b) Poor Peasants (c) Business Classes (d) Industrial Working Classes (e) Women.

OR

Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

OR

How did different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.

Ans.

The reasons for the participation of various social classes and groups in Civil Disobedience Movement are as follows:

(a) Rich peasants- Rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh joined the Movement because, being producers of commercial crops, they were hard hit by the Trade Depression and falling prices. Due to the refusal of the Government to reduce the revenue demand made them fight against high revenues.

(b) Poor peasants– Joined the Movement because they found it difficult to pay rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the Landlord to be remitted.

(c) Business class- They reacted against Colonial Policies that restricted activities because they were keen on expanding their Business and for this they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods. They thought that Swaraj would cancel Colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without restrictions.

(d) Industrial working class- They did not participate in large mumbers except in the Nagpur region. Some workers did participate in, selectively adopting some of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as a part of their own Movements against low wages and poor working conditions.

(e) Women– There were large scale participation of women in the Movement. They participated in Protest Marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.

14. Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of Untouchability.

Ans. Following methods were adopted by Gandhiji to eliminate Untouchability:

  1. Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if Untouchability was not eliminated.
  2. He called the ‘Untouchables’ Harijan or the Children of God,
  3. He organized satyagraha to secure their entry into temples and access to Public well, tanks, Roads and Schools.
  4. He himself cleaned Toilets to dignify the work of bhangi, the sweepers.
  5. He persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up ‘The Sin of Untouchability’.

15. What were the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Elaborate.

Ans. Limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement:

(i) Dalit participation was limited.

  • They began organising themselves, demanding Reserved Seats in Educational Institutions and a Separate Electorate.
  • Dr B. R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
  • Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s proposal, and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.

(ii) Muslim political groups were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress.
  • When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was a sudden almosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.
  • Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.
  • Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India.
  • They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

16. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with — great apprehension? Explain.

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement great with apprehension:

  1. In December, 1931 Gandhiji went to London for the Round Table Conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
  2. In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
  3. Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
  4. The Congress had been declared illegal.
  5. A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, Demonstrations and Boycotts.

17, Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off Civil Disobedience Movement because:

  1. Worried by the development of Civil Disobedience Movement, the Colonial Government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
  2. This led to violent clashes in many places.
  3. When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April 1930, angry crowd demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
  4. A month later when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested; industrial workers in Sholapur atlacked Police Force, Municipal Buildings, Law Courts, Railway Stations and all other structures that symbolised British Rule.
  5. A frightened Government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
  6. The peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked; women and children were bealen and about 1 lakh people were arrested. Under these circumstances Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.

18. How did the civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.

Ant. Civil Disabedience Movement came into force in various parts of the county:

  1. Gandhiji led the Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his followers starting the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law. Manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt Factories.
  3. In the country side like the rich patidars of gujarat and jats of uttarpradesh were active in the movement.
  4. As rich peasant communities were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices, they became enthusiantic supportesrs of the civil disobedience movement.
  5. As the depression continued and cash invoice dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the rent to the landlords to be remitted and thus, they joined the movement.
  6. Merchants ad industrialistis supported the movement by giving financial assistance and refused to buy ans sell the imprted goods.
  7. Railway workers, Dock Woekers, Coal mine workers of chota nagpur, etc., participated in protest rallies an boycott campaigns.
  8. The industrial working class of nagpur region participated in the civil disobedience movement(CMD).
  9. Women also participate in large numbers.

19. Describe the significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the freedom struggle of India.

Ans. Significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched against the arrival of the Simon Commission. This continued between 1930 and 1934.
  2. Complete Independence was the main aim of civil Disobedience Movement which formulated this demand in the Lahore Session.
  3. It was fully fledged Mass Movement
  4. Mahatma Gandhi started the ferous Salt March.
  5. On 6th April, he ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiing sea water
  6. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

20. Explain the attitude of the indian merchants and the industrialists towards the civil disobedience movement.

Ans. The attitude of the Indian merchants and the Industrialists towards the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. During the First World War, Indian Merchants end Industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful.
  2. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and Rupee-Sterling Foreign Exchange ratio that would discourege Import.
  3. To organise business interest they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress (in 1920) and the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries—FICCI ( in 1927).
  4. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
  5. Most businessmen came to see ‘Swarej’ as a time when Colonial restrictions on business would no Jonger exist and Trade and Industry would flourish without constraints.
  6. After the failure of the Round Table Conference business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
  7. They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities and worried about prolonged disruption of business.

21. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging in the nineteenth century India? Explain.

Ans.

(i) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised with the image of Bharat Mata.

(ii) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland.

(iii) Novel Anandamath.

(iv) Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata and portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.

(v) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.

(vi) Icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of Nationalism.

(vii) During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.

(viii) Reinterpretation of history to instil a sense of pride in the nation.

22. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19″ century? Explain with examples.

Ans. Collective belongingness:

  1. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of Nationalism.
  2. Identity of the nation was most often symbolized in a figure or image.
  3. The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
  4. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Abanindra Nath Tagore created a picture of Bharat Mata.
  5. Vande Matram as a hymn for the Motherland.
  6. Folklores and tales gave true picture of Traditional culture.
  7. Any other relevant point to be explained.

23. How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the Freedom Movement? Explain.

OR

How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in the making of Nationalism in India? Explain with examples.

OR

How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of Collective belonging?

Ans.

  1. This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among, people against the Colonial Government.
  2. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination:
    • The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc,
    • Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
    • Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
    • Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

24. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.

Ans.

  • Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.
  • The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of uniled struggles.
  • Variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
  • History and fiction, folklore and songs helped with promotion of nationalism.
  • Literature also helped to arouse national feelings.
  • The ideas of nationalism also developed through the celebration of regional festivals.
  • As the national movement developed nationalist leaders became more and more of icons and symbols in unifying and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.

25. Describe the composition of tricolour flag designed during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.

Ans.

  1. It was designed in Bengal.
  2. It was tricolour flag.
  3. Having red, yellow, and green colours.
  4. It had eight lotuses representing our eight provinces.
  5. A Crescent Moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

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