Class 10 History Chapter 3 Important Questions The Making of a Global World

Class 10 History Chapter 3 Important Questions The Making of a Global World

Class 10 History Chapter 3 Important Questions The Making of a Global World, (History) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 10 History Chapter 3 Important Questions The Making of a Global World

 

Objective Type Questions.

 

Stand Alone MCQs (1 Mark Each)

(i)

Table, letterDescription automatically generated

(A) (i)-(d), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)

(B) (i)-(c ), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)

(C) (i)-(d), (it)-(c), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)

(D) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(c)

Ans.

Option (B) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) As the demand for food grains grew, the Britain Government restricted the Import of corn.

(ii) In 1890, a Cattle plague or Rinderpest spread terrifyingly in Africa.

(iii) European conquest was a result of the smallpox germs that Spanish carried on their person and because of their long isolation, Americans had no immunity against these diseases.

(iv) Henry Ford adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughter house to his new car plant in Detroit.

2.

TableDescription automatically generated

(A) (i)-(d), (ii)-(C), (iii) -(a), (iv)-(b)

(B) (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)

(C) (i)-(c), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(b)

(D) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(c)

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) Cowries or a were used as a Acurrency in India.

(ii) Chinese pottery moved through the Silk route to Europe and Asia.

(iii) Ready foodstuff came from China to West which was known as Spaghetti.

(iv) In chain of ready Food stuff, Pasta came from Italy through Arab Traders.

3. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:

(i) The Second World War.

(ii) The Great Depression.

(iii) The Chinese Revolution.

(iv) The IMF and the World Bank commenced financial Operations.

Options:

(A) (i) – (iii) – (iv) – (ii)

(B) (iii) – (iv) – (ii) – (i)

(C) (iv) – (ii) – (i) – (iii)

(D) (ii) – (i) – (iv) – (iii)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) The Great Depression, 1929-1935.

(ii) The Second World War in 1939-1945.

(iii) The IMF and the World Bank commenced financial operations in 1947.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution, 1949.

4. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:

(i) Indentured Labour was abolished.

(ii) Rinderpest (Cattle Plague) had a terrifying impact on livelihoods of the African people and the local economy.

(iii) The First World War was fought.

(iv) Potato Famine in Ireland.

Options:

(A) (iv) – (ii) – (iii) – (i)

(B) (iii) – (i) – (ii) – (iv)

(C) (i) – (iv) – (iii) – (ii)

(D) (ii) – (iii) – (iv) – (i)

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation:

(i) Potato Famine in Ireland from 1845 to 1849.

(ii) Rinderpest (Cattle Plague) had a terrifying impact on livelihoods of the African people and the local economy in late 1880s.

(iii) The First World War was fought from 1914 to 1918.

(iv) Indentured Labour was abolished in 1921.

5. In Trinidad what was referred as Hosay?

a) Annual Muharram procession marking a Carnival.

b) Christmas celebration

c) Easter festival

d) New Year celebration

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.

6. Until 16th century, which two countries were considered the Richest in the World?

(A) China and Japan

(B) England and France

(C) India and China

(D) England and Italy

Option (C) is correct.

7. Why were the Europeans attracted the most to Africa?

(A) By its natural beauty.

(B) By the opportunities for investment.

(C) For its vast land resources and mineral wealth.

(D) For recruitment of labour.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

8. Most Indian Indentured workers came from:

(A) Eastern Uttar Pradesh

(B) North-Eastern States

(C) Jammu & Kashmir

(D)None of the above

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: In the mid-nineteenth century Eastern UP faced decline in Cottage Industries land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations that affected the lives of the poor. Thus, they were forced to migrate in search of work.

9. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:

A group of people on a boatDescription automatically generated with medium confidence

Which of the following, aspects best signifies this image of ship “Alexandra?

(A) Irish emigrants waiting to board the ship.

(B) Meat being loaded on the ship.

(C) Emigrants leaving for the US.

(D) Transport to the gold mines.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe but live animals took up a lot of ship space and also became unfit to eat. Hence, meat became an expensive luxury for European poor.

A picture containing text, outdoor, stoneDescription automatically generated

Which of the following options best signifies the above picture?

(A) A distant view of Surat and its river

(B) New Orleans

(C) Transvaal Gold Mines

(D) Stalingrad in Soviet Russia

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Surat remained the main centre of overseas trade in the western Indian Ocean.

11. Study the below given information and identify the correct option in reference to il from among the given options:

Consider the jute producers of Bengal. They grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw jute crashed more than 60 per cent. Peasants who borrowed in the hope of better times or to increase output in the hope of higher incomes faced ever lower prices and fell deeper and deeper into debt. Thus, the Bengal jute growers’ lament:

Grow more jute, brothers, with the hope of greater cash. Costs and debts of jute will make your hopes get dashed. When you have spent all your money and got the crop off the ground, … traders, sitting at home, will pay only Rs 5 a maund.

(A) The Great Depression

(B) India and the Great Depression

(C) Post-War Recovery

(D) Rise of mass production and consumption

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

12. Study the below given information and identify the correct option in reference to it from among the given options:

The Silk Routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. The name ‘Silk Routes’ points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the fifteenth century. But Chinese pottery also travelled through the same route, as did textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia. In return, precious metals – gold and silver – flowed from Europe to Asia.

Trade and cultural exchange always went hand In hand. Batly Cheistlan Missionaries almost certainly travelled this route to Asia, as did Early Muslim Preachers a few centuries later, Much before all this, Buddhisin emerged from eastern India and spread in several directions through Intersecting points on the SUK Routes.

(A) Pre-modern Trade and cultural links

(B) Trade and cultural exchange

(C) Silk Routes link the world

(D) Chinese Silk cargoes

Ans. Option (C) ls correct,

13. Find the incorrect option from the follows:

(A) Rinderpest arrived In Africa in the late 1980s.

(B) Rinderpest moved like forest fire in Africa.

(C) The loss of cattle due to this destroyed African livelihoods.

(D) Colonial Government forced the Africans Into the labour market.

Ans. Option (A) is correct,

Explanation: Rinderpest or cattle plague arrived in Africa in the late 1880s,

14. Find the incorrect option from the following:

(A) The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s,

(B) During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.

(C) The exact timing and impact of the depression varied across countries,

(D) But’ in general, agricultural regions and communities were the best affected.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: But in general, agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected,

 

Assertion and Reason Based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

Directions: In the following questions, A statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:

(A) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A,

(B) Both A and R are true, but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but R is false.

(D) A is false and R is true.

1. Assertion (A): The Silk Routes area good example of premodern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world

Reason (R): The name ‘Silk Routes points to the importance of West bound Chinese silk cargoes Along this route,

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

2. Assertion (A): The First World War was a war like no other before

Reason (R): The First World War was mainly fought in Europe.

Ans. Option (D) Is correct.

Explanation: The First World War was a war like no other before because this involved the world’s leading Industrial nations, even though it started In Europe, but It engulfed almost the entire world,

3. Assertion (A): Most Indentured labour in India came tram present day basterny UE Bihar Central India and dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

Reason (R): In mid 19th century, the regions of Easter UP, Bihar, Central India and Tamil Nadu Where affected due to inflation in pices after First World War.

Ans, Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: In the mid-nineteenth century, Eastern UP faced decline in cottage industries decline, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations that affected the lives of the poor. Thus, they were forced to migrate in search of work.

4. Assertion (A): Europe emerged as the centre of World Trade in the 19″ century.

Reason (R): Till the eighteenth century, China and India were among the world’s richest countries

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Reduced importance of China and India in World trade and the emergence of Americas pushed the Centre of World Trade westwards,

5. Assertion (A): US quickly recovered after First World War.

Reason (R): US exports boosted European recovery and world trade over the next six years.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: The United States became a world leader in Industry, Economics and Trade after short time of War.

6 Assertion (A): World Bank and IMP were established after the Second World War

Reason (R): Second World War caused an immense amount of economic destruction, and many parts of Europe and Asia were destroyed

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

 

Case-based MCQs (1 Mark Each)

I. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

All through history, human societies have become steadily more interlinked. From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution, They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, and even germs and diseases. As early as 3000 BCE an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia, For more than a millennia, cowries (the Hindi anerie or seashells, used as a form of currency) from the Maldives found their way to China and East Africa. The long-distance spread of disease-carrying germs may be traced as far back as the seventh century. By the thirteenth century it had become an unmistakable link.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. In ancient times who travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity, and spiritual fulfilment?

(A) Travellers

(B) Traders

(C) Priests

(D) All of them

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

2. Besides goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions, they also carried:

(A) gold

(B) germs and diseases

(C) silver

(D) none of the above

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

3. In English, meaning of Cowrie is:

(A) Seashells

(B) Nutshells

(C) Walnut shells

(D) None of these

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Cowrie was used as a form of currency in Maldives, China and East Africa also besides India.

4. The long-distance spread of disease-carrying germs may be traced between:

(A) Sixth-twelfth Century

(B) Eight-fourteenth Century

(C) Seventh-thirteenth Century

(D) Ninth-sixteenth Century

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

II. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

The Silk Routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of West-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and by sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia, and linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa. They are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the fifteenth century. But Chinese pottery also travelled the same route, as did textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia. In return, precious metals gold and silver – flowed from Europe to Asia.

Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand. Early Christian missionaries almost certainly travelled this route to Asia, as did early Muslim preachers a few centuries later. Much before all this, Buddhism emerged from eastern India and spread in several directions through intersecting points on the silk routes.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. The Silk routes are a good example of:

(A) Modern trade

(B) Pre-modern trade

(C) Ancient trade

(D) Global trade

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

2. Silk is a ________ product.

(A) Japanese

(B) Korean

(C) American

(D) Chinese

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The origin of silk in China since ancient times symbolises the royalty of Chinese people.

3. What was exported from India through Silk route?

(A) Oil

(B) Petroleum

(C) Textile and Spices

(D) Herbs

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Oil and Petroleum was exported from Arab countries, while China exported herbs. India exported Textile and Spices.

4. Early Christian Missionaries and preachers travelled through this route to Asia.

(A) Christian

(B) Sikh

(C) Muslim

(D) Buddhist

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

III. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices. Under pressure from landed groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.

After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. In eighteenth century the demand for food grains increased in Britain due to:

(A) Less production

(B) Population growth

(C) Crop failure

(D) Ancient techniques

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: As the population increased, the demand for resources increased naturally.

2. Expansion of urban centres and growth of industries pushed up the prices of:

(A) Agricultural products

(B) Defence products

(C) Economy

(D) Living

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

3. The Government restricted the Import of:

(A) Medicines

(B) Textiles

(C) Corn

(D) Cooking oil

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: When the demand of food grains increased, Government restricted the import of corn, known as Corn Laws.

4. ______ Were unhappy with high food prices.

(A) Urban dwellers

(B) Industrialists

(C) Poor people

(D) Both (A) and (B)

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

IV. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

The trade in meat offers a good example of this connected process. Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight or became unfit to eat. Meat was hence, an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor. High prices in turn kept demand and production down until the development of a new technology, namely, refrigerated ships, which enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances.

Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point — in America, Australia or New Zealand – and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. To the earlier monotony of bread and potatoes many, though not all, could now add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet. Better living condition promoted social peace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. Example of connected process is trade in meat. Connection here refers to:

(A) Simple policies of the government

(B) Cheap Prices

(C) Role of Technology

(D) All the above

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

2. Animals were shipped live from:

(A) Germany to America

(B) America to England

(C) America to Europe

(D) Europe to Asia

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Till the 1870s, animals were shipped live from America of Europe and then slaughtered when they arrived there enabled the transport of perishable

3._________ enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances.

(A) Ships

(B) Big voyages

(C) Refrigerated Ships

(D) Steamers

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

4. America, Australia and New Zealand were the ___________ point for the export of meat to Europe.

(A) Starting

(B) Mid

(C) Ending

(D) None of the above

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

V. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:

The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the US). It Was a war waged for six years on many fronts, in many places, over land, on sea and in the air. Once again death and destruction was enormous. At least 60 million people, or about 3% of the world’s 1939 population, are believed to have been killed, directly or indirectly, as a result of the war. Millions more were injured. Unlike in earlier wars, most of these deaths took place outside the battlefields. Many more civilians than soldiers died from war-related causes. Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated, and several cities were destroyed by aerial bombardment or relentless artillery attacks. The war caused an immense amount of economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction promised to be long and difficult.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. The difference between First World War and Second World War was:

(A) Two decades

(B) One decade

(C) Three decades

(D) Four decades

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: First World War 1914-1948, Second World War 1939 -1945.

2. The Second World War was fought for _________ years on many fronts, in many places, over land. sea and air.

(A) five years

(B) two years

(C) six years

(D) ten years

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Second World War 1939-1945 (6 years).

3. In 1939 about _________ of world population were at least ____________ million people, who were killed in Second World War.

(A) 5%, 50

(B) 6%, 60

(C) 3%, 30

(D) 3%, 60

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

4. Vast parts of ____ were devastated,

(A) Europe and Asia

(B) Africa and Asia

(C) Europe and Afflea

(D) Africa and America

Ans, Option (A) Is correct,

VI. Read the sources piven below and answer the questions that follow:

Rinderpest arrived In Africa in the late 1880s. It was cated: by infected: cattle imported from Writishy Asta to feed the Tallin soldiers Invading Prittevin Past Africa Potering Aftica’s in the east, Rindetpest moved west like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in It. reached to Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) five years later. Along the way rinderpest killed 90% of the cattle.

The loss of cattle destroyed) Africa’s livelihoods. Planters, mine owners and Colonial Governments now successfully monopolised what scarce cattle resources remained, to strengthen their power and to fone Africans into the labour market. Control over (he scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa. Similar stories can be told about the impact of Western conquest on other parts of the nineteenth-century world.

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:

1. Kindespestarrived in Africainthe late ___________ .

(A) 1980s

(3) 1780s

(C) 1880s

(D) 1870s

Ans, Option (C) Is correct.

2. It was casied by infected_____.

(A) Cows

(B) Hens

(C) Goats

(D) Cattle

Ans. Option (D) Is correct.

3. Minderpest reached in the Cape after years.

(A) One

(B) Five

(C) Three

(D) Four

Ans, Option (B) is correct.

4. The loss of cattle destroyed livelihoods of. 

(A) Indians

(B) Americans

(C) Asians

(D) Africans

Ans. Option (D) Is correct.

 

Subjective Type Questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1 Name the two hostile groups of Second World War.

(a) Axis power: Germany, Italy, and Japan.

(b) Allied power: France, Britain, USSR, USA and China.

2. Analyse the contribution of fast transport in globalisation.

Ans. Fast transport contributed greatly in the process of globalisation by carrying large amount of goods to far off location in less time they have lead to the integration of the markets.

3. What do ‘Silk Routes’ refer to?

Ans. Network of routes connecting Asia with Europe and Northern Africa.

4. Who discovered the continent of America?

Ans. Christopher Columbus.

5. Who was a well-known pioneer of mass production?

Ans. Henry Ford.

6. What do we call the law that allowed the British Government to restrict the import of corn?

Ans. Corn Laws,

7. Who are referred to as the Bretlon Woous twins?

Ans. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

8. What is referred to as EI Dorado?

Ans. An imaginary city of gold situated in South America.

 

Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain any three effects of population growth in England in the late eighteenth century.

Ans.

  1. Food could now be imported into England.
  2. Demand of food grains increased as urban centers expanded.
  3. Due to pressure from land groups, government restricted import of corn by enacting corn laws.

2. Why did Europeans flee to America in the nineteenth century, Explain.

Ans. Europeans fled to America in the 19 century because:

(i) Until the 19 century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe.

(ii) Cities were crowded, and deadly diseases were widespread.

(iii) Religious conflicts were common and religious dissenters were persecuted.

(iv) Scrapping of Corn Laws, led to inability of British agriculture to compete with imports.

(v) Thousands of people were left unemployed due to agricultural land lying uncultivated. So, people migrated in thousands, crossed oceans to find employment and a better future

(vi) In America, plantations were growing cotton and sugar for the European market. These plantations were worked on by slaves.

3. Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in 1890s?

OR

Write a note to explain the effects of the coming of Rinderpest to Africa.

Ans. Impact of Rinderpest:

(i) Rinderpest killed 907 of cattle in Africa.

(ii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.

(iii) Planters, Mine Owners and Colonial Government successfully monopolized what scarce cattle resources remained to strengthen their power and to force Africans into Labour Market.

(iv) Control over the cattle resources enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

4. Describe the economic conditions of Britain after the ‘First World War’.

OR

Explain the impact of the First World War on the British economy.

OR

Explain the three impacts of the First World War on the British economy. [A]|Board Term-I, 2015]

Ans. Economic conditions of Britain after the First World War:

  • After the First World War, Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position.
  • Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
  • The war had ed to an economic boom, a large increase in demand, production and employment.
  • When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased.
  • At the same time, the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peace time revenues.
  • These debts led to huge job losses. Many agricultural economists were also in crisis.

5. Mention any three effects of the British Government’s decision for the abolition of the Corn Laws.

OR

Write a note to explain the effects of the British Government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.

Ans.

(i) Food could be imported into Britain at a much cheaper rate than it would be produced within the country.

(ii) British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated and people started migrating to cities or other countries,

(iii) As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. Faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher Incomes and therefore, more food imports.

(iv) Around the world—in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia—lands were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.

6. Why did the Industrialists and people living in cities of Britain forced the government to abolish Corn Laws in the 18th Century? Give two reasons,

Ans.

(i) Population growth from the late 18′” century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain pushing up the prices. Under pressure from Farmers, the Government restricted the Import of Corn. These Jaws were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.

(ii) On the other hand, the Industrialists and people living in cities forced the Government to abolish the Corn Laws.

7. In what ways did food items offer scope for long distance cultural exchange? Explain.

OR

“Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange.” Justify this statement.

Ans.

(i) Traders and Travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.

(ii) It is believed that noodles travelled West from China to become Spaghetti.

(iii) Arab traders took pasta to Sicily, an Island now in Italy in 5th century.

(iv) Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnut, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes and so on were not known to our ancestors.

8. How had Indian trade been beneficial for the British during seventeenth century? Explain

Ans.

  • Trade with Indians was greatly beneficial to the British in the 17 centuries.
  • Various other products like cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, peter and tea were also traded.
  • All these items were in demand in Britain and their availability from India enhanced the quality of life for the British.

9. Elucidate any three factors that led to the Great Depression.

Ans.

  1. Agricultural over-production remained a problem and it was made worse by falling agricultural prices,
  2. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a large volume of produce to the market but it pushed down prices.
  3. In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US, it was extremely easy to raise loans in the US.
  4. But in the first half of the 1920s, countries that depended crucially on US loan faced an acute crisis,
  5. The withdrawal of the US loans affected the rest of the world in different ways. In Europe, it led to the failure of small major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British Pound Sterling.

10. “The Multinational Companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment Explain the statement.

Ans.

(i) Since the Revolution in 1949, China gradually came in the field of world economy. It attracted the foreign MNCs because of its lowest economic structure.

(ii) Wages were relatively low.

(iii) China had the largest population besides labour. They also formed a large consumer base.

11, Explain the following:

(i). G7

(ii) Great Depression of 1929.

Ans.

(i) G-77 Organisation was formed by the former colonies to demand a New International Economic Order.

(ii) It was a period of serious decline in production, employment, income and trade.

12. ‘China became an attractive destination for investment by foreign MNCs in the 19″ and 20″ centuries.’ Justify the statement.

Ans. China became an attractive destination for investment by foreign MNCs in the 19 and 20″ centuries because:

(i) Wages were relatively low in countries like China,

(ii) This was because of the low cost structure of the Chinese economy, most importantly its low wages.

(iii) TVs, Mobile phones and Toys seen in the shops seem to be made in China.

13. Mention three reasons for the creation of International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Ans.

  1. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created to meet the financial needs of the Industrial countries.
  2. When Japan and Europe rapidly rebuilt economies, they became less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank.
  3. Thus, from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods Institutions, World Bank and IMF, began to turn their attention towards newly developing countries.
  4. The newly independent countries facing problems of poverty came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers.

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks Each)

1. “Indian trade had played a crucial role in Late nineteenth century world economy”. Analyse the statement.

Ans. Indian trade played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy. This statement can be analysed through the following facts:

(i) Trade Surplus: Britain had a trade surplus with India, i.e., a situation under which the value of exports is more than the imports. Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficit with other countries.

(ii) Home charges: Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so called ‘Home Charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of the British officials in India.

(iii) Major supplier of cotton: India remained a major supplier of raw cotton to Britain which was required to feed the Cotton Textile Industry of Britain.

(iv) Supplier of indentured workers: Many indentured workers from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Central India migrated to other countries to work in Mines and Plantations.

2. Describe the role of Technology’ in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century.

Ans. Role of Technology:

(i) The railways, steamships and the telegraph, for example, were important inventions without which we cannot imagine the transformed nineteenth century world.

(ii) Technology advances were often the result of larger social, political and economic factors.

(iii) Colonization stimulated new investments.

(iv) Improvement in transport.

(v) Larger ships helped to move food more cheaply.

3. Describe the impact of Great Depression on Indian economy,

Ans. The Impact of Great Depression on Indian economy:

  1. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934.
  2. As agricultural prices fell sharply internationally, as a result of this, prices plunged in India,
  3. Despite this, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands.
  4. Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands and sold their jewellery and precious metals.
  5. India became exporter of metal.
  6. Town dwellers found themselves better off.
  7. Industrial investment grew.

4. Critically examine the expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century.

Ans. Expansion of trade facilities in the 19″ century:

(i) In many parts of the world, these developments meant loss of freedom and livelihoods.

(ii) In late 19th century, Europeans conquest brought about many destructive economic, social and ecological changes in the Colonies.

(iii) In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast spreading disease of cattle plague or Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.

(iv) The example of indentured labour migration.

(v) Great misery and poverty for others.

(vi) New forms of coercion in Asia and Africa,

5. After 19th century, how did the Indentured labourers discover their own ways of survival? Explain.

Ans.

(i) Initially, the indentured labourers found it difficult to adjust to the harsh living conditions of the plantation, But very soon they discovered new ways of survival.

(ii) They developed new forms of individual and collective self expression, blended art, cultural forms, old and new.

(iii) In Trinidad, the cultural Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.

(iv) The Protestant religion ‘Rastafarianism’ is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migration to Caribbean.

(v) Chutney music popular in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative expression of the post indenture experience.

6. Describe any five factors that led to the end of the Bretton Woods System and the beginning of globalisation.

Ans. The important reasons behind the end of Bretton Woods system are:

(i) Decline in economic power of the USA.

(ii) Change in the international financial system.

(iii) Unemployment in industrialised countries.

(iv) Shifting of production enterprises.

(v) Changes in China.

1×5=5

[CBSE Marking Scheme, 2016]

Detailed Answer:

(i) Decline in economic power of the USA:

  • US dollar no longer commanded confidence in the world’s principal currency.
  • US dollar could not maintain its value in relation to Gold.
  • Collapse of fixed exchange rates and introduction of floating exchange rates.

(ii) Change in the International Financial System:

  • The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries.
  • International financial system changed and developing countries were forced to borrow from Western Commercial Banks.
  • This led to periodic debt crisis in the developing world, increased poverty in Africa and Latin America.

(iii) Unemployment in Industrialised Countries:

  • Industrial world was hit by unemployment.
  • The number of unemployed started rising and people trudged long distances looking for any work they could find.

(iv) Shifting of Production Enterprises: MNCs shifted their production units to Asian countries because of cheap labour and low wages.

(v) Changes in China:

  • China became an attractive destination for investment by foreign MNCs.
  • China which had been cut off from the post war world economy, since its revolution in 1949, has now come back into the fold of the world economy.
  • Its new economic policies and the collapse of the Soviet Union has led to it. Low cost structure of the Chinese economy, its low wages, has flooded the world market with Chinese goods.

7. Explain any five factors that Ied to the Great Depression of 1929,

OR

What do you know about the Great Depression? Write any two causes of it.

Ans.

  • The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid 1930s.
  • During this period, most parts of the world experienced decline in production, employment, incomes and trade.
  • Agricultural regions and communities were amongst the most affected.

Causes of Great Depression:

  1. Post-World War, economy of the world was fragile. Agricultural over production was a problem. As prices slumped, farm produce rotted.
  2. Many countries financed loans from the US.
  3. US overseas lenders panicked at the sign of financial crisis.
  4. Thus, banks were bankrupt and were forced to close down in Europe and in the US because they were unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors.
  5. American capitalists stopped all loans.

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