Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 3 Two Stories About Flying: I – His First Flight and II – Black Aeroplane
|( A ) His First Flight :-|
1. Textbook Questions
|( B ) Black Aeroplane :-|
1. Textbook Questions
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 3 Two Stories About Flying: I – His First Flight and II – Black Aeroplane
Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 3 Two Stories About Flying: I – His First Flight and II – Black Aeroplane
( A ) His First Flight
A. Thinking about the Text
1. Why was the young seagull afraid to fly ? Do you think all young birds are afraid to make their first flight , or are some birds more timid than others ? Do you think a human baby also finds it a challenge to take its first steps ?
Ans . The young seagull thought that his wings were too weak to support him so he was afraid to fly . Also he was timid and could not muster up courage to fly . I think most of the young birds are afraid to make their first flight . I have seen young birds fluttering their wings to fly while they are in their nests . Sometimes they come up to the edge of the nest , hold it tightly with their claws but don’t dare to leave it . Some more courageous fly up to the nearest branch . Of course , some birds are more timid than others as the young seagull in the story was .
A human baby also behaves in the same manner . It also finds it a challenge to take its first steps . It stands on its unsteady legs , falters , falls , again stands up , tries again , this time with support , gradually leaves the support , coaxed by parents , it takes a few steps then falls happily in the arms of its parents , a sense of achievement brightens its face .
2. ” The sight of the food maddened him . ” What does this suggest ? What compelled the young seagull to finally fly ?
Ans . The sight of food maddened the young seagull because he was very hungry . He had not eaten anything since the last twenty – four hours when his parents , brothers and sister left him alone on the ledge . It was his punishment for not trying to fly .
The young seagull’s parents had encouraged , coaxed , scolded and threatened him to make him fly but he did not fly . Then they left him on the ledge all alone , without food , thinking that hunger might compel him to fly . This last plan worked . The mother started eating first within his sight . The young seagull implored the mother to give him some . The mother waited for sometime till he became too eager to get the food . Then , she flew to him with the fish . She came very near him but did not give him any fish . Too anxious to get the food , he dived to get it , but the mother flew away . He screamed and fell down but opened his wings impulsively and flapped them . He did not fall any longer but was flying . He was overjoyed at his achievement . His family hovered around him encouraging him and congratulating him at his achievement . He thus finally shattered his fear and started flying .
3. ” They were beckoning to him , calling shrilly ” . Why did the seagull’s father and mother threaten him and cajole him to fly ?
Ans . The young seagull was too afraid to fly . The rest of his brothers and sister had learnt to fly but he did not . His parents tried various means and ways . They coaxed , encouraged , threatened and cajoled him to learn to fly but he could not muster up courage . He was too timid and thought his weak wings would not support him .
All parents leach their young ones to develop their natural trails . For this they apply various means and tactics . The parents of the young seagull were doing the same . They wanted their young one to learn to fly by any means .
4. Have you ever had a similar experience where your parents encouraged you to do something that you were too scared to try ? Discuss this in pairs or groups .
Ans . My father is a good swimmer . He was champion during his college days . I also wanted to be like him but he scared of water . No amount of my father’s coaxing and encouragement made me enter the water . He bought a beautiful swimming costume for me but I was not motivated .
One day he took me to the swimming pool of his club . He had brought my swimming costume and asked me at least to try it . I had to change to please him . Then he started swimming . He invited me to sit at the edge and watch him . I liked and appreciated the way he was swimming . I wanted to swim like him but could not muster up courage . I thought my limbs were too weak for the purpose .
I smiled when my father looked at me . He came near . All of a sudden , he pulled me in the water . I shouted and felt like drowning . My father asked me to keep my head above water and use my limbs as he was using while swimming . He held my hand to support me . I tried to copy him . After a few strokes , he left my hand gradually and I started swimming .
I was no more afraid of water . I liked swimming . I swam for half an hour , felt my body lighter . When I came out , my father patted me . I was happy at my achievement .
3. In the case of a bird flying , it seems a natural act , and a foregone conclusion that it should succeed . In the example you have given in answer to the previous question was your success guaranteed , or was it important for you to try , regardless of a possibility of failure ?
Ans . In the example I have given , I said that I wanted to learn swimming but was afraid of water and not confident of my strength . Once my father shattered my fear , the success was certain and I succeeded in learning to swim .
In my opinion , it is the lack of confidence that leads to failure . Firm determination and deep desire leads to success . Practise , of course is important .
We have just read about the first flight of a young seagull . Your teacher will divide the class into groups . Each group will work on one of the following topics . Prepare a presentation with your group members and then present it to the entire class .
- Progression of Models of Aeroplanes
- Progression of Models of Motorcars
- Birds and their wing span
- Migratory Birds – tracing their flights .
Ans . Progression of Models of Aeroplanes : Humanity’s desire to fly dates back to the first time man observed birds , an observation illustrated in the legendary story of Daedalus and Icarus . Daedalus was imprisoned on the island of Crete by King Minos , and so built wings out of feathers and wax for himself and his son . Much of the focus of early research was on imitating birds , but through trial and error , balloons , airships , gliders and eventually , aircrafts and different types of flying machines were invented . T
he first aeroplanes were the gliders designed by many including the famous Leonardo da Vinci . Then came the era of balloons inflated with hot air and hydrogen and other lighter than air gases . The first generally recognized human flight took place in Paris in 1783. Jean – Franco is Pilatre de Rozier and Francois d’Arlandes went 5 miles ( 8 km ) in a hot air balloon invented by the Montgolfier brothers . The balloon was powered by a wood fire , and was y not steerable ; that is , it flew wherever the wind took it .
Another notable advance was made in 1884 , when the first fully controllable free flight was made in a French Army electric – powered airship , La France , by Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs . The 170 foot long , 66,000 cubic foot airship covered 8 km ( 5 miles ) in 23 minutes with the aid of an – 8-1 / 2 horsepower electric motor . In 1856 , French man Jean Marie Le Bris made the first flight higher than his point of departure , by having his glider ” 1 . Albatros artificial ” pulled by a horse on a beach . He reportedly achieved a height of 100 meters , over a distance of 200 meters .
In 1874 , Felix du Temple built the ” Monoplane ” , a large plane made of aluminium in Brest , France , with a wing span of 13 meters and a weight of only 80 kilograms ( without the driver ) . Several trials were made with the plane , and it is generally recognised that it achieved lift off under its own power after a ski – jump run , glided for a short time and returned safely to the ground , making the first successful powered flight in history , although the flight was only a short distance and a of short time .
Construction of the first zeppelin airship began in 1899 in a floating assembly hall on Lake Constance in the Bay of Manzell by Friedrich Shafen . This was intended to ease the starting procedure , as the hall could easily be aligned with the wind . The prototype airship LZ 1 ( LZ for Luftschiff Zeppelin ) had a length of 128 m , was driven by two 14.2 PS ( 10.6 KW ) Daimler engines and balanced by moving a weight between its two nacelles .
On May 14 , 1908 the Wright Brothers made what is accepted to be the first two – person aircraft flight , with Charles Furnas as a passenger . World War II saw a drastic increase in the pace of aircraft development and production . All countries involved in the War stepped up production and development of aircraft and flight based weapon delivery system , such as the German V – 2 missile , and World War II saw the development of the first long range bombs , and the first jet fighter . The same year that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon , 1989 , Boeing came out with its vision for the future of air travel , unveiling the Boeing 747 for the first time . This plane is still one of the largest aircraft ever to fly , and it carries millions of passengers each year . Commercial aviation progressed even further in 1976 as British Airways inaugurated Supersonic service across the Atlantic , courtesy of Concorde . A few years earlier the SR – 71 Blackbird had set the record for crossing the Atlantic in under 2 hours , that and Concorde followed in its foot – steps with passengers in tow.
Progression of Models of Motorcars
Some sources suggest that Ferdinand Verbiest , whilst being a member of a Jesuit mission in China , may have built the first steam powered car around 1672. Francois Isaac de Rivaz , a Swiss inventor , designed the firs internal combustion engine which was fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world’s first vehicle to run on such an engine . The design was not very successful , as was the case with Samuel Brown , Samuel Morey , and Etienne Lenoir who each produced vehicles powered by clumsy internal combustion engines . Approximately 25 of Benz’s vehicles were built before 1893 when his first four wheeler was introduced . They were powered with four – stroke engines of his own design . Emile Roger of France , already producing Bena engines under license , now added the Benz automobile to his line of products . In 1892 , Rudolf Diesel got a patent for a ” New Rational Combustion Engine . ” In 1897 he built the first Diesel engine . In 1895 , George B. Selden was granted a United States patent for a two – stroke automobile engine ( U.S. Patent 549160 ) . This patent did more to hinder than encourage development of autos in the United States . Steam , electric , and gasoline powered autos competed for decades , with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s .
In 1890 , Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines , and so laid the foundation of the motor industry in France . The first American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine supposedly was designed in 1877 by George Baldwin Selden of Rochester , New York , who applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879. In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thorns Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol – powered car in the country in 1894 , but these were both one – ofs . The first production vehicles came from the Daimler Motors company , founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896 and making their first cars in 1897 .
The first electric cars were built in the late 1800s but the building of battery powered vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls . Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions , electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission was internal combustion powered cars . Some are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph ( 96 km / hour ) in 4.0 seconds with basa top speed around 130 mph ( 210 Km / h ) . They have a range of 250 miles ( 400 Km ) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-12 hours to completely charge . Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at around 135 mpg . In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine ( Jet ) engines and several makers , including Rover , produced prototypes . In spite of the power units being very compact , high fuel consumption , severe delay in throttle response and lack of engine braking meant no cars du reached production .
In present era the cars have been more luxurious and dazzling . Surely modern cars are a treat to watch and ride .
Birds and their Wing span
To measure the wingspan of a bird , a live or freshly dead specimen is placed flat on its back , the wings are grasped at the wrist joints , and the distance is measured between the tips of the longest primary feathers on each wing .
The bird’s fore limbs , the wings are the key to bird flight . Each wing has a vane to hit the wind , composed of three train limb bones , the humerus , ulna and radius . The hand or manus , which ancestrally was composed of five digits is reduced to three digits ( digit II , III and V ) , the purpose of which is to serve as an anchor for the primaries ( or metacarpo digitals ) one of two groups of feathers responsible for the air foil shape . The other set of flight feathers that are behind the carpal joint on the ulna , are called the secondaries or cubitals . The remaining feathers on the wing are known as coverts , of which there are three sets . The wing sometimes has vestigial claws . In most species these are lost by the time the bird is adult ( Such as the highly visible ones used for active climbing by Hoatzin Chicks ) , but claws are retained into adulthood by the Secretary Bird , the screamers , finfoot , ostriches several swifts and numerous others , as a local trait in a few specimens . The claws of the Jurassic Theropods like archaeopteryx are quite similar to those of the hoatz in nestlings .
The shape of the wing is an important factor in determining the types of flight of which the bird is capable of . Different shapes correspond to different trade – offs between beneficial characteristics , such as speed , low energy use and maneuverability . The plat form of the wing ( the shape of the wing as seen from below ) can be described in terms of two parameters , aspect ratio and wing loading . Aspect ratio is the ratio of wing breadth to the mean of its chord , or mean wing span divided by wing area . Wing loading is the ratio of weight to wing area .
Most kinds of bird wings can be grouped into four types with some falling between two of these types . These types of wings are elliptical wings , high speed wings , aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots elliptical wings are short and rounded , having a low asped ratio , allowing for tight manoeuvring in confined spaces such as might be found in dense vegetation . As such they are common in forest raptors ( such as Accipiter hawks ) and many passerines , particularly non – migratory ones ( migratory species have longer wings . ) They are also common in species that use a rapid take off to evade predators , such as pheasants and partridges .
High speed wings are short , pointed wings which when combined with a heavy wing loading and rapid wing beats provide an energetically expensive high speed . This type of flight is used by the bird with the fastest wing speed , the peregrine falcon , as well as by most of the ducks . The same wing shape is used by the auks for a different purpose ; auks use their wings to ” fly ” underwater .
These are the wings favoured by the larger species of inland birds , such as eagles , vultures , pelicans , and storks . The stots at the end of the wings , between the primaries , reduce the turbulence at the tips , whilst the shorter size of the wings aids in take off ( high aspect ratio wings require a long taxi in order to get airborne . )
Largest Bird’s Wingspan : The largest wingspan of any bird of a living species was that of a male wandering albatross ( Diomedea exulans ) of the southern oceans , with a span of 11 ft . 11 inch .
Migratory Birds – Tracing Their Flights
Every year , during autumn and early winter birds travel from their breeding places ( where birds give birth to their young ones ) in the northern regions of Asia , Europe and America to the warmer Southern lands . They make the return journey again during spring and early summer . They are very punctual unless delayed by bad weather .
Today , much of the information on migration has come from ringing the birds . Ringing is done by capturing a bird and putting on its leg a light band of metal or plastic . The band bears a number , date , earlier page identification mark , and the address to which the finder is requested to return the ring . The bird is then set free . The place where such a bird is shot , captured or found dead gives a clue to the direction and locality to which the bird has migrated .
Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths , a phenomenon known as bird migration .
Write a short composition on your initial attempts at learning a skill . You could describe the challenges of learning to ride a bicycle or learning to swim . Make it as humourous as possible .
Ans . Learning a new skill requires two things will ‘ and effort to learn it . Like my friend , Umesh , I wanted to go to school on a bicycle and not on school bus that wastes a lot of lime in commuting . So my father bought me a bicycle as a birthday gift . It was black , shining , strong Hero ‘ with a carrier attached for my bag . I requested Umesh to teach me how to ride a bicycle ,
Last Sunday , Umesh came at 10 a.m. We both went to the vast open space behind our colony with the bicycle . He helped me sit on the seat . ” Put your feet on the paddle , hold both ends of the handle , look straight and start paddling , ” he said . I tried to follow his instructions , but as soon as I started paddling , I fell down with the bicycle . I was looking at my feet and not straight . Umesh seated me again . ” Arun please don’t look down . Look straight and keep the handle straight . ” ” OK ” Again I tried . He was holding the handle and back of my seat to support time . I paddled . My cycle moved like a limping person , leaning towards Umesh . A cyclist was coming from the opposite direction . I got scared , left my bicycle and clung to my friend . Both of us fell down . Again I rode on the bicycle . A cow came in front , I lost balance , and fell down , hurt my foot . ” Let’s leave the idea . ” I told my friend . ” Keep heart and try again . ” Again I rode , paddled a few metres but again fell down when he left the support .
After about two hours we returned . My foot and elbow had bruises , my clothes were dusty , hair dishevelled . I had a look of a jungle boy but I was smiling for I could ride a bicycle . Thanks to Umesh .
( B ) Black Aeroplane
A. Thinking about the Text
1. ” I ’ll take the risk . What is the risk ? Why does the narrator take it ?
Ans . The narrator , who is the pilot of the Dakota plane was flying from Paris to London . He was dreaming to enjoy the week and holidays with his family . The weather was fine and he could reach England in time to enjoy the breakfast .
When he came 150 kms from Paris , he suddenly encountered huge black clouds like mountains . He had limited fuel just enough to reach England . He could neither fly above the clouds nor go round them to avoid them . He could either go back to Paris or take the risk of going through the dark clouds . The risk was of getting lost in the storm clouds .
The narrator decided to take the risk as he wanted to spend the weekend with his family .
2. Describe the narrator’s experience as he flew the aeroplane into the storm ?
Ans . As the narrator entered the storm clouds , his aeroplane started jumping and twisting . He became nervous when which direction to go in . He could not contact the Paris control . He was lost in the storm . Just then he saw a black he found his radio , compass and other instruments gone dead . It was pitch dark all around . He did not know aeroplane without lights . Its pilot signalled him to follow him . He followed him like an obedient child and came safely out of the storm clouds .
3. Why does the narrator say I landed and was not sorry to walk away from the old Dakota ?
Ans . The old Dakota had given the narrator jitters . It shook horribly , jumped and twisted in the storm . Moreover , its compass , radio and other such instruments had stopped working . It was no longer safe to fly it . So , the narrator was not sorry to walk away from it after landing safely .
4. What made the woman in the control centre look at the narrator strangely ?
Ans . The question that the narrator asked her , ” Who was the other pilot ? He wanted to thank him , ” made her look strangely at him as no sensible pilot would fly the plane in the storm . Moreover , no other plane was seen on the radar . His question perhaps , seemed absurd and silly to her .
5. Who do you think helped the narrator reach safely ? Discuss this among yourselves and give reasons for your answer .
Ans . When the narrator was lost in the storm clouds , the pilot of a mysterious black aeroplane without lights guided him to come out of the storm cloud and land safely . As soon as the narrator landed , he looked for the black aeroplane , he wanted to thank its pilot but it was nowhere to be seen . Moreover , the lady at the control room confirmed that there was no other plane seen on the radar . Then who was the pilot who helped him ?
There are three possibilities . It could be a ghost whose aeroplane must have crashed in a storm like that , or it could be the result of the narrator’s wild imagination . In distress , sometimes , we start imagining things or pray to God . Our faith in God makes us think that God is helping us . In this case , God has sent a mysterious pilot to help the narrator land safely .
B. Thinking about Language
I. Study the sentences given below :
( a ) They looked like black mountains .
( b ) Inside the clouds , everything was suddenly black .
( c ) In the black clouds near me , I saw another aeroplane .
( d ) The strange black aeroplane was there .
The word black in sentences ‘ a ‘ and ‘ c ‘ refers to the very darkest colour . But in ‘ b ‘ and ‘ d ‘ it means without light The word black has a variety of meanings in different contexts . For example :
” I prefer black tea ” means I prefer tea without milk .
With increasing pollution the future of the world is very depressing .
Now , try to guess the meanings of the word black , in the sentences given below . Check the meanings in the dictionary and find out whether you have guessed right .
1. Go and have a bath ; your hands and face are absolutely black .
Ans . So dirty .
2. The taxi – driver gave Ratan a black look as he crossed the road when the traffic light was green .
Ans . Angry look
3. The bombardment of Hiroshima is one of the blackest crimes against humanity .
Ans . Gravest .
4. Very few people enjoy Harold Pinter’s black comedy .
Ans . Distorted .
5. Sometimes shopkeepers store essential goods to create false scarcity and then sell these in black .
Ans . Illegally at a much raised price .
6. Villagers had beaten the criminal black and blue .
Ans . Beat him mercilessly .
II. Look at these sentences taken from the lesson you have just read .
- I was flying my old Dakota aeroplane .
- The young seagull had been afraid to fly with them .
In the first sentence the author was controlling an aircraft in the air . Another example is : Children are flying kites .
In the second sentence seagull was afraid to move through the air , using wings . Match the phrases given under column ‘ A ‘ with their meanings given under column ‘ B ‘ .
Ans . 1 . fly a flag – Display a flag on a long pole .
2 . fly into rage – Become suddenly very angry .
3 . fly along – Move quickly / Suddenly .
4 . fly high – Be successful .
5 . fly the coop – Escape from a place .
III . We know that the word ‘ fly ‘ ( of birds / insects ) means to move through air using wings . Tick the word which has the same or nearly the same meaning .
Ans . swoop , dart , Soar , fall , hover , flutter , skim , glide , flap .
C. Writing .
Have you ever been alone or away from home during a thunderstorm ? Narrate your experience in a paragraph .
Ans . Alone at home during thunderstorm .
Once , I was all alone at home . My parents and younger brother had gone to attend my nephew’s birthday party . I had to stay to complete my project that was to be submitted the next day . All at once it became cloudy . Soon , it started raining . I ran out to gather clothes spread on the rope for drying . As I came in , it started pouring heavily . The wind started blowing with a great speed . The doors and windows started banging . I ran from windows to doors to close them properly and tighten the latches . The lightning and thunder terrorised me . I don’t know why but I started feeling scared . Then there was power failure . I could not switch on the TV . My heart beated faster with the loud sound of thunder . I started praying to God and wished I had accompanied my parents .
The nature was in its fury for half an hour . Gradually , the rain subsided and then stopped . Fortunately the light came I heaved a sigh of relief and resumed my work .
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