NCERT Notes For Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development, in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Notes.
Economic development can be measured and income is the most common method for measuring development. However the income method, though useful, has several weaknesses. Hence, we need newer ways of looking at development using indicators of quality of life and environmental sustainability.
NCERT Notes For Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development
What is development
- The term development refers to an act of getting better by expanding.T
- his term can also be used to refer to the process in which something exceeds by degrees to a different stage.
- Development is the act of improving quality of life and making sure everyone has the preference in what that life looks like.
What Development Promises – Different People, Different Goals
- Development promises a real growth by enhancing total income and standard of living of a person.
- Different people have different development goals.
- The development goals are varying from people to people.
- What may be development for one may not be development for the other person. It may even be destructive for the other.
- For example, a girl from a rich urban family gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.
Income and othe goals
- People prefer to earn more income for fulfilling their daily requirements of life.
- Companies provide material thing like, money. But people also want non-material thing like, freedom, security, and respect of others.
- Some companies provide less salary but offer regular employment which enhances sense of securities.
- In other case, some companies provide high salary but offer no job securities. They reduce sense of securities.
- However, the quality of our life also depends on non-material things such as equal treatment, freedom, security and respect for others.
- For development, people look at a mix of goals.
- The developmental goals are not only about better income but also about other important things in life
- National development refers to ability of a nation to improve standard of living of its citizens.
- Standards of living of citizens depend upon per capital income:
- Gross Domestic Product
- literacy rate
- availability of health etc.
These factors also consider as measure of improvement.
- Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
How to Compare Different Countries or States?
We can compare different countries or state on the basis of per capital income.
We cannot take national income to compare different countries because each country has different population rate.
Per capita income
- Per capita income is calculated by dividing total income of a country to total population of that particular country.
- Per capita income of a country shows the standard of living of the citizens of that particular company.
- A country with higher per capita income is more developed than others with less per capita income.
- To compare countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
- Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
- As different countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person earns. So, we compare the average income of countries.
- Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
- It is also called per capita income.
- Average Income = Total Income of Country / Total Population of Country
World development report
- In World Development Reports, per capita income is used in classifying countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries. Eg: India.
- India is in category of low middle income country.
Income and Other Criteria
- For achieving development goal of people, people not only want better income, they also want non-material thing like, freedom, security, and respect of others.
For development of a nation average income or per capita income is needed
Per capita income of selected States
- If per capita income were to be used as the measure of development, Haryana will be considered the most developed and Bihar the least developed state of the three.
However, this is not true, if we look at the other criteria.
Per capita income of select state
|State||Per capita income for 2015-16|
In this table:
- The first columns shows that in Kerala, out of 1000 children born, 12 died before completing one year of age but in Haryana, the proportion of children dying within one year of birth was 36, which is two times more than that of Kerala. This number is 44 in Bihar.
- Literacy rate in Kerala is 94 percent which is higher than Haryana (82%) and Bihar (62%).
- The last columns shows that in Kerala, 83 children out of 100 aged 14-15 are not attending school beyond Class 8 which is greater than Haryana (61) and Bihar (43).
Comparative data on Haryana, Kerala and Bihar
- Literacy Rate: It is the number of people above 7 years of age who are able to read and write with understanding.
- Higher the literacy rate, more developed a state will be.
- India has a literacy rate of 64%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate and Bihar has the lowest.
- Infant Mortality Rate: It is the number of children that die before attaining one year of age as a proportion of 1000 live births in a year.
- It indicates the development of health facilities in a country.
- In India, Kerala has the lowest IMR while Bihar has the highest.
- Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
- Public Facilities: These are the services provided by the government to its citizens.
- Some of the important public facilities include infrastructure, sanitation, public transport, health care, water, schools, hospitals etc.
- As we know that Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but Kerala has a low infant Mortality Rate because of better public system like, Public Distribution System which provide Health and nutritional status to the state.
- We need public facility because we are not able to purchase all things by money.
- We cannot able to buy a pollution free environment with the help of money.
Money in your pocket why cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well ?
Money cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well.
- Money cannot by you a pollution-free environment.
- Money cannot ensure that you get uadulterated medicines, unless you can afford to shift to a community that already has all these things.
- Money cannot buy us a disease-free life and offen not be able to get protection from infectious disease.
Human development report
- The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual Human Development Index report published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Human development report published by UNDP compares countries based on the:
- Educational levels of th e people.
- Their health status.
- Per capita of income.
Human Development Index
- The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
- The Human Development Report for the years 2021 and 2022 will be released by the end of June, 2022.
- As per the last Human Development Report, the HDI Rank of India is at the 131st position.
Sustainability of Development
- Sustainable Development refers to development of human with at the same time sustaining the ability of natural system.
- It is helpful to fulfils the needs of the human being without harming the ability of the future generation.
- For sustainable development, we have to use non-renewable resources like carbon based originally designed fuel for the quantity how much we needed.
- Scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable. Some of the examples are:
- Some renewable resources like groundwater will take long time for replenished. So, we should use that resource in finite quantity.
- Exhaustion of natural resource
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