NCERT Notes for Class 11 POLITICAL THEORY Chapter 3 Equality

Class 11 POLITICAL THEORY Chapter 3 Equality

NCERT Notes for Class 11 POLITICAL THEORY chapter 3 Equality, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck with inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 11 POLITICAL THEORY chapter 3 Equality

NCERT Notes for Class 11 POLITICAL THEORY chapter 3 Equality


  • The term equality means, all human beings have equal right without regarding their colour, gender, race, language or nationality.
  • Here special preference should be abolished.


  • It means that every human beings have the same rights and opportunities to develop their skills and talents and to attain their goals and ambitions.


  • It is an impossible concept because all men are physically and mentally unequal.
  • Everyone’s attitude, behaviour and capabilities are different to each other so the concept, absolute equality is an impossible.


  • Absolute or natural inequality are the different characteristics and abilities of a person got by his birth. These types of inequalities cannot be changed.
  • Social inequalities are created by the society.
  • These type of inequality is made by the society by exploiting the depressed class on the basis of caste, colour, gender, race and status.


  • Political equality
  • Social equality
  • Economic equality

Political Equality

  • It means granting citizenship to all the members of the state.
  • They have equal right to vote, right to contest election, right to criticize the government.

Economic Equality

  • It means equitable enjoyment of economic resources by all individual the state.
  • E.g. Equal pay for equal work, right to work.

Social Equality

  • It means to ensure equal status for everyone in the society.


  • Feminism is a political theory which is formed to the equal rights for men and women.
  • According to feminist they believe that this gender partiality is made by the society.
  • The reason for this partiality is the division of labour.
  • That is women is considered as a domestic matter.
  • A man is considered as a dominant person.


  • Socialism is emerged against capitalism. Socialism aims at welfare of state and which is under the central or state government.
  • Socialism is trying to minimize existing inequality and to distribute resource equality.
  • Socialist thinker Ram Manohar Lohia, identified 5 types of inequalities. They are:
  1. Inequality between men and women
  2. Inequality based on skin colour
  3. Caste based inequality
  4. Colonialism
  5. Economic inequality

He added two more revolution to this list

  1. Revolution for civil liberties
  2. Revolution for non-violence

This seven revolution were known as Sapta Kranti.

Marx’s Concept of Equality

  • Karl Marx didn’t accept the concept of natural equality.
  • Here exists socio-economic and political inequality.
  • These inequalities begins with the division between mental and manual, labour, between the primary products and owner of the production.
  • The division of labours led to the formation of two major classes in society, where one class exploit the others.
  • Marx have the opinion that, true equality among people can be achieved only in a communist society, where all class destinations are abolished.

Liberal View of Equality

  • One of the dimension of equality is that, several liberal thinkers stress is “equality of human nature” of human beings are equal by nature.
  • They are entitled to equal consideration in all respects.
  • Therefore any privilege based on birth, race, status is unjustified.
  • Everyone should give equal consideration according to their merit.

How can we promote Equality?

  • We can achieve equality through three different ways, establishing formal equality, equality through different treatment, affirmative action.

Official Establishment of Equality

  • We can achieve equality by ending the formal system of inequality and privileges.

Equality through Different Treatment

  • It is necessary to treat people differently in order to ensure that they can enjoy equal rights.

Affirmative Action

  • Inequalities are some times deeply rooted in our system.
  • Therefore to minimise and eliminated all such social evils.
  • It is necessary to have some positive measure.
  • Most of the affirmative activities are aimed at correcting the cumulative effect of past inequalities.
  • Provide facilities for disadvantaged communities.
  • Scholarship and hostel facilities for backward class.
  • Provide reservation in the educational institution.

Protective Discrimination

  • Protective discrimination means the action introduced by government to being forward some socio-economic backward classes.

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