Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
NCERT Notes for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Notes for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
NEED OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Local government is the government at village and district level.
- Local government are close to common people.
- Local government can solves the problems related to common people with immediately.
- Local knowledge and local interest are essential ingredients for democratic decision making.
- Local government can be very effective in protecting the local interest of the people.
- Local government ensure the people participation and their duties.
GROWTH OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
- In 1982, Lord Rippen, who was the viceroy of India, at that time found local government in India by the introduction of new administration reform.
- He is known as the father of local government.
- The Government of India Act of 1919 supported the local government.
- Following the Government of India Act in 1919 village panchayath were established in India.
- Government of India Act (1935) give more contribution to the local government.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN INDEPENDENT INDIA
- In 1952, our central government implemented a community development programme (CDP) in India.
- Aim: To promote the people participation in local development
- Some state like Gujarat and Maharashtra formed elected local government.
- But in some states, there is no support for the formation of elected local government.
- Instead of the formation of local government they appointed some officials to solve the problems of common people.
- In some state they postponed the date of election from time to time.
- Therefore central government appointed different committee to overcome all these problems.
- E.g. Belvanth Ray Mehta, Ashok Mehta, Hanumanth Rao Committee, P.K. Thungan Committee.
- The recommendation of these committees supported the growth of local government in India.
Panchayath Raj System (Grama Panchayath)
- In 1957, central government formed a committee to study about local government.
- The chairman is Belvanth Ray Mehta.
- The main recommendation of the committee is to establish 3-tier system.
Three Tier System
- Village panchayath
- Block panchayath
- District panchayath
(In 1959, first Panchayath Raj system is established in Rajasthan)
- Village panchayath works in the lowest level.
- All members are directly elected by people.
- There will be reserved seats for women and SC/ST.
- They are elected for 5 years.
- They work as an agent of block panchayath.
Function of Gram Panchayath
- To construct and maintain the panchayath roads
- Distribution of drinking water
- Establishing street lights
- To record death and birth certificate
- Collection of taxes
- Welfare of backward classes
- Block panchayath act as a intermediator in between district and village panchayath.
- And also interconnect district and village panchayath.
- It consist of head of village panchayath a few apted members of SC/ST, women, members of state legislature and parliament with its jurisdiction.
Function of Block Panchayath
- Construction and maintenance of road included in block panchayath.
- To encourage agriculture
- Animal husbandry
- Minor irrigation facilities
- To form village industries
- Primary education
- District panchayath work at district level.
- It consist of apted members of SC/ST and women, the MLA and MPs at district level head of block panchayath.
Function of District Panchayath
- Construction and maintenance of road in district level.
- Giving consideration for the budget of block panchayath is the duty of district panchayath.
- Supervising the block panchayath.
- To unify the adopted system of block panchayath.
Ashok Mehta Committee
A committee were formed by central government in 1977 under the chairmanship of Ashok Mehta to study about local government.
- Formation of 2-tier system instead of 3-tier system. Mandal panchayath and district panchayath.
- Compelled taxation.
- Open participation of political party in Panchayath Raj System.
- But it still exist in paper work.
73rd and 74th Amendment
- Thungan Committee recommended 73rd and 74th amendment.
- Later parliament passed to amendment in 1992, but it came into an existence in 1993.
Features of 73rd Amendment
- To implement 3-tier system in all states of India.
- All states should follow the 3-tier system.
- To implement Gram Sabha
- Reservation of seats for SC/ST
- 1/3 seats reserved for women
- Made the election period as 5 years.
- Appointed of state election commission and state financial commission.
- There are 29 subjects included in the 11th schedule.
- 74th amendment deal with urban local government or nagar palika.
- Reservation of seats for SC/ST and women.
- They are elected of 5 years.
- Appointed state election commission and financial commission (There are 18 subject are included in 12th schedule).
- State government have the right to remove urban government.
Kerala Panchayath Raj Act
- According to the 73rd amendment Kerala state government passed Kerala Panchayath Raj Act in 1994 April 3rd.
Kerala Municipality Act
- According to 74th amendment Kerala government formed Kerala Municipality Act in 1994 May 30th.
- Bolivia is a Latin American country where democratic decentralisation successfully implement in 1994.
- Popular participation law decentralised power at the local level.