Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy, (Sociology) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy
Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.
- Democracy: A form of government which derives its legitimacy from the people, and relies on explicit popular endorsement through elections or other method of ascertaining the people’s opinion.
Types of Democracy
- Direct Democracy
- All citizens participate in making public decisions.
- It is used only when the number of people is small.
- Ex: Tribal council, local unit of a trade union etc.
- Representative Democracy
- Elect representatives from among the citizens.
- Representatives make political decisions.
- Every citizen right to vote and elect the representatives.
- Ex. Panchayath, Muncipal body, State assembly, Parliament.
- Participatory Democracyis the system in which the members collectively participate in decision making.
o Citizens elect officials to make
- political decisions,
- formulate laws, and
- administer programmes for the public good.
THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
- The bedrock of Indian democracy.
- Formed in 26-jan-1950
- The lengthiest Constitution in the world
- Parliamentary form of Government
- Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility
THE CORE VALUES OF INDIAN DEMOCRACY
- Dignity of the individual
- Unity and integrity of the Nation
- International peace and a just international order
- Fundamental Duties
- The British colonial regime introduced deliberately many structural and cultural changes.
- Consequently many changes occurred through they had not indented to introduce them.
- Ex: Western education.
- Social change in modern India, is a combination as well as reinterpretation of western and Indian ideas.
- Ex: social reformers
- We saw the use of both modern ideas of equality and traditional ideas of justice.
- In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India.
- The Karachi Resolution (1931) clearly spells out the vision of democracy that the nationalist movement in India had.
- It articulates the values that were further given full expression in the Indian Constitution.
- The preamble to the constitution ensures social and economic justice along with political justice.
CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY DEBATES: A HISTORY
- Gandhiji wrote in the ‘Harijan’ an article which demanded the formation of Constituent assembly based on “unadulterated adult franchise for both men and women”.
- The election were held in 1946.
- Indian National Congress expert committee moved a resolution which wanted India to be a republic which guarantees social, economic and political justice to all Indians.
- Issues debated ranged from right to employment, to social security, land reformsto property rights, to the organisation of panchayats.
COMPETING INTERESTS: THE CONSTITUTION AND SOCIAL CHANGE
- Indian people fall in to various divides.
- Culture, religion, caste, urban-rural, rich- poor, literate-illiterate, etc.
- These groups have different interests.
- Constitution has laid down certain basic objectives which seek to empower the poor, cast based discrimination, use positive measure to treat various group equality.
CONSTITUTIONAL NORMS AND SOCIAL JUSTICE:
- Difference between law and justice.
- The essence of law is its force.
- It carries the means to force obedience.
- The power of the state is behind it.
- The essence of law is its force.
- The essence of justice is fairness.
- Any system of laws functions through a hierarchy of authorities.
- The basic norm from which all other rules and authorities flow is called the Constitution.
- The Indian Constitutionis India’s basic norm.
- All other laws are made as per the procedures the Constitution prescribes.
- These laws are made and implemented by the authorities specified by the Constitution.
- A hierarchy of courts interprets the laws when there is a dispute.
- The Supreme Court is the highest court and the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution.
- The Supreme Court has enhanced the substance of Fundamental Rights in the Constitution in many important ways.
o Article 21 refers to the right to life and liberty.
- It includes livelihood, health, Shelter, Education and dignity
o Right to information is part of the right to expression.
The Panchayati raj and the challengesof rural social transformation
- ‘Panchayati raj’ System
- o Meaning: ‘Governance by five individuals’
- o It was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.
- The system has three levels: gram panchayat (village level), mandalparishad or block samiti or panchayatsamiti (block level) and zislaparishad (district level).
- The idea is to ensure at the village or grass root level a functioning and vibrant democracy.
- Ideals of Panchayati raj
- Traditionally there have been caste panchayats in villages. But they have usually represented dominant groups.
- They often held conservative views and often have, and continue to take decisions that go against both democratic norms and procedures.
- Dr. Ambedkar argued that local elites and upper castes were so well entrenched in society that local selfgovernment only meant a continuing exploitation of the downtrodden masses of Indian society.
- Gandhiji envisaged each village as a self-sufficient unit conducting its own affairs and saw gram-swarajyato be an ideal model to be continued after independence.
- The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution ensured the reservation of one third of the total seats for women in all elected offices of local bodies in both the rural and urban areas.
- Out of this, 17 % seats are reserved for women belonging to the SC/ST.
- One third of the seats in local bodies, gram panchayats, village panchayats, municipalities, city corporations and district boards are reserved for women.
Powers and Responsibilities of Panchayats
- To prepare plans and schemes for economic development
- To promote schemes that will enhance social justice
- To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees
- Help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities, especially that of finances to local authorities.
- Social welfare
- maintenance of burning and burial grounds,
- recording statistics of births and deaths,
- establishment of child welfare and maternity centres,
- control of cattle pounds,
- propagation of family planning and promotion of agricultural activities.
- The development activities
- construction of roads, public buildings, wells, tanks and schools.
- Promote small cottage industries and take care of minor irrigation works.
- Many government schemes like the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) are monitored by members of the panchayat.
- The main income of the Panchayats is from tax levied on property, profession, animals, vehicles, cess on land revenue and rentals.
- ‘Right to information’ – opening all functioning to the public eye.
- People had the right to scrutinise allocation of money.
- And ask reasons for decisions that were taken for the welfare and development activities of the village.
- It constituted in some states.
- They possess the authority to hear some petty, civil and criminal cases.
- They have been particularly effective in punishing men who harass women for dowry and perpetrate violence against them.
- Van Panchayats
- o Setup in Uttarakhand
- Members of the van-panchayats develop nurseries and nurture tree saplings for planting on the hill slopes.
- Members also police nearby forests to keep an eye on illegal felling of trees.
- The Chipko movement – where women hugged trees to prevent them from being cut had its beginnings in this area.
- ‘Durbar Kur’ -Traditional political system of the Khasis each clan had its own council.
- Sociologist TiplutNongbri remarks that tribal institutions in themselves need not necessarily be democratic in its structure and functioning.
Political parties, pressure groups and democratic politics
- Political Party is an organisation established with the aim of achieving governmental power and using that power to pursue a specific programme.
- It based on certain understanding of society and how it ought to be.
- In a democratic system the interests of different groups are also represented by political parties, who take up their case.
- Different interest groups will work towards influencing political parties.
- When certain groups feel that their interests are not being taken up, they may move to form an alternative party. Or they form pressure groups who lobby with the government.
- Interest Groups are organised to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies.