NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN SOCIETY


NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN SOCIETY, (Sociology) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck with inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN SOCIETY





Prior Knowledge and Sociology

o Advantages and Disadvantages

Self- reflexivity

Social Map

Commonsense Map and Social Map



Prior Knowledge and Sociology

  • Everyone already knows something about society (from school, home etc).
  • Knowledge about society seems to be acquired “naturally” or “automatically”.
  • Prior knowledge or familiarity with society is both an advantage and a disadvantage for sociology.



students are generally not afraid of Sociology – they feel that it can’t be a very hard subject to learn.


  • Prior knowledge can be a problem – in order to learn Sociology, we need to “unlearn” what we already know about society.
  • In fact, the initial stage of learning Sociology consists mainly of such unlearning.
  • This is necessary because our prior knowledge about society – our common sense – is acquired from a particular viewpoint.This is the viewpoint of the social group and the social environment that we are socialised into.
  • Our social context shapes our opinions, beliefs and expectations about society and social relations. These beliefs are not necessarily wrong, though they can be.
  • The problem is that they are ‘partial’.
  • So our ‘unlearnt’ knowledge or common sense usually allows us to see only a part of social reality; moreover, it is liable to be tilted towards the viewpoints and interests of our own social group.


  • Sociology is the multi paramedic Science (Several vantage points)
  • Each vantage point provides only a partial view, but by comparing what the world looks like from the eyes of different kinds of people we get some sense of what the whole might look like, and what is hidden from view in each specific standpoint.
  • Sociology can show you what you look like to others; it can teach you how to look at yourself ‘from the outside’, so to speak. This is called ‘self-reflexivity’–(Evaluating oneself from others point of view).
  • This is the ability to reflect upon yourself.
  • But this self-inspection must be critical.

Social Map

  • Social map would tell you where you are located in society.
  • Locating oneself on a social map can be useful in the sense that you know where you are in relation to others in society.

Example:-You could be a member of a particular religious community, a caste or tribe, or other such social group etc.

  • Various Identities would locate you on a social map Such as;- Regional, linguistic, community, Family, Income, economic class etc.

Social Map differ from Geographical Maps.

Social map would tell you where you are located in society.


  • Example:- seventeen year old, you belong to the social group called “young people”.
  • People your age or younger account for about forty per cent of India’s population.
  • You might belong to a particular regional or linguistic community, such as a Malayalam speaker from Kerala or a Tamil speaker from Tamil Nadu.
  • Depending on your parent’s occupation and your family income, you would also be a member of an economic class, such as lower middle class or upper class.

Geographical map would tell you where you are located in a particular Geographical area.


  • Example:-
  • Suppose you live in the state of Kerala. If you look at a geographical map of India, you know that your state is in the Southcorner of India.
  • You also know that your state is small compared to many large states such as Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, but that it is larger than many others such as Manipur, Goa.
  • If you look at a physical features map, it could tell you what kind of terrain Kerala has (hilly, forested) compared to other states.


Common sense map and Social Map

  • As C.Wright Mills, a well-known American sociologist has written, sociology can help you to map the links and connections between “personal troubles” and “social issues”- (Sociological Imagination).
  • Common sense map is already provided to us in childhood by the process of socialisation.
  • This kind of map can be misleading, and it can distort.
  • Once we leave our common sense maps behind, there are no other readymade maps available to us, because we have been socialised into only one, not several or all, social groups.
  • If we want other kinds of maps, we must learn how to draw them.
  • A sociological perspective teaches you how to draw social maps.

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