NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE, (Sociology) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step-by-step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 STRUCTURAL CHANGE


What is Social Change?

  • It is a change in social relationsor
  • change in the accepted social customsor
  • change in social structure and social institutions etc and
  • For this change so many factors such as geographical, economic, cultural, psychological, educational and natural etc are responsible.

Nature of social change

  • Social change is a continuous process
  • Social change is a universal phenomenon
  • Social change is an essential law
  • Speed of social change is not uniform
  • Social change cannot be predicted
  • Social change is a result of many factors
  • Social change is not necessary a progress
  • Social change can be the result of conscious and unconscious efforts
  • Nature of Social change is different in different societies

Scope of social change

  • Change in social values
  • Change in social relationship
  • Change in social institutions
  • Social change implies economic change also
  • Social change implies political change also
  • Social change implies change in accepted modes of life
  • Social change include change in man

Modes of Social change

  • Through evolution
  • Through progress
  • Through revolution
  • Through social reformatory movement
  • Through the spread of education
  • Through laws
  • Through radio, television and newspapers etc

Factors of social change

  • Biological factor
  • Natural factor
  • Geographical factor
  • Population factor
  • Psychological factor
  • Cultural factor
  • Economic factor
  • Technological factor
  • Ideological factor
  • The term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent.
  • Social structure is the framework of social institutions and Social Practices, that make up society and establish limits on behaviour
  • All societies are built up of different parts and all are organised in some way.
  • There are patterns of relationships and a set of organisations that act as the scaffolding that keeps society stable.
  • All of the essential parts of society have a job to perform and they all fit with each other to hold society together.
  • In this chapter we focus on structural changes that colonialism brought in.
  • Colonialism brought into being new political, economic and social structural changes.
  • In this chapter we look at only two of these structural changes namely industrialisationand urbanisation.


Understanding Colonialism

  • Colonialism simply means the establishment of rule by one country over another.
  • India’s past has been marked by the entry of numerous groups of people at different times who have established their rule over different parts of what constitutes modern India today.
  • British colonialism which was based on a capitalist system. Capitalism based on profit oriented.

Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism.

  • They changed every rule for their profit.
    • laws of the land
    • Production and distribution system
    • Forest Acts that changed the lives of pastoralists and so on.
  • Colonialism also led to considerable movement of people.
    • It led to movement of people from one part to another within India.
    • A newly emerging middle class particularly from the British Presidency regions of Bengal and Madras moved as government employees and professionals like doctors and lawyers moved to different parts of the country.
    • People were carted in ships from India to work on other colonised lands in distant Asia, Africa and Americas.
    • Today many of their descendents are known as people of Indian origin.
  • Colonialism introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere, be it legal or cultural or architectural.


Basic Features of Capitalism

  • Capitalism is an economic system
    • Production are privately owned and
    • Organized to accumulate profits within a market system.
  • Profit Oriented
    • To grow, expand, innovate, use technology and labour in a way best assured to ensure greatest profit.


  • Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas
  • Industrialisationrefers to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity.
  • Prime feature of industrial societies today is that a large majority of the employed population work in factories, offices or shops rather than agriculture.
  • Impact of Industrialization in India
    • In India the impact of the very same British industrialisation led to deindustrialisation in some sectors.
    • Decline of old urban centers.
    • Decline of cottage industry
    • Mass migration from rural areas
    • Depletion of natural resources
    • Increase of war-like situation
    • Decline of cities such as Surat and Masulipatnam while Bombay and Madras grew.
    • Unlike Britain where the impact of industrialisation led to more people moving into urban areas, in India the initial impact of the same British industrialization led to more people moving into agriculture.
  • Sociologist identifiedthat; Industrialization is not just about new machine based production but also a story of the growth of new social groups in society and new social relationships.
  • It is about changes in the Indian social structure.
  • Cities had a key role in the economic system.
    • Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai were favoured.
    • From here primary commodities could be easily exported and manufactured goods could be cheaply imported.
    • Bombay exported cotton
    • Calcutta exported jute to Dundee
    • Madras sent coffee, sugar, indigo dyes and cotton to Britain.
  • Tea Plantations
    • Tea industry began in India in 1851.
    • Most of the tea gardens were situated in Assam.



  • The Swadeshi movement strengthened the loyalty to the national economy.
  • Modern ideas made people realise that poverty was preventable.
  • Indian nationalists saw rapid industrialisation of the economy as the path towards both growth and social equity.
  • Development of heavy and machine-making industries, expansion of the public sector and holding of a large cooperative sector were considered very important.
  • Five year plans treated as a important one.



  • M.S.A. Rao argued that in India many villages all over India are becoming increasingly subject to the impact of urban influences.
  • Nature of urban impact varies according to the kind of relations a village has with a city or town.
  • He describes three different situations of urban impact
    1. More people migrated from villages to town for Employment.
    2. Villages which are situated near an industrial town.
    3. The growth of metropolitan cities.


National Planning Commission

  • Started in 1939
  • Jawaharlal Nehru – Chairman
  • K.T. Shah – general editor
  • Set up by the Indian National Congress.
  • The major areas on which the

Committee focussed its attention were:

    • Agriculture
    • Industries
    • labour and population
    • Exchange and finance
    • transport and communication
    • health and housing
    • general and technical
    • Woman’s role in a planned economy

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