NCERT Notes For Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY

NCERT Notes for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY

Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY

NCERT Notes for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY, (Sociology) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck with inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY

Class 11 Sociology Chapter 6 SOCIAL STRUCTURE STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL PROCESS IN SOCIETY

 

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  • Society is Structured ie; organized arranged in particular ways. So we say that there is what is called social structure.
  • Social structure refers to some patterns in the behaviour of people and their relationship with one another in society.
  • It consist human action and relationships.
  • Social reproduction and social structure are closely related
  • Example: structure of the school and family – several ways of behaviour repeated.
    • School: -Admission, Rule of behaviour, Daily assembly
    • Family: – Marriage, die, Duties, Birth
  • Human being in schools or families brings about changes and new structure is produced along with changes.

Emile Durkheim and other sociologist believed that:-

  • Society exerts social pressure over the members.
    • Example:- a man standing in a room having several doors- the structure of the room limits or control his activities
  • The structure of the society limits or controls the action of the individual.

Karl Marks and other sociologists

  • Human creativity that reproduces and changes social structure.
  • Marks said that human being made history within the constraints and possibilities of structural situation

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

  • Social inequality connected with social group.
  • Social Stratification result from certain pattern of social inequalities
  • Stratification refers to the social structure of unequal group
  • Privileged group enjoy certain basic forms of advantage:
    • Life chanced
      • Eg: Wealth, Income, Health, Job, Security, recreation.
    • Social status
      • Privileged group enjoy high status.
    • Political Influence
      • Privileged group has the ability dominate others.
  • Social stratification constrains social process.

SOCIAL PROCESS

  • Social process is the observable and repetitive pattern of social interaction that has consistent direction or quality.
  • It is a specific type of social interaction.
  • Major social processes are
    • Acculturation,
    • Accommodation,
    • Assimilation,
    • Co-operation,
    • Competition and
    • Conflict.
  • Each social process assumes 4 different forms
    • Intra personal
    • Person to person
    • Person to group, group to person
    • Group to Group.
  • Sociology tries to explain Co-operation, Competition and Conflicton the basis of social structure of society.
  • According to functionalist group of sociologists:
  • System requirement of society
  • Certain broad conditions are necessary for the existence of system.
    1. Socialisation of the new members
    2. Shared system of communication
    3. 3. Assigning roles of individuals.
  • Different parts of society have a role to play to main the society.
  • Co-operation, Competition and Conflict are the common features of all societies.
  • Co-operation often entails and Conflict.
  • It may be enforced and voluntary
  • Functionalist prefers the word ‘accommodation’to describe apparent co-operation.

Co-operation and division of labour

  • Co-operation is a must for human survival
  • Sociology does not believe that human nature is brutish.
  • Every society there exist solidarity, which help us to understand co-operation.
  • Division of labour implies co-operation and it is essential to fulfill the need of society.
  • Division of labour is both law of nature and moral rules of human behaviour.

Emile Durkheim -Mechanical and Organic solidarity

  • Both are forms of co-operation in the society

Mechanical Solidarity

  • is a form of ‘sameness’
  • No specialization or division of labour
  • They are united through their beliefs and sentiments.

Organic Solidarity

  • It is based in division of labour
  • People became specialized
  • They began to depend more on each other.
  • Example factory workers

According to Karl Marx

  • Consciousness was more important than Solidarity
  • Men distinguished themselves form animal by consciousness.
  • Co-operation in human life is different from con-operation of animal life
  • Human adjust to accommodate to co-operate and in that process of accommodation they change society.
  • Different technical inventions changed human life and Nature
  • Social world changed by human.
    • Example: emergence of ‘Hinglish’ Language
  • Durkheim and Marx give emphasis to co-operation. But some different opinions.
  • According to Marx, Co-operation is not voluntary in a conflict ridden society.
  • Co-operation is resulting from an align force that exist outside them.
  • When the workers lose control over their work, they also lose control over the fruits of their labour.

Competition as an Idea and Practice

  • There is no society which does not have competition
  • Today, competition is dominant in society
  • Growth of individual and competition is noticed in all modern societies
    • Example: capitalism– emphasis on greater efficiency and grater profit.

Capitalism is based on

    • Expansion of trade
    • Division of labour
    • Specialisaion
    • Increasing productivity
  • Capitalism provides enough energy to develop these process
  • Every thinking individual strives to maximize his profits.
  • Competition is the dominant ideology in capitalism
  • In a free market the most efficient firm survives
  • Capitalism promote economic growth
  • America developed rapidly due to competition
  • J.S. Mill believes that competition is harmful.

Conflict and Co-operation

  • Conflict is the clash between different interests.
  • Scarcity of resource produces conflict in society
  • Reason for conflict
  • Class. Caste, Gender, Religion and Community
  • Conflict produces Arguments discord and confusion
  • Sometime conflict leads to bloodshed
  • Sociologists think past society as a conflict free society.
  • Conflict becomes visible only when it is openly expressed.
  • Open co-operation and concealed conflict are very common in society
  • Sociological approach does not consider co-operation, competition and conflict as natural

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